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Journal Articles

Evaluation of the excavation disturbed zone of sedimentary rock in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory

Kubota, Kenji*; Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Sugita, Yutaka

Proceedings of 2019 Rock Dynamics Summit in Okinawa (USB Flash Drive), p.729 - 733, 2019/05

During the excavation of shafts and galleries in the deep subsurface for disposing of high-level radioactive waste, an excavation disturbed zone (EdZ) or excavation damaged zone (EDZ) is developed around the shafts and galleries. Such zones could influence the transfer behavior of radioactive nuclides, and it is therefore important to understand the behavior of the EdZ or EDZ. We performed in situ experiments before, during, and after gallery excavation in galleries of 140 and 250 m in depth in an area of soft sedimentary rock in Japan. The results demonstrate that the extent of fractures induced by the gallery excavation related with EDZ was confined to about 0.45 m from the gallery wall in the 140 m gallery and to about 1 m from the gallery wall in the 250 m gallery. The extent of the unsaturated zone related with EdZ was about 1 m in the 140 m gallery, but an unsaturated zone did not appear in the 250 m gallery.

Journal Articles

Importance of temperature control in surrounding environment during permeability test for measuring hydraulic constants of rock

Kato, Masaji*; Nara, Yoshitaka*; Fukuda, Daisuke*; Kono, Masanori*; Sato, Toshinori; Sato, Tsutomu*; Takahashi, Manabu*

Zairyo, 65(7), p.489 - 495, 2016/07

Rock masses serve a vital function as natural barriers for geological disposal of radioactive waste; therefore, information on rock permeability is essential. Highly accurate measurement of permeability requires understanding of how temperature changes in the surrounding environment influence measurement results. We performed permeability measurement under conditions with dramatic changes of temperature in the surrounding environment to investigate the influence of such changes on the experimental results. Measurement of permeability with no temperature change was also conducted as reference. All measurements were conducted using the transient pulse method, and the sample material used was Toki granite obtained from Gifu Prefecture in central Japan. We found that temperature changes in the surrounding environment remarkably affected the pressure in reservoirs upstream and downstream, the pressure difference between them, and the confining pressure; all increased when temperature increased for our experimental system. Notably, pressure difference was affected immediately. This difference directly relates to estimation of permeability.

JAEA Reports

Study on modeling and analysis of groundwater flow with inverse analysis (Joint research)

Kohashi, Akio; Onoe, Hironori; Yamamoto, Shinya*; Honda, Makoto*; Sakurai, Hideyuki*; Masumoto, Kiyoshi*

JAEA-Research 2015-022, 89 Pages, 2016/03

JAEA-Research-2015-022.pdf:27.85MB

In Japan, high-level radioactive waste (HLW) will be emplaced in a stable host rock formation deeper than 300 meters underground for geological disposal. It is important to understand heterogeneous distribution of hydraulic conductivity from the viewpoints of the safety assessment of geological disposal of HLW and construction of underground facilities. Inverse analysis based on the transient data is an efficient technique for estimating the heterogeneous distribution. In this study, numerical experiments with the adjoint state method and the ensemble Kalman filter were carried out in order to understand effective method for application of these inverse analysis. As a result of this study, the capability of each analysis techniques was shown.

Journal Articles

Long-term alteration of bentonite; For safety evaluation of deep geological disposal

Tanaka, Tadao; Sakamoto, Yoshifumi; Yamaguchi, Tetsuji; Takazawa, Mayumi; Akai, Masanobu; Negishi, Kumi; Iida, Yoshihisa; Nakayama, Shinichi

JAERI-Conf 2005-007, p.105 - 110, 2005/08

Highly alkaline environments induced by cementitious materials in radioactive waste repositories are likely to dissolve and to alter montmorillonite, the main constituent of bentonite buffer materials. For the prediction of the long-term variations in permeability of compacted sand-bentonite mixtures, long-term alteration of bentonite should be quantified based on information accumulated by using the compacted or powdered bentonite materials, with batch experiments or column experiments. In this study, we summarize distinctive information obtained from various experimental systems, and propose functional and effective integration of experimental approaches to prediction of bentonite alteration.

