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Journal Articles

Impact of using JENDL-5 on neutronics analysis of transmutation systems

Sugawara, Takanori; Kunieda, Satoshi

Proceedings of International Conference on Mathematics and Computational Methods Applied to Nuclear Science and Engineering (M&C 2023) (Internet), 7 Pages, 2023/08

This study investigates the impact of the change from JENDL-4 to JENDL-5 on neutronics analysis of transmutation systems. As the transmutation systems, the following two systems are targeted: JAEA-ADS, a lead-bismuth cooled accelerator-driven system, and MARDS, a molten salt chloride accelerator-driven system. For the JAEA-ADS, the k-eff value increased 189 pcm from JENDL-4 to JENDL-5. It was found that the revisions of various nuclides affected to this difference. For example, the revision of $$^{15}$$N indicated an increase of 200 pcm from the JENDL-4 result. For the MARDS, it was found that the major revision of $$^{37}$$Cl and $$^{35}$$Cl cross sections was the main cause of the k-eff differences. This study confirmed that the difference in the nuclear data libraries still indicated differences in calculation results for the transmutation systems.

Journal Articles

Improvement in the elution performance of an N,N,N',N-tetraoctyl diglycolamide impregnated extraction chromatography adsorbent using neodymium via micro-particle-induced X-ray emission analysis

Takahatake, Yoko; Watanabe, So; Arai, Tsuyoshi*; Sato, Takahiro*; Shibata, Atsuhiro

Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 196, p.110783_1 - 110783_5, 2023/06

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Chemistry, Inorganic & Nuclear)

Journal Articles

Measurement of double-differential neutron yields for iron, lead, and bismuth induced by 107-MeV protons for research and development of accelerator-driven systems

Iwamoto, Hiroki; Nakano, Keita; Meigo, Shinichiro; Satoh, Daiki; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Sugihara, Kenta*; Nishio, Katsuhisa; Ishi, Yoshihiro*; Uesugi, Tomonori*; Kuriyama, Yasutoshi*; et al.

EPJ Web of Conferences, 284, p.01023_1 - 01023_4, 2023/05

For accurate prediction of neutronic characteristics for accelerator-driven systems (ADS) and a source term of spallation neutrons for reactor physics experiments for the ADS at Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA), we have launched an experimental program to measure nuclear data on ADS using the Fixed Field Alternating Gradient (FFAG) accelerator at Kyoto University. As part of this program, the proton-induced double-differential thick-target neutron-yields (TTNYs) and cross-sections (DDXs) for iron, lead, and bismuth have been measured with the time-of-flight (TOF) method. For each measurement, the target was installed in a vacuum chamber on the beamline and bombarded with 107-MeV proton beams accelerated from the FFAG accelerator. Neutrons produced from the targets were detected with stacked, small-sized neutron detectors for several angles from the incident beam direction. The TOF spectra were obtained from the detected signals and the FFAG kicker magnet's logic signals, where gamma-ray events were eliminated by pulse shape discrimination. Finally, the TTNYs and DDXs were obtained from the TOF spectra by relativistic kinematics. The measured TTNYs and DDXs were compared with calculations by the Monte Carlo transport code PHITS with its default physics model of INCL version 4.6 combined with GEM and those with the JENDL-4.0/HE nuclear data library.

JAEA Reports

Development of freezed seal valve by using test stand for LBE technology

Saito, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Kazushi*; Yoshimoto, Hidemitsu*; Obayashi, Hironari; Sasa, Toshinobu

JAEA-Technology 2022-032, 51 Pages, 2023/03


In the Accelerator Driven System (ADS) being studied by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) for transmutation of long-lived radioactive waste, lead-bismuth eutectic alloy (LBE) is used as a spallation target and subcritical core coolant. A proton irradiation facility in J-PARC is considered to prepare a material irradiation database for ADS development. The proton irradiation facility is equipped with an LBE loop, which enables material irradiation tests in spallation environment under flowing LBE condition. The slow leakage of LBE is one of critical issue to use LBE safety. The slow leakage is caused by the biting slag and/or other materials at valve seal of drain valve. To solve this problem, JAEA examined the application of freeze-seal valve (FSV), which seal the piping by freezing LBE in specific position. Water-cooled and air-cooled freeze-seal valve test modules were fabricated, installed in the test section of the existing test stand for LBE technology development, and tested to confirm their operation and performance. As a result of the tests, it was confirmed that the water-cooled FSV test module worked well along to the design values. This report describes the outline and details of the test stand for LBE technology and each FSV test module, as well as the results of operation and performance verification tests.

