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JAEA Reports

Neutronic analysis of beam window and LBE of an Accelerator-Driven System

Nakano, Keita; Iwamoto, Hiroki; Nishihara, Kenji; Meigo, Shinichiro; Sugawara, Takanori; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Takeshita, Hayato*; Maekawa, Fujio

JAEA-Research 2021-018, 41 Pages, 2022/03

JAEA-Research-2021-018.pdf:2.93MB

Neutronic analysis of beam window of the Accelerator-Driven System (ADS) proposed by Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been conducted using PHITS and DCHAIN-PHITS codes. We investigate gas production of hydrogen and helium isotopes in the beam window, displacement per atom of beam window material, and heat generation in the beam window. In addition, distributions of produced nuclides, heat density, and activity are derived. It was found that at the maximum 12500 appm H production, 1800 appm He production, and damage of 62.1 DPA occurred in the beam window by the ADS operation. On the other hand, the maximum heat generation in the beam window was 374 W/cm$$^3$$. In the analysis of LBE, $$^{206}$$B and $$^{210}$$Po were found to be the dominant nuclides in decay heat and radioactivity. Furthermore, the heat generation in the LBE by the proton beam was maximum around 5 cm downstream of the beam window, which was 945 W/cm$$^3$$.

JAEA Reports

Standard guideline for the seismic response analysis method using 3D finite element model of reactor buildings (Contract research)

Choi, B.; Nishida, Akemi; Kawata, Manabu; Shiomi, Tadahiko; Li, Y.

JAEA-Research 2021-017, 174 Pages, 2022/03

JAEA-Research-2021-017.pdf:9.33MB

Standard methods such as lumped mass models have been used in the assessment of seismic safety and the design of building structures in nuclear facilities. Recent advances in computer capabilities allow the use of three-dimensional finite element (3D FE) models to account for the 3D behavior of buildings, material nonlinearity, and the nonlinear soil-structure interaction effect. Since the 3D FE model enables more complex and high-level treatment than ever before, it is necessary to ensure the reliability of the analytical results generated by the 3D FE model. Guidelines for assuring the dependability of modeling techniques and the treatment of nonlinear aspects of material properties have already been created and technical certifications have been awarded in domains other than nuclear engineering. The International Atomic Energy Agency performed an international benchmark study in nuclear engineering. Multiple organizations reported on the results of seismic response studies using the 3D FE model based on recordings from the Niigata-ken Chuetsuoki Earthquake in 2007. The variation in their analytical results was significant, indicating an urgent need to improve the reliability of the analytical results by standardization of the analytical methods using 3D FE models. Additionally, it has been pointed out that it is necessary to understand the 3D behavior in the seismic fragility assessment of buildings and equipment, which requires evaluating the realistic nonlinear behavior of building facilities when assessing their seismic fragility. In view of these considerations, a standard guideline for the seismic response analysis method using a 3D FE model was produced by incorporating the latest knowledge and findings in this area. The purpose of the guideline is to improve the reliability of the seismic response analysis method using 3D FE model of reactor buildings. The guideline consists of a main body, commentaries, and appendixes; it also provides standard procedures

Journal Articles

Quasi-Monte Carlo sampling method for simulation-based dynamic probabilistic risk assessment of nuclear power plants

Kubo, Kotaro; Jang, S.*; Takata, Takashi*; Yamaguchi, Akira*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 59(3), p.357 - 367, 2022/03

 Times Cited Count:0

Dynamic probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), which handles epistemic and aleatory uncertainties by coupling the thermal-hydraulics simulation and probabilistic sampling, enables a more realistic and detailed analysis than conventional PRA. However, enormous calculation costs are incurred by these improvements. One solution is to select an appropriate sampling method. In this paper, we applied the Monte Carlo, Latin hypercube, grid-point, and quasi-Monte Carlo sampling methods to the dynamic PRA of a station blackout sequence in a boiling water reactor and compared each method. The result indicated that quasi-Monte Carlo sampling method handles the uncertainties most effectively in the assumed scenario.