Journal Articles

Experimental and modeling study to predict long-term alteration of bentonite buffer materials with alkaline groundwater

Takazawa, Mayumi; Negishi, Kumi; Sakamoto, Yoshifumi; Akai, Masanobu; Yamaguchi, Tetsuji; Iida, Yoshihisa; Tanaka, Tadao; Nakayama, Shinichi

JAERI-Conf 2005-007, p.236 - 241, 2005/08

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Modeling of variation in permeability of compacted bentonite with alkaline fluid for long-term safety assessment of geological disposal system

Takazawa, Mayumi; Yamaguchi, Tetsuji; Sakamoto, Yoshifumi; Akai, Masanobu; Tanaka, Tadao; Nakayama, Shinichi

NUMO-TR-04-05, p.A3_59 - A3_62, 2004/10

no abstracts in English

JAEA Reports

Data on permeability coefficient of rocks in Japan for subsurface disposal of radioactive waste

Hagiwara, Shigeru*; Sakamoto, Yoshiaki*; Takebe, Shinichi; Nakayama, Shinichi

JAERI-Data/Code 2004-003, 159 Pages, 2004/03

JAERI-Data-Code-2004-003.pdf:10.26MB

no abstracts in English

JAEA Reports

Theoretical background and user's manual for the computer code on groundwater flow and radionuclide transport calculation in porous rock

*;

JNC TN8400 2001-027, 131 Pages, 2001/11

JNC-TN8400-2001-027.pdf:0.8MB

In order to document a basic manual about input data, output data, execution of computer code on groundwater flow and radionuclide transport calculation in heterogeneous porous rock, we investigated the theoretical background about geostastical computer codes and the user's manual for the computer code on groundwater flow and radionuclide transport which calculates water flow in three dimension, the path of moving radionuclide, and one dimensional radionuclide migration. In this report, based on above investigation we describe the geostastical background about simulating heterogeneous permeability field. And we describe construction of files, input and output data, a example of calculating of the programs which simulates heterogeneous permeability field, and calculates groundwater flow and radionuclide transport. Therefore, we can document a manual by investigating the theoretical background about geostastical computer codes and the user's manual for the computer code on groundwater flow and radionuclide transport calculation. And we can model heterogeneous porous rock and analyze groundwater flow and radionuclide transport by utilizing the information from this report.

JAEA Reports

Water permeability test of rock specimen with natural fractures using high viscosity liquid

*;

JNC TN8430 2001-006, 72 Pages, 2001/10

JNC-TN8430-2001-006.pdf:1.71MB

We had been conducted to study hydraulic permeability along fracture intersection by NETBLOCK system using natural rock specimen. Since the permeability of this rock specimen fracture is high, it was suggest that turbulent flow might be occurred in available range of measurement system. In case of turbulent flow, estimated permeability and fracture aperture from test data tend to be low. Therefore we should achieve laminar flow. This study was used the high viscosity liquid instead of water, and test conditions which could attain laminar flow with the rock specimen was examined. The rock specimen is granite rock, has natural Y-type fractures intersection. A solution of Methyl-cellulose is used as high viscosity liquid. Due to the high viscosity liquid, hydraulic head could be measured in the wide range, and high viscosity liquid improved the accuracy of measurement. Laminar flow could be achieved in the rock specimen by the high viscosity liquid over 0.1wt%.

JAEA Reports

Examination of hydraulic property of natural rock specimen

*; *;

JNC TN8430 2001-003, 64 Pages, 2001/03

JNC-TN8430-2001-003.pdf:2.15MB

Handling methods and test conditions of hydraulic tests for NETBLOCK system had been examined by using acrylic and/or artificial rock specimen. A natural rock specimen (granite : excavated from Kamaishi mine) with fracture intersection was formed into practicable size for NETBLOCK system. Recently, we conducted a series of hydraulic test, in order to study the influence of fracture intersection by using the natural rock specimen. Hydraulic tests were conducted under several centimeters of head, which could be controlled by improved system because hydraulic permeability of target fractures were high. As a result, 10$$^{-4}$$$$sim$$10$$^{-5}$$(m$$^{2}$$/s) orders of hydraulic transmissivity of target fractures could be measured. A low permeability in the NW direction at the lower fracture was estimated from the heterogeneous head distribution. However, it is also expected that turbulence flow might be occurred under this study condition because fracture permeability is high and flow rate through the fracture is relatively high. In case of turbulence-flow, an estimated hydraulic transmissivity is low. High-viscosity fluid hydraulic test to achieve laminar flow will be needed for correcting an evaluated transmissivity.