JAEA Reports

Development of environmental mitigation technology with novel water purification agents (Contract research); FY2021 Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project

Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science; Shinshu University*

JAEA-Review 2022-067, 98 Pages, 2023/03


The Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science (CLADS), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), had been conducting the Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project (hereafter referred to "the Project") in FY2021. The Project aims to contribute to solving problems in the nuclear energy field represented by the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. (TEPCO). For this purpose, intelligence was collected from all over the world, and basic research and human resource development were promoted by closely integrating/collaborating knowledge and experiences in various fields beyond the barrier of conventional organizations and research fields. The sponsor of the Project was moved from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology to JAEA since the newly adopted proposals in FY2018. On this occasion, JAEA constructed a new research system where JAEA-academia collaboration is reinforced and medium-to-long term research/development and human resource development contributing to the decommissioning are stably and consecutively implemented. Among the adopted proposals in FY2020, this report summarizes the research results of the "Development of environmental mitigation technology with novel water purification agents" conducted in FY2021. The present study aims to develop a reusable adsorbent for strontium ions through joint research between Japan and the United Kingdom, and to reduce the amount of used adsorbent generated through the decontamination process. This fiscal year, the preparation method of materials was improved based on the results obtained in the first year of the project. Moreover, various metal salts were added as additives to see the influence on the yield and adsorption performance. Structural analyses were conducted by observing the resulting materials with SEM, and theoretical analyses were performed by combining ...

Journal Articles

Development and validation of analysis code for spallation products behavior in LBE coolant system of ADS comparing with the distribution data in MEGAPIE spallation target

Miyahara, Shinya*; Arita, Yuji*; Nakano, Keita; Maekawa, Fujio; Sasa, Toshinobu; Obayashi, Hironari; Takei, Hayanori

Nuclear Engineering and Design, 403, p.112147_1 - 112147_17, 2023/03

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

It is important to evaluate the inventories and the release and transport behavior of the spallation products (SPs) in the Lead-Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) coolant system of Accelerator Driven System (ADS) for the safety studies of the radiological hazard both in the cases of normal operation and accident. University of Fukui and JAEA have been developing the computer analysis code TRAIL (Transport of RAdionuclides In Liquid metal systems) which predicts the time dependent behavior of SPs within the LBE coolant system of ADS for the wide range of operational events. The source term of both radioactive and stable SPs in the LBE coolant is given as input and the radioactive decay chain model for the radioactive SPs is implemented in the code to evaluate the effect of precursors on the SPs mobility. This paper presents the recent advancement status of the code development and the validation results comparing with the distribution data of volatile SPs in MEGAPIE spallation target.

Journal Articles

Toward nuclear transmutation

Maekawa, Fujio

Ryoshi Bimu Kagaku No Kiso To Oyo; NSA/Commentaries, No.27, p.15 - 25, 2023/03

The nuclear transmutation technology that is one of the most beneficial industrial applications of quantum beams to humankind is explained.

Journal Articles

Selective adsorption of Pd(II) over Ag(I) in nitric acid solutions using nitrogen-donor-type adsorbents

Suzuki, Tomoya*; Otsubo, Ukyo*; Ogata, Takeshi*; Shiwaku, Hideaki; Kobayashi, Toru; Yaita, Tsuyoshi; Matsuoka, Mitsuaki*; Murayama, Norihiro*; Narita, Hirokazu*

Separation and Purification Technology, 308, p.122943_1 - 122943_7, 2023/03

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:26.5(Engineering, Chemical)

HNO$$_{3}$$ leaching is used in recycling Pd metal from spent products that primarily contain Ag, and most Pd residues are separated from solutions containing Ag(I). However, a small amount of Pd(II) often remains in these Ag(I) solutions. Therefore, the separation of Pd(II) and Ag(I) in HNO$$_{3}$$ solutions is essential to promote efficient Pd recycling. In this study, the separation of Pd(II) and Ag(I) in HNO$$_{3}$$ solutions was investigated using four N-donor-type adsorbents functionalized with amine (R-Amine), iminodiacetic acid (R-IDA), pyridine (R-Py), or bis-picolylamine (R-BPA). R-Amine, R-IDA, and R-Py selectively adsorbed Pd(II) over Ag(I), Cu(II), Ni(II), and Fe(III) from HNO$$_{3}$$ solutions (0.3-7 M), but R-Amine exhibited a lower Pd adsorption efficiency. In contrast, $$>$$90% of Pd(II), Ag(I), and Cu(II) were adsorbed by R-BPA over the entire range of HNO$$_{3}$$ concentrations. Structural analyses of the adsorbed metal ions using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy revealed the separation mechanisms of the N-donor-type adsorbents. Pd(II) adsorption on R-IDA, R-Py, and R-BPA occurred via Pd(II) coordination of the functional groups (iminodiacetic acid, pyridine, and bis-picolylamine, respectively), whereas that on R-Amine occurred via anion exchange of NO$$_{3}$$$$^{-}$$ with [Pd(NO$$_{3}$$)$$_{4}$$]$$^{2-}$$. The coordinative adsorption mechanisms resulted in the higher Pd(II) adsorption behaviors of R-IDA, R-Py, and R-BPA. HCl (5.0 M) and thiourea (0.1 M) eluents desorbed 83% of Pd(II) from R-IDA and 95% from R-Py, respectively. R-Py was the most effective Pd(II) adsorbent based on adsorption selectivity and desorption efficiency.

