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JAEA Reports

Prediction of RPV lower structure failure and core material relocation behavior with MPS method (Contract research)

Yoshikawa, Shinji; Yamaji, Akifumi*

JAEA-Research 2021-006, 52 Pages, 2021/09


In Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (referred to as "FDNPS" hereafter) unit2 and unit3, failure of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and relocation of some core materials (CRD piping elements and upper tie plate, etc.) to the pedestal region have been confirmed. In boiling water reactors (BWRs), complicated core support structures and control rod drive mechanisms are installed in the RPV lower head and its upper and lower regions, so that the relocation behavior of core materials to pedestal region is expected to be also complicated. The Moving Particle Semi-implicit (MPS) method is expected to be effective in overviewing the relocation behavior of core materials in complicated RPV lower structure of BWRs, because of its Lagrangian nature in tracking complex interfaces. In this study, for the purpose of RPV ablation analysis of FDNPS unit2 and unit3, rigid body model, parallelization method and improved calculation time step control method were developed in FY 2019 and improvement of pressure boundary condition treatment, stabilization of rigid body model, and calculation cost reduction of debris bed melting simulation were achieved in FY2020. These improvements enabled sensitivity analyses of melting, relocation and re-distribution behavior of deposited solid debris in RPV lower head on various cases, within practical calculation cost. As a result of the analyses of FDNPS unit2 and unit3, it was revealed that aspect (particles/ingots) and distribution (degree of stratification) of solidified debris in lower plenum have a great impact on the elapsed time of the following debris reheat and partial melting and on molten pool formation process, further influencing RPV lower head failure behavior and fuel debris discharging behavior.

Journal Articles

Transfer of $$^{137}$$Cs to web-building spiders, ${it Nephila clavata}$, and its pathways; A Preliminary study using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses

Tanaka, Sota; Kakinuma, Hotaru*; Adachi, Taro*; Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko; Koarashi, Jun

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 58(4), p.507 - 514, 2021/04

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.02(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Understanding the pathways of $$^{137}$$Cs transfer to predatory spiders is useful to assess long-term behavior of $$^{137}$$Cs in the environment, because spiders obtain food resources from both the grazing and detritus food chains in terrestrial-aquatic linking forest ecosystems. In the present study, we collected spider samples at forest interior and riverside. The sample collection was approximately 6.5 years after the FDNPP accident. Moreover, a transfer factor value (T$$_{ag}$$) for $$^{137}$$Cs in spiders was quantified. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios ($$delta$$$$^{13}$$C and $$delta$$$$^{15}$$N) of the spiders were also investigated to estimate the transfer pathways of $$^{137}$$Cs to the spiders.

Journal Articles

Discussion; Making databases of parameter values of radionuclide transfer in environment and application for biospheric dose assessment

Takahashi, Tomoyuki*; Uchida, Shigeo*; Takeda, Seiji; Nakai, Kunihiro*

KURNS-EKR-11, p.97 - 102, 2021/03

This paper outlines the status of IAEA database compilation for migration parameters depending elements in a biosphere such as soil-to-plant transfer factor and bioconcentration factor of marine products, and the status of utilization of the database in dose evaluation of radioactive waste disposal in Japan. Additionally, in the case of applying a new database to the dose evaluation for future radioactive waste disposal in a specific area. We summarized the opinions of specialists and result of general discussion about future strategies to make a new database for their parameters, perspectives to be considered in it, issues, etc.

JAEA Reports

Development of technique for acquiring fracture void structure data for a single fracture and acquisition of hydraulic/mass transport properties in a fracture

Sato, Hisashi*; Sawada, Atsushi; Takayama, Yusuke

JAEA-Research 2020-012, 37 Pages, 2020/11


In the safety assessment of the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, it is important to fully understand the permeability and mass transport properties of actual fractures when setting parameters for permeability and mass transport properties of fractures. Permeability and mass transport properties of a fracture are affected by the void structure of the fracture. Therefore, it is necessary not only to conduct a hydraulic test but also to evaluate hydraulic properties based on the void structure of the fracture. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to develop a technique to acquire a three-dimensional void structure of a fracture from fracture surface shape data, and to obtain a dataset of three- dimensional void structure data and hydraulic data of the fracture. Specifically, we made a transparent replica sample of fracture and measure the fracture surface shape data in the exact coordinates. The three-dimensional void structure data was constituted from fracture surface shape data in the same coordinates. In addition, we conducted a permeability test and tracer test for the same sample to obtain a permeability and mass transport properties of the fracture. To assess the validity of the acquired data, we compared it with the apertures evaluated based on different methods. As a result, the average aperture from the fracture void structure was almost same as the average aperture acquired by different methods, from the above that the test result was validated.