JAEA Reports

A Development of simulation and analytical program for through-diffusion experiments for a single layer of diffusion media

Sato, Haruo

JNC TN8410 2001-003, 40 Pages, 2001/01

JNC-TN8410-2001-003.pdf:1.13MB

A program (TDROCK1.FOR) for simulation and analysis of through-diffusion experiments for a single layer of diffusion media was developed. This program was made by Pro-Fortran language, which was suitable for scientific and technical calculations, and relatively easy explicit difference method was adopted for an analysis. In the analysis, solute concentration in the tracer cell as a function of time that we could not treat to date can be input and the decrease in the solute concentration as a function of time by diffusion from the tracer cell to the measurement cell, the solute concentration distribution in the porewater of diffusion media and the solute concentration in the measurement cell as a function of time can be calculated. In addition, solution volume in both cells and diameter and thickness of the diffusion media are also variable as an input condition. This simulation program could well explain measured result by simulating solute concentration in the measurement cell as a function of time for case which apparent and effective diffusion coefficients were already known. Based on this, the availability and applicability of this program to actual analysis and simulation were confirmed. This report describes the theoretical treatment for the through-diffusion experiments for a single layer of diffusion media, analytical model, an example of source program and the manual.

JAEA Reports

Degradation studies on granite in alkaline solution

Owada, Hitoshi*; Mihara, Morihiro; *; *

JNC TN8400 2000-027, 19 Pages, 2000/08

JNC-TN8400-2000-027.pdf:0.75MB

Bactch leaching experiments of granite with the artifitial cement leachate and the leachate of low-alkalinity-cement (LW) were carried out to evaluate the effect of the hiperalkaline plume on the environment of the high-level and TRU radioactive waste repository. Dissolution of Si and Al from feldspar included in the granite and precipitation of C-S-H were confirmed from the results of the leaching experiments with artifitial cement leachate. From this result it was found that the composition of sorrounding rock changed. It also suggested that the retardation factor of migration of radionuclides would change. On the contrary, only decrease of concentrations in Si, Al and Ca in the leachate was observed in the experiment with LW. This result might indicate that C-S-H and/or C-A-S-H precipitated as secondary minerals in the LW case. From these results, it was considered that the hiperalkaline plume from the cementitious leachate might caused the change of disposal conditions such as the change in distribution coefficients of rock by precipitation of the secondary mineral and the increase in hydraulic conductivity by the dissolution of rock. On the other hand, the influences of the LW would be comparatively small, because LW and granite might equilibrate in short time.

JAEA Reports

Reliability evaluation of simulation models for nearfield groundwater flow and radionuclide transport computation

*; *; *; *

JNC TJ8400 2000-006, 232 Pages, 2000/05

JNC-TJ8400-2000-006.pdf:7.75MB

In this research, simulations with some parameters which characterize ground water flow and the reliability evaluation for the expansion of the calculation method of groundwater flow were carried out by using the radionuclide transport computations in nearfield heterogeneous porous media. Concretely contents are follows: (1)With the series of calculation method for three-dimensional saturated/unsaturated groundwater flow and one-dimensional radionuclide transport. the computational analyses with the parameters used in JNC report in 2000 was carried out and the influence of the different input flux was evaluated. (2)The examination of the application for the different ways of inverse laplace transformation which is used in one-dimensional radionuclide tansport analysis code "MATRICS" was carried out. (3)The examination of the application of multi-element "MATRICS" (m-MATRICS) for radionuclide transport computations in nearfield heterogeneous porous media was carried out. (4)The series of calculation methods from three-dimensional saturated/unsaturated ground water flow simulation code to one-dimensional radionuclide transport simulation code was integrated.

JAEA Reports

None

Ezaki, Tetsuro*; Jinno, Kenji*; Mitani, Yasuhiro*; *; Uchida, Masahiro; *

JNC TY8400 2000-004, 94 Pages, 2000/03

JNC-TY8400-2000-004.pdf:4.88MB

no abstracts in English

JAEA Reports

None

Toida, Masaru*; Shiogama, Yukihiro*; Atsumi, Hiroyuki; Masumoto, Kazuhiko*; *; Abe, Yasunori*; Furuichi, Mitsuaki*