JAEA Reports

Present status of R&D in JAEA on partitioning and transmutation technology

Nuclear Science and Engineering Center; Fuel Cycle Design Office; Plutonium Fuel Development Center; Nuclear Plant Innovation Promotion Office; Fast Reactor Cycle System Research and Development Center; J-PARC Center

JAEA-Review 2022-052, 342 Pages, 2023/02


This report summarizes the current status and future plans of research and development (R&D) on partitioning and transmutation technology in Japan Atomic Energy Agency, focusing on the results during the 3rd Medium- to Long-term Plan period (FY 2015-2021). Regarding the partitioning technology, R&D of the solvent extraction method and the extraction chromatography method are described, and regarding the minor actinide containing fuel technology, R&D of the oxide fuel production using the simplified pellet method, the nitride fuel production using the external gelation method, and pyrochemical reprocessing of the nitride fuel were summarized. Regarding transmutation technology, R&D of technology using fast reactors and accelerator drive systems were summarized. Finally, the new facilities necessary for the future R&D were mentioned.

Journal Articles

New approach to understanding the experimental $$^{133}$$Cs NMR chemical shift of clay minerals via machine learning and DFT-GIPAW calculations

Okubo, Takahiro*; Takei, Akihiro*; Tachi, Yukio; Fukatsu, Yuta; Deguchi, Kenzo*; Oki, Shinobu*; Shimizu, Tadashi*

Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 127(4), p.973 - 986, 2023/02

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Chemistry, Physical)

The identification of adsorption sites of Cs on clay minerals has been studied in the fields of environmental chemistry. The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments allow direct observations of the local structures of adsorbed Cs. The NMR parameters of $$^{133}$$Cs, derived from solid-state NMR experiments, are sensitive to the local neighboring structures of adsorbed Cs. However, determining the Cs positions from NMR data alone is difficult. This paper describes an approach for identifying the expected atomic positions of Cs adsorbed on clay minerals by combining machine learning (ML) with experimentally observed chemical shifts. A linear ridge regression model for ML is constructed from the smooth overlap of atomic positions descriptor and gauge-including projector augmented wave (GIPAW) ab initio data. The $$^{133}$$Cs chemical shifts can be instantaneously calculated from the Cs positions on any clay layers using ML. The inverse analysis from the ML model can derive the atomic positions from experimentally observed chemical shifts.

Journal Articles

Design and beam dynamics studies of an ADS RFQ based on an equipartitioned beam scheme

Yee-Rendon, B.; Kondo, Yasuhiro; Tamura, Jun; Nakano, Keita; Maekawa, Fujio; Meigo, Shinichiro; Jameson, R. A.*

Proceedings of 19th Annual Meeting of Particle Accelerator Society of Japan (Internet), p.499 - 502, 2023/01

The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is designing a 30-MW proton linear accelerator (linac) for the accelerator-driven subcritical system (ADS). The Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) is an essential component for the performance of high-intensity linac, especially in ADS, where stringent reliability is demanded. The present RFQ will capture a 20 mA proton beam and accelerate from the energy of 35 keV to 2.5 MeV, where the space-charge effects are severe. The present RFQ's design employs the equipartitioning (EP) beam scheme to control the emittance growth and compactness. As a result, the beam halo formation was minimized and allowed to optimize the superconducting linac downstream part. A remarkable feature of this RFQ is the low Kilpatrick factor of 1.2 adopted to achieve high stability by reducing the probability of surface sparking on the vane. This work presents and discusses the results of this RFQ design.