Journal Articles

Measurement of fission-fragment mass distributions in the multinucleon transfer channels of the $$^{18}$$O+$$^{237}$$Np reaction

Vermeulen, M. J.; Nishio, Katsuhisa; Hirose, Kentaro; Kean, K. R.; Makii, Hiroyuki; Orlandi, R.; Tsukada, Kazuaki; Tsekhanovich, I.*; Andreyev, A. N.; Ishizaki, Shoma*; et al.

Physical Review C, 102(5), p.054610_1 - 054610_11, 2020/11

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.02(Physics, Nuclear)

JAEA Reports

Development of MIG2DF Version 2

Takai, Shizuka; Kimura, Hideo*; Uchikoshi, Emiko*; Munakata, Masahiro; Takeda, Seiji

JAEA-Data/Code 2020-007, 174 Pages, 2020/09


The MIG2DF computer code is a computer program that simulates groundwater flow and radionuclide transport in porous media for the safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal. The original version of MIG2DF was released in 1992. The original code employs a two-dimensional (vertical or horizontal cross-section, or an axisymmetric configuration) finite-element method to approximate the governing equations for density-dependent saturated-unsaturated groundwater flow and radionuclide transport. Meanwhile, for geological disposal of radioactive wastes, landscape evolution such as uplift and erosion needs to be assessed as a long-term geological and climate events, considering site conditions. In coastal areas, the impact to groundwater flow by change of salinity distribution to sea level change also needs to be considered. To deal with these events in the assessment, we have revised the original version of MIG2DF and developed the external program which enables MIG2DF to consider unsteady landscape evolution. In these developments, this report describes an upgrade of MIG2DF (Version 2) and presents the configuration, equations, methods, and verification. This reports also give the explanation external programs of MIG2DF: PASS-TRAC (the particle tracking code), PASS-PRE (the code for dataset preparation), and PASS-POST (the post-processing visualization system).

Journal Articles

Development of experimental technology for simulated fuel-assembly heating to address core-material-relocation behavior during severe accident

Abe, Yuta; Yamashita, Takuya; Sato, Ikken; Nakagiri, Toshio; Ishimi, Akihiro

Journal of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Science, 6(2), p.021113_1 - 021113_9, 2020/04

Journal Articles

Role of filamentous fungi in migration of radioactive cesium in the Fukushima forest soil environment

Onuki, Toshihiko; Sakamoto, Fuminori; Kozai, Naofumi; Namba, Kenji*; Neda, Hitoshi*; Sasaki, Yoshito; Niizato, Tadafumi; Watanabe, Naoko*; Kozaki, Tamotsu*

Environmental Science; Processes & Impacts, 21(7), p.1164 - 1173, 2019/07

 Times Cited Count:6 Percentile:48.41(Chemistry, Analytical)

The fate of radioactive Cs deposited after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident and its associated radiological impacts are largely dependent on its mobility from surface soils to forest ecosystems. We measured the accumulation of radioactive Cs in the fruit bodies of wild fungi in the forest at Iidate, Fukushima, Japan. The transfer factors (TFs) of radioactive Cs from soil to the fruit bodies of wild fungi were between 10 $$^{-2}$$to 10$$^{2}$$, a range similar to those reported for the fruit bodies collected in Europe after the Chernobyl accident and in parts of Japan contaminated by nuclear bomb test fallout. Comparison of the TFs of the wild mushroom and that of the fungal hyphae of 704 stock strains grown on agar medium containing nutrients and radioactive Cs showed that the TFs of wild mushroom were lower. TF was less than 0.1 after addition of the minerals zeolite, vermiculite, phlogopite, smectite, or illite of 1% weight to the agar medium. These results indicate that the presence of minerals decrease Cs uptake by fungi grown in the agar medium.