Journal Articles

Applicability of equivalent linear analysis to reinforced concrete shear walls; 3D FEM simulation of experiment results of seismic wall ultimate behavior

Ichihara, Yoshitaka*; Nakamura, Naohiro*; Moritani, Hiroshi*; Horiguchi, Tomohiro*; Choi, B.

Nihon Genshiryoku Gakkai Wabun Rombunshi, 21(1), p.1 - 14, 2022/03

In this study, we aim to approximately evaluate the effect of nonlinearity of reinforced concrete structures through seismic response analysis using the equivalent linear analysis method. A simulation analysis was performed for the ultimate response test of the shear wall of the reactor building used in an international competition by OECD/NEA in 1996. The equivalent stiffness and damping of the shear wall were obtained from the trilinear skeleton curves proposed by the Japan Electric Association and the hysteresis curves proposed by Cheng et al. The dominant frequency, maximum acceleration response, maximum displacement response, inertia force-displacement relationship, and acceleration response spectra of the top slab could be simulated well up to a shear strain of approximately $$gamma$$=2.0$$times$$10$$^{-3}$$. The equivalent linear analysis used herein underestimates the maximum displacement response at the time of ultimate fracture of approximately $$gamma$$=4.0$$times$$10$$^{-3}$$. Moreover, the maximum shear strain of the shear wall could not capture the locally occurring shear strain compared with that of the nonlinear analysis. Therefore, when employing this method to evaluate the maximum shear strain and test results, including those during the sudden increase in displacement immediately before the fracture, sufficient attention must be paid to its applicability.

JAEA Reports

Development of extremely small amount analysis technology for fuel debris analysis (Contract research); FY2020 Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project

Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science; Tohoku University*

JAEA-Review 2021-056, 98 Pages, 2022/02

JAEA-Review-2021-056.pdf:9.08MB

The Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science (CLADS), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), had been conducting the Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project (hereafter referred to "the Project") in FY2020. The Project aims to contribute to solving problems in the nuclear energy field represented by the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. (TEPCO). For this purpose, intelligence was collected from all over the world, and basic research and human resource development were promoted by closely integrating/collaborating knowledge and experiences in various fields beyond the barrier of conventional organizations and research fields. The sponsor of the Project was moved from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology to JAEA since the newly adopted proposals in FY2018. On this occasion, JAEA constructed a new research system where JAEA-academia collaboration is reinforced and medium-to-long term research/development and human resource development contributing to the decommissioning are stably and consecutively implemented. Among the adopted proposals in FY2019, this report summarizes the research results of the "Development of extremely small amount analysis technology for fuel debris analysis" conducted in FY2020. The fuel debris retrieved from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (1F) is analyzed in the second building of the Okuma Analysis and Research Center. The characteristics of fuel debris, such as the mixture of nuclear fuel, reactor components, and concrete, are not clear, and its analysis will be the first attempt in the world. Understanding the properties of fuel debris is necessary for handling, criticality control, storage control, etc. A key technique is the chemical analysis of actinide nuclides. We develop sample pretreatment technology and separation/analysis process required for chemical analysis.

JAEA Reports

Study of corrosion and degradation of the objects in the nuclear reactor by microorganisms (Contract research); FY2020 Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project

Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science; Keio University*

JAEA-Review 2021-048, 181 Pages, 2022/01

JAEA-Review-2021-048.pdf:14.5MB

The Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science (CLADS), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), had been conducting the Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project (hereafter referred to "the Project") in FY2020. The Project aims to contribute to solving problems in the nuclear energy field represented by the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (1F), Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. (TEPCO). For this purpose, intelligence was collected from all over the world, and basic research and human resource development were promoted by closely integrating/collaborating knowledge and experiences in various fields beyond the barrier of conventional organizations and research fields. The sponsor of the Project was moved from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology to JAEA since the newly adopted proposals in FY2018. On this occasion, JAEA constructed a new research system where JAEA-academia collaboration is reinforced and medium-to-long term research/development and human resource development contributing to the decommissioning are stably and consecutively implemented. Among the adopted proposals in FY2019, this report summarizes the research results of the "Study of corrosion and degradation of the objects in the nuclear reactor by microorganisms" conducted in FY2019 and FY2020. Since the final year of this proposal was FY2020, the results for two fiscal years were summarized. The purpose of the study is to obtain knowledge related to microorganisms that will be useful in the decommissioning process of 1F. Therefore, we clarified the current conditions of the microbial community inhabiting the power plant and its premises. Environmental samples were taken from several sites such as, topsoil from the south of the plant site boundary (south of the treated water tanks), seabed soil and its above water near the plant, surface water 3km offshore, and metagenomic