Journal Articles

Robust and compact design of a 30-MW beam transport line for an accelerator-driven subcritical system

Yee-Rendon, B.; Kondo, Yasuhiro; Tamura, Jun; Nakano, Keita; Maekawa, Fujio; Meigo, Shinichiro

Proceedings of 19th Annual Meeting of Particle Accelerator Society of Japan (Internet), p.179 - 183, 2023/01

The Japan Atomic Energy Agency accelerator-driven subcritical system (JAEA-ADS) pursues the reduction of nuclear waste by transmuting minor actinides. JAEA-ADS project drives a 30-MW proton beam to a lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) spallation target to produce neutrons for a subcritical core reactor. To this end, the JAEA-ADS beam transport (BT) must provide a suitable beam profile and stable beam power to the beam window of the spallation target to avoid high-thermal stress in the components, such as the beam window. The beam transport was optimized by tracking a large number of macroparticles to mitigate the beam loss, performance with high stability in the presence of errors, and fulfill the length requirement on the transport. This work presents beam transport design and beam dynamics research for the JAEA-ADS project.

Journal Articles

Availability analysis for the 30-MW proton linac of the JAEA-ADS project

Yee-Rendon, B.; Kondo, Yasuhiro; Tamura, Jun; Nakano, Keita; Maekawa, Fujio; Meigo, Shinichiro

Proceedings of 19th Annual Meeting of Particle Accelerator Society of Japan (Internet), p.286 - 290, 2023/01

Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is designing a 30-MW proton linear accelerator (linac) as one of the fundamental components for its accelerator-driven subcritical system (ADS) project. ADS accelerators demand extremely high reliability and availability to avoid thermal stress in the subcritical reactor structures. Thus, reliability and availability assessments of the accelerator are mandatory to detect weakness in the lattice designed and evaluate redundancy configurations to fulfill the demanded operation. This study applied the Reliability Block Diagrams (RBD) method to calculate the Medium Time Between Failures (MTBF) for different linac configurations: all the linac's elements in a series configuration and a combination of hot-standby for the low-energy section of the linac and k-out-n redundancy for the high-energy part. The estimation considered the detailed arrangement of the cavities and magnets that compose the linac lattice. In this report, we describe the reliability model of the JAEA-ADS linac, report the MTBF results, and point out the potential route toward operating with the required availability.

Journal Articles

Cohesive/Adhesive strengths of CsOH-chemisorbed SS304 surfaces

Li, N.*; Sun, Y.*; Nakajima, Kunihisa; Kurosaki, Ken*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 11 Pages, 2023/00

During the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (1F) accident, an overwhelming amount of the cesium remaining in the pressure vessel could have been deposited onto 304 stainless steel (SS304) steam separators and dryers, both with large surface areas. During 1F's decommissioning, the deposited cesium is a safety hazard as it can generate radioactive dust. However, the cohesive and adhesive strengths of CsOH-chemisorbed oxide scales are yet to be defined. In this study, we investigated how CsOH-chemisorption affects the cohesive and adhesive strengths between oxide scales and SS304 substrates with a scratch tester. The scratch test results revealed that the cohesive strengths of the oxide scales decreased after CsOH-chemisorption, while adhesive failure could not be reached.

Journal Articles

Characterization and corrosion behavior of Al-added high Mn ODS austenitic steels in oxygen-saturated lead-bismuth eutectic

Haoran, W.*; Yu, H.*; Liu, J.*; Kondo, Sosuke*; Okubo, Nariaki; Kasada, Ryuta*

Corrosion Science, 209, p.110818_1 - 110818_12, 2022/12

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:34.75(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

The corrosion behavior of newly developed Al$$_{2}$$O$$_{3}$$ forming high Mn oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) austenitic steels was examined in oxygen-saturated lead-bismuth eutectic at 450$$^{circ}$$C for 430 h. Compared with non-ODS steels, the ODS steels possessed superior resistance to corrosion and spallation. The high density grain boundaries in the ODS steels acted as channels for the rapid outward diffusion of metallic elements, forming an internal continuous Cr$$_{2}$$O$$_{3}$$ scale at the original surface. Accelerated Al diffusion, along with oxidation prevention by the external (Fe, Mn) oxide scale and the internal Cr$$_{2}$$O$$_{3}$$ scale, jointly resulted in the formation of a continuous Al-rich oxide scale in ODS-7Al steel, contributing to its superior corrosion resistance.

Journal Articles

Numerical reproduction of the seasonal variation in dissolved uranium in Lake Biwa

Saito, Tatsuo; Yamazawa, Hiromi*; Mochizuki, Akihito

Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 255, p.107035_1 - 107035_14, 2022/12

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0(Environmental Sciences)

The seasonal variation of dissolved U (DU) in Lake Biwa was reproduced by the following model and parameter research. The introduced models are the water-DU mass balance, and the ion exchange between UO$$_{2}$$$$^{2+}$$ and H$$^{+}$$ on the lakeshore soil. The optimized parameters were the CEC of the lakeshore, TU as the sum of DU and AU (soil adsorbed U), kads and kdes as the first order reaction rate coefficients during rapid soil adsorption and desorption of U, respectively. Tabulated by the chemical equilibria constituting DU and analyzed the contribution of each chemical species, it is shown that the seasonal variation of DU is caused by the seasonal variation of pH. A correction to the ion-exchange equilibrium to shift to first order rate reaction only when the daily AU ratio increased above kads or decreased below kdes, improved the reproducibility of DU measurements and reproduced the delay of the DU peak from the pH peak.