Journal Articles

Validation of the multinucleon transfer method for the determination of the fission barrier height

Kean, K. R.; Nishio, Katsuhisa; Hirose, Kentaro; Vermeulen, M. J.; Makii, Hiroyuki; Orlandi, R.; Tsukada, Kazuaki; Andreyev, A. N.; Tsekhanovich, I.*; Chiba, Satoshi*

Physical Review C, 100(1), p.014611_1 - 014611_6, 2019/07

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:40.26(Physics, Nuclear)

Journal Articles

Model calculation of Cr dissolution behavior of ODS ferritic steel in high-temperature flowing sodium environment

Otsuka, Satoshi; Tanno, Takashi; Oka, Hiroshi; Yano, Yasuhide; Kato, Shoichi; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Kaito, Takeji

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 505, p.44 - 53, 2018/07


 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:18.37(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

A calculation model was constructed to systematically study the effects of environmental conditions (i.e. Cr concentration in sodium, test temperature, axial temperature gradient of fuel pin, and sodium flow velocity) on Cr dissolution behavior. Chromium dissolution was largely influenced by small changes in Cr concentration (i.e. chemical potential of Cr) in liquid sodium in the model calculation. Chromium concentration in sodium coolant, therefore, should be recognized as a critical parameter for the prediction and management of Cr dissolution behavior in the sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) core. Because the fuel column length showed no impact on dissolution behavior in the model calculation, no significant downstream effects possibly take place in the SFR fuel cladding tube due to the much shorter length compared with sodium loops in the SFR plant and the large axial temperature gradient. The calculated profile of Cr concentration along the wall-thickness direction was consistent with that measured in BOR-60 irradiation test where Cr concentration in sodium bulk flow was set at 0.07 wt ppm in the calculation.

Journal Articles

Development of experimental technology for simulated fuel-assembly heating to address core-material-relocation behavior during severe accident

Abe, Yuta; Yamashita, Takuya; Sato, Ikken; Nakagiri, Toshio; Ishimi, Akihiro; Nagae, Yuji

Proceedings of 26th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-26) (Internet), 9 Pages, 2018/07

Journal Articles

Recontamination prevention technologies to prevent radioactive cesium from its runoff from not decontaminated forests to living areas

Nagasu, Ryosuke*; Tanabe, Daijiro*; Yokotsuka, Satoshi*; Kumazawa, Noriyuki*; Ajiki, Takaya*; Aizawa, Yusuke*; Naganawa, Hirochika; Nagano, Tetsushi; Yanase, Nobuyuki*; Mitamura, Hisayoshi*; et al.

Kankyo Joka Gijutsu, 17(2), p.58 - 61, 2018/03

A new technology to suppress cesium migration from forests has been developed collaboratively by Ibaraki University, Kumagai-gumi Co., Ltd. and its group company, Technos, and JAEA. The new technology utilizes polyelectrolytes (polymers with electric charges) and clay minerals to control Cs migration with the aid of natural forces such as rainfall and rainwater runoff. In Imitate-mura, Fukushima, verification tests of the new technology have been performed and its effect on controlling Cs migration from forests to grass farm adjoining the forests has been proven.

Journal Articles

Release and transport behaviors of non-gamma-emitting fission products and actinides in steam and hydrogen atmospheres

Miwa, Shuhei; Ducros, G.*; Hanus, E.*; Bottomley, P. D. W.*; Van Winckel, S.*; Osaka, Masahiko

Nuclear Engineering and Design, 326, p.143 - 149, 2018/01

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The release and transport behaviors of 13 non-gamma-emitting fission products (FPs) and actinides in steam and hydrogen atmospheres were investigated based on the chemical analysis of their deposits on the components of VERCORS test loops. The new findings were obtained; strontium release was significantly enhanced in hydrogen atmosphere and a part of released strontium was transported towards the lower temperature region, uranium release was enhanced in steam atmosphere but most of released uranium deposited at high temperature region.

Journal Articles

Nuclear fission; A Review of experimental advances and phenomenology

Andreyev, A.; Nishio, Katsuhisa; Schmidt, K.-H.*

Reports on Progress in Physics, 81(1), p.016301_1 - 016301_61, 2018/01

 Times Cited Count:68 Percentile:92.03(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

Journal Articles

Cutting-edge studies on nuclear data for continuous and emerging need, 3; Recent advancement of fission studies; Experimental and theoretical approaches

Nishio, Katsuhisa; Chiba, Satoshi*

Nihon Genshiryoku Gakkai-Shi ATOMO$$Sigma$$, 59(12), p.717 - 721, 2017/12

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Role of multichance fission in the description of fission-fragment mass distributions at high energies

Hirose, Kentaro; Nishio, Katsuhisa; Tanaka, Shoya*; L$'e$guillon, R.*; Makii, Hiroyuki; Nishinaka, Ichiro*; Orlandi, R.; Tsukada, Kazuaki; Smallcombe, J.*; Vermeulen, M. J.; et al.