JAEA Reports

Summaries of research and development activities by using supercomputer system of JAEA in FY2020 (April 1, 2020 - March 31, 2021)

HPC Technology Promotion Office

JAEA-Review 2021-022, 187 Pages, 2022/01

JAEA-Review-2021-022.pdf:10.11MB

Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) conducts research and development (R&D) in various fields related to nuclear power as a comprehensive institution of nuclear energy R&Ds, and utilizes computational science and technology in many activities. As shown in the fact that about 20 percent of papers published by JAEA are concerned with R&D using computational science, the supercomputer system of JAEA has become an important infrastructure to support computational science and technology. In FY2020, the system was used for R&D aiming to restore Fukushima (environmental recovery and nuclear installation decommissioning) as a priority issue, as well as for JAEA's major projects such as research and development of fast reactor cycle technology, research for safety improvement in the field of nuclear energy, and basic nuclear science and engineering research. This report presents a great number of R&D results accomplished by using the system in FY2020, as well as user support, operational records and overviews of the system, and so on.

JAEA Reports

Development of methodology combining chemical analysis technology with informatics technology to understand perspectives property of debris and tie-up style human resource development (Contract research); FY2020 Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project

Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science; Fukushima University*

JAEA-Review 2021-035, 89 Pages, 2021/12

JAEA-Review-2021-035.pdf:6.37MB

The Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science (CLADS), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), had been conducting the Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project (hereafter referred to "the Project") in FY2020. The Project aims to contribute to solving problems in the nuclear energy field represented by the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. (TEPCO). For this purpose, intelligence was collected from all over the world, and basic research and human resource development were promoted by closely integrating/collaborating knowledge and experiences in various fields beyond the barrier of conventional organizations and research fields. The sponsor of the Project was moved from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology to JAEA since the newly adopted proposals in FY2018. On this occasion, JAEA constructed a new research system where JAEA-academia collaboration is reinforced and medium-to-long term research/development and human resource development contributing to the decommissioning are stably and consecutively implemented. Among the adopted proposals in FY2019, this report summarizes the research results of the "Development of methodology combining chemical analysis technology with informatics technology to understand perspectives property of debris and tie-up style human resource development" conducted in FY2020. The present study aims to Goal of this study is to implement a research plan relate to a development of combinational technology of new chemical analysis with informatics, and the aim is to develop new system for whole image estimation system using small quantities of information. Conducting the collaboration study with JAEA researchers (tie-up style) make connect to the development of human resource from master's course student to post-doctoral researchers who are progress in the local-based and/or many academics

Journal Articles

Revaporization behavior of cesium and iodine compounds from their deposits in the steam-boron atmosphere

Rizaal, M.; Miwa, Shuhei; Suzuki, Eriko; Imoto, Jumpei; Osaka, Masahiko; Gou$"e$llo, M.*

ACS Omega (Internet), 6(48), p.32695 - 32708, 2021/12

Journal Articles

Sodium fire collaborative study progress; CNWG fiscal year 2021

Louie, D. L. Y.*; Aoyagi, Mitsuhiro

SAND2021-15469 (Internet), 45 Pages, 2021/12

This report discusses the progress on the collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) on the sodium fire research in fiscal year 2021. First, the current sodium pool fire model in MELCOR is discussed. The associated sodium fire input requirements are also presented. The theoretical pool fire model improvement developed at SNL is discussed. A control function model has been developed from this improvement. Then, the validation study of the sodium pool fire model in MELCOR is described. To validate this pool fire model with the enhancement, JAEA F7-1 and F7-2 sodium pool fire experiments are used. The results of the calculation are discussed as well as suggestions for further model improvement. Finally, recommendations are made for new MELCOR simulations for next fiscal year, 2021.