Journal Articles

A Plan of Proton Irradiation Facility at J-PARC and possibilities of application to nuclear data research

Maekawa, Fujio

JAEA-Conf 2022-001, p.7 - 13, 2022/11

The partitioning and transmutation (P-T) technology has promising potential for volume reduction and mitigation of degree of harmfulness of high-level radioactive waste. JAEA is developing the P-T technology combined with accelerator driven systems (ADS). One of critical issues affecting the feasibility of ADS is the proton beam window (PBW) which functions as a boundary between the accelerator and the sub-critical reactor core. The PBW is damaged by a high-intensity proton beam and spallation neutrons produced in the target, and also by flowing high-temperature liquid lead bismuth eutectic alloy which is corrosive to steel materials. To study the materials damage under the ADS environment, J-PARC is proposing a plan of proton irradiation facility which equips with a liquid lead-bismuth spallation target bombarded by a 400 MeV - 250 kW proton beam. The facility is also open for versatile purposes such as soft error testing of semi-conductor devises, RI production, materials irradiation for fission and fusion reactors, and so on. Application to nuclear data research with using the proton beam and spallation neutrons is also one of such versatile purposes, and we welcome unique ideas from the nuclear data community.

Journal Articles

Beam physics design of a 30-MW beam transport to the target for an accelerator-driven subcritical system

Yee-Rendon, B.; Meigo, Shinichiro; Kondo, Yasuhiro; Tamura, Jun; Nakano, Keita; Maekawa, Fujio; Iwamoto, Hiroki; Sugawara, Takanori; Nishihara, Kenji

Journal of Instrumentation (Internet), 17(10), p.P10005_1 - P10005_21, 2022/10

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0(Instruments & Instrumentation)

To reduce the hazard of minor actinides in nuclear waste, JAEA proposed an accelerator-driven subcritical system (JAEA-ADS). The JAEA-ADS drives a subcritical reactor 800-MWth by 30-MW proton linac delivering the beam to the spallation neutron target inside the reactor. The beam transport to the target (BTT) is required for high-beam power stability and low peak density to ensure the integrity of the beam window. Additionally, the design should have compatible with the reactor design for the maintenance and replacement of the fuel and the beam window. A robust-compact BTT design was developed through massive multiparticle simulations. The beam optics was optimized to guarantee beam window feasibility requirements by providing a low peak density of less than 0.3 $$mu$$A/mm$$^2$$. Beam stability was evaluated and improved by simultaneously applying the linac's input beam and element errors. The input beam errors to the reactor were based on the beam degradation obtained by implementing fast fault compensation in the linac. Those results show that the BTT fulfills the requirements for JAEA-ADS.

Journal Articles

Overview of ADS projects in the world

Yee-Rendon, B.

Proceedings of 31st International Linear Accelerator Conference (LINAC 2022) (Internet), p.310 - 313, 2022/10

Accelerator-driven subcritical systems (ADS) offer an advantageous option for the transmutation of nuclear waste. ADS employs high-intensity proton linear accelerators (linacs) to produce spallation neutrons for a subcritical reactor. Besides the challenges of any megawatt proton machine, ADS accelerator must operate with stringent reliability to avoid thermal stress in the reactor structures. Thus, ADS linacs have adopted a reliability-oriented design to satisfy the operation requirements. This work provides a review and the present status of the ADS linacs in the world.

Journal Articles

Measurement of nuclide production cross sections for proton-induced reactions on $$^{rm nat}$$Ni and $$^{rm nat}$$Zr at 0.4, 1.3, 2.2, and 3.0 GeV

Takeshita, Hayato*; Meigo, Shinichiro; Matsuda, Hiroki*; Iwamoto, Hiroki; Nakano, Keita; Watanabe, Yukinobu*; Maekawa, Fujio

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 527, p.17 - 27, 2022/09

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:56.43(Instruments & Instrumentation)

To improve accuracy of nuclear design of accelerator driven nuclear transmutation systems and so on, nuclide production cross sections on Ni and Zr were measured for GeV energy protons. The measured results were compared with PHITS calculations, JENDL/HE-2007 and so on.

320 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)