Physical Review Letters, 119(22), p.222501_1 - 222501_6, 2017/12

 Times Cited Count:31 Percentile:90.65(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

Fission-fragment mass distributions were measured for $$^{237-240}$$U, $$^{239-242}$$Np and $$^{241-244}$$Pu populated in the excitation-energy range from 10 to 60 MeV by multi-nucleon transfer channels in the reaction $$^{18}$$O + $$^{238}$$U at the JAEA tandem facility. Among them, the data for $$^{240}$$U and $$^{240,241,242}$$Np were observed for the first time. It was found that the mass distributions for all the studied nuclides maintain a double-humped shape up to the highest measured energy in contrast to expectations of predominantly symmetric fission due to the washing out of nuclear shell effects. From a comparison with the dynamical calculation based on the fluctuation-dissipation model, this behavior of the mass distributions was unambiguously attributed to the effect of multi-chance fission.

Journal Articles

Study of fission using multi-nucleon transfer reactions

Nishio, Katsuhisa; Hirose, Kentaro; Vermeulen, M. J.; Makii, Hiroyuki; Orlandi, R.; Tsukada, Kazuaki; Asai, Masato; Toyoshima, Atsushi; Sato, Tetsuya; Nagame, Yuichiro; et al.

EPJ Web of Conferences, 163, p.00041_1 - 00041_6, 2017/11

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:69.79

JAEA Reports

Cutting operation of simulated fuel assembly heating examination by AWJ

Abe, Yuta; Nakagiri, Toshio; Watatani, Satoshi*; Maruyama, Shinichiro*

JAEA-Technology 2017-023, 46 Pages, 2017/10


This is a report on Abrasive Water Jet (AWJ) cutting work carried out on specimen, which was used for Simulated Fuel Assembly Heating Examination by Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science (CLADS) molten core behavior analysis group in February 2016. The simulated fuel assembly is composed of Zirconia for the outer crucible/simulated fuel, stainless steel for the control blade and Zircaloy (Zr) for the cladding tube/channel box. Therefore, it is necessary to cut at once substances having a wide range of fracture toughness and hardness. Moreover, it is a large specimen with an approximate size of 300 mm. In addition, epoxy resin has high stickiness, making it more difficult to cut. Considering these effects, AWJ cutting was selected. The following two points were devised, and this specimen could be cut with AWJ. If it was not possible to cut at one time like a molten portion of boride, it was repeatedly cut. By using Abrasive Suspension Jet (ASJ) system with higher cutting ability than Abrasive Injection Jet (AIJ, conventional method) system, cutting time was shortened. As a result of this work, the cutting method in Simulated Fuel Assembly Heating Examination was established. Incidentally, in the cutting operation, when the cutting ability was lost at the tip of the AWJ, a curved cut surface, which occurs when the jet flowed away from the feeding direction, could be confirmed at the center of the test body. From the next work, to improve the cutting efficiency, we propose adding a mechanism such as turning the cutting member itself for re-cutting from the exit side of the jet and appropriate traverse speed to protect cut surface.

Journal Articles

Evaluation and demonstration of cutting the fuel assembly heating examination by AWJ

Maruyama, Shinichiro*; Watatani, Satoshi*

Mitsui Sumitomo Kensetsu Gijutsu Kenkyu Kaihatsu Hokoku, (15), p.107 - 112, 2017/10

It is essential to estimate characteristics and forms of fuel debris for safe and reliable removing at the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (1F). For the estimation, melting behavior of fuel assembly in the accident is being researched. To proceed the research, the fuel debris were need to cut, and the abrasive water jet (AWJ) which had enough results for cutting ceramic material or mixed material of zirconium alloy and stainless. The test results demonstrated that AWJ could cut the fuel assembly and accumulated the cutting data which will be subservient when removing the fuel debris in future.

Journal Articles

The Development of extra high head pump for cutoff grout drainage in a deep vertical shaft

Shirase, Mitsuyasu*; Abe, Akimasa*; Nago, Makito*; Ishii, Eiichi; Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Wakasugi, Shinichi*

Doboku Gakkai Heisei-29-Nendo Zenkoku Taikai Dai-72-Kai Nenji Gakujutsu Koenkai Koen Gaiyoshu (DVD-ROM), p.1795 - 1796, 2017/09

JAEA has executed the underground facility construction operation from February 2011 to June 2014, while carrying out the maintenance and research project until 2018. This report is about the extra high head pump which was able to drain the high specific gravity grout drainage, which develops during grouting operation at this facility, directly from 250m underground to the surface.

392 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)