Journal Articles

Additive-free hydrothermal leaching method with low environmental burden for screening of strontium in soil

Kato, Takuma*; Nagaoka, Mika; Guo, H.*; Fujita, Hiroki; Aida, Taku*; Smith, R. L. Jr.*

Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28(39), p.55725 - 55735, 2021/10

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0(Environmental Sciences)

In this work, hydrothermal leaching was applied to simulated soils (clay minerals vermiculite, montmorillonite, kaolinite) and actual soils (Terunuma, Japan) to generate organic acids with the objective to develop an additive-free screening method for determination of Sr in soil. Stable strontium (SrCl$$_{2}$$) was adsorbed onto soils for study and ten organic acids were evaluated for leaching Sr from simulated soils under hydrothermal conditions (120 to 200$$^{circ}$$C) at concentrations up to 0.3 M. For strontium-adsorbed vermiculite (Sr-V), 0.1 M citric acid was found to be effective for leaching Sr at 150$$^{circ}$$C and 1 h treatment time. Based on these results, the formation of organic acids from organic matter in Terunuma soil was studied. Hydrothermal treatment of Terunuma soil produced a maximum amount of organic acids at 200$$^{circ}$$C and 0.5 h reaction time. To confirm the possibility for leaching of Sr from Terunuma soil, strontium-adsorbed Terunuma soil (Sr-S) was studied. For Sr-S, hydrothermal treatment at 200$$^{circ}$$C for 0.5 h reaction time allowed 40% of the Sr to be leached at room temperature, thus demonstrating an additive-free method for screening of Sr in soil. The additive-free hydrothermal leaching method avoids calcination of solids in the first step of chemical analysis and has application to both routine monitoring of metals in soils and to emergency situations.

Journal Articles

Outline of guideline for seismic response analysis method using 3D finite element model of reactor building

Choi, B.; Nishida, Akemi; Shiomi, Tadahiko; Kawata, Manabu; Li, Y.

Proceedings of 28th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering; Nuclear Energy the Future Zero Carbon Power (ICONE 28) (Internet), 7 Pages, 2021/08

In the seismic safety assessment of building structures in nuclear facilities, lumped mass models are conventionally used. However, they cannot possess the required high-accuracy evaluation of nuclear facilities, such as the local response at the equipment location in a reactor building. In this point of view, a seismic response analysis method using a three-dimensional finite element (3D FE) model is indispensable. Although, it has been reported that the analysis results obtained using 3D FE models vary greatly depending on the experience and knowledge of analysts, the quality of analysis results should be insured by developing a standard analysis method. In the Japan Atomic Energy Agency, we have developed a guideline for seismic response analysis methods that adopt 3D FE models of reactor buildings. The guideline consists of a main body, commentary, and several supplements; it also includes procedures, recommendations, points of attention, and a technical basis for conducting seismic response analysis using 3D FE models of reactor buildings. In this paper, the outline of the guideline and analysis examples based on the guideline are presented.

Journal Articles

Interaction between caesium iodide particles and gaseous boric acid in a flowing system through a thermal gradient tube (1030 K-450 K) and analysis with ASTEC/SOPHAEROS

Gou$"e$llo, M.*; Hokkinen, M.*; Suzuki, Eriko; Horiguchi, Naoki; Barrachin, M.*; Cousin, F.*

Progress in Nuclear Energy, 138, p.103818_1 - 103818_10, 2021/08

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The present work aimed to study the transport of caesium iodide particles through a Thermal Gradient Tube (TGT) from 1023 K to 453 K. Retention inside the tube was evaluated for laminar flowrates composed of argon and steam. Higher retention of particles was highlighted for the experiments using higher steam content and lower flowrate. The second phase of the experiment aimed at identifying the possible revaporization or/and resuspension processes after the deposition. Three atmosphere compositions (Ar/H$$_{2}$$O, Ar/H$$_{2}$$ and Ar/Air) were investigated. The particles removed from what was deposited on the surface walls during the sampling phase exhibited a similar GMD in Ar/H$$_{2}$$O and Ar/H$$_{2}$$ and a bigger diameter in Ar/Air. The experimental results were then analysed with the SOPHAEROS module of the ASTEC code. Overall, the results obtained during the first phase were in agreement with the measured experimental results and during second phase led to no resuspension process.