JNC TJ7440 2000-006, 137 Pages, 2000/02

JNC-TJ7440-2000-006.pdf:3.55MB

no abstracts in English

JAEA Reports

None

Ikeda, Takao*; Yoshida, Hideji*

JNC TJ7400 2000-006, 159 Pages, 2000/02

JNC-TJ7400-2000-006.pdf:4.81MB

no abstracts in English

JAEA Reports

None

JNC TN7400 2000-004, 21 Pages, 1999/12

JNC-TN7400-2000-004.pdf:0.54MB

None

JAEA Reports

Nuclide migration analysis in fractured rock

Sawada, Atsushi; Ijiri, Yuji; *; Watari, Shingo

JNC TN8400 99-093, 58 Pages, 1999/11

JNC-TN8400-99-093.pdf:3.78MB

This paper decribes the results of PA studies considering heterogeneous fracture characteristics, for the purpose of contributing for the performance assessment of the natural barrier system PA in H12 report (The second progress report on research and development for the Geological Disposal of HLW in Japan). In this study, 3-D discrete fracture network mode1 (DFN) and 1-D multiple pathways model is applied for 100m scale of rock block. Although nuclide release rate calculated by DFN are widely distributed among the realizations, it is shown that several tens realizations are enough number to understand the stochastic characteristics of the nuclide release. From the data uncertainty analysis, there are no significant effects for the nuclide retardation in fracture geometry parameters such as fracture radius, density and etc. 1-D multiple pathways model is developed with focusing on the heterogeneity of the transmissivity, which has a large effect to the nuclide retardation effects. The nuclide release rate calculated by using 1-D multiple pathways model approximates to the results of DFN. This result also shows that the relatively large fractures/faults that connects disposal tunnel and downstream faults have an important role for performance assessment in natural barrier system.

JAEA Reports

Radionuclide migration analysis in porous rock

Ijiri, Yuji; ; *; Watari, Shingo; K.E.Web*; *; *

JNC TN8400 99-092, 91 Pages, 1999/11

JNC-TN8400-99-092.pdf:6.62MB

JNC has been developed the performance assessment approaches for both fractured rock and porous rock. An equivalent continuum model is incorporated for solving the radionuclide migration in porous rock, while a discrete fracture network model is incorporated for solving the radionuclide migration in fractured rock (see more detail in Sawada et al. [1999]). This report describes the methodology, the data and the results of the performance assessment of porous rock. From the results of radionuclide migration analyses that were based on the hydrogeological properties obtained from the Neogene sedimentaly rock at the Tono mine, it was found that the release rate of selenium-79 and cesium-135 are dominant in porous rock. The sensitivity analyses using one-dimensional porous model revealed that hydraulic conductivity has more influences on the results than porosity does. In addition, it was found that smaller distribution coefficients of sandstone yield higher release rate than mudstone and tuff, and smaller distribution coefficients of saline water conditions yield higher release rate than fresh water conditions. The radionuclide migration in Neogene sedimentaly rock, where flow in rock matrix as well as in fractures are significant, was evaluated by superposing the results of porous model and fracture model. Since fracture model tends to yield more conservative results than porous model, it is obvious that the performance of Neogene sedimentary rock can be conservatively assessed by fracture model alone. The nuclide migration analyses performed in this report were based on the hydrogeological properties obtained at the depth between 20 meters and 200 meters frrom the ground surface. Therefore, it should be noted that the release rate at the depth of a future repository in Neogene sedimentary rock, 500 m, will be smaller than that shown in this report due to peemeability decrease from 200 m to 500 m.

JAEA Reports

Fracture characteristics in Japanese rock

Ijiri, Yuji; ;

JNC TN8400 99-091, 69 Pages, 1999/11

JNC-TN8400-99-091.pdf:2.83MB

It is crucial for the performance assessment of geosphere to evaluate the characteristics of fractures that can be dominant radionuclide migration pathways from a repository to biosphere. This report summarizes the charactelistics of fractures obtained from broad literature surveys and the fields surveys at the Kamaishi mine in northern Japan and at outcrops and galleries throughout the country. The characteristics of fractures described in this report are fracture orientation, fracture shape, fracture frequency, fracture distribution in space, transmissivity of fracture, fracture aperture, fracture fillings, alteration halo along fracture, flow-wetted surface area in fracture, and the correlation among these characteristics. Since granitic rock is considered the archetype fractured media, a large amount of fracture data is available in literature. In addition, granitic rock has been treated as a potential host rock in many overseas programs, and has JNC performed a number of field observations and experiments in granodiorite at the Kamaishi mine. Therefore, the characteristics of fractures in granitic rock are qualitatively and quantitatively clarified to some extent in this report, while the characteristics of fractures in another rock types are not clarified.

98 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)