Journal Articles

Improved experimental evaluation and model validation of a $$^{252}$$Cf irradiator for delayed gamma-ray spectroscopy applications

Tohamy, M.*; Abbas, K.*; Nonneman, S.*; Rodriguez, D.; Rossi, F.

Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 173, p.109694_1 - 109694_7, 2021/07

Journal Articles

Bias effects on g- and s-factors in Westcott convention

Harada, Hideo

Applied Sciences (Internet), 11(14), p.6558_1 - 6558_20, 2021/07

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0(Chemistry, Multidisciplinary)

For accuracy improvement of neutron activation analysis and neutron capture cross section, bias effects are investigated on g- and s-factors in the Westcott convention. As origins of biases, a joining function shape, neutron temperature and sample temperature, have been investigated. Biases are quantitatively deduced for two 1/v isotopes ($$^{197}$$Au, $$^{59}$$Co) and six non-1/v isotopes ($$^{241}$$Am, $$^{151}$$Eu, $$^{103}$$Rh, $$^{115}$$In, $$^{177}$$Hf, $$^{226}$$Ra). The s-factor calculated with a joining function deduced recently by a detailed Monte Carlo simulation is compared to s-factors calculated with traditional joining functions by Westcott. The results show the bias induced by sample temperature is small as the order of 0.1% for g-factor and the order of 1% for s-factor. On the other hand, biases induced by a joining function shape for s-factor depend significantly on both isotopes and neutron temperature. As the result, reaction rates are also affected significantly as well. The bias size on reaction rate is given in the case of epithermal neutron index r = 0.1, for the eight isotopes.

Journal Articles

Benchmark analysis by Beremin model and GTN model in CAF subcommittee

Hirota, Takatoshi*; Nagoshi, Yasuto*; Hojo, Kiminobu*; Okada, Hiroshi*; Takahashi, Akiyuki*; Katsuyama, Jinya; Ueda, Takashi*; Ogawa, Takuya*; Yashirodai, Kenji*; Ohata, Mitsuru*; et al.

Proceedings of ASME 2021 Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference (PVP 2021) (Internet), 9 Pages, 2021/07

JAEA Reports

Calculation of the amount of leaching water from concrete-pit facilities under various facility design conditions

Nagao, Rina; Namekawa, Maki*; Totsuka, Masayoshi*; Nakata, Hisakazu; Sakai, Akihiro

JAEA-Technology 2021-009, 139 Pages, 2021/06

JAEA-Technology-2021-009.pdf:13.96MB

Japan Atomic Energy Agency is the implementing body of the near surface disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated from research facilities and other facilities. Concrete-pit disposal are considered as a method of disposing of the LLW. Since the concrete-pits are placed at deeper position than the groundwater level, we need to consider that radionuclides might migrate with the flow of groundwater. Accordingly, in order to explain the safety of the concrete-pit disposal facility, it is necessary to investigate the flow of groundwater and the volumetric flow rate of leaching water from the facility. Therefore, in this report, sensitivity analysis of the volumetric flow rate of leaching water from concrete-pit was carried out by varying the permeability of cover-soil filled with in outside of the lateral sides of the bentonite mixed soil (BMS) and the conditions of the BMS on the upper part of the concrete-pits. As a result of the analysis, when the BMS is normal condition, the volumetric flow rate of leaching water from the concrete-pits is reduced by lowering permeability of the lateral cover-soil. However, in the case of occurring the deterioration of the function of BMS on the upper part of the concrete-pit, significant reduction of the volumetric flow rate of leaching water is not seen even if the permeability of the lateral cover-soil is lowered. Therefore, taking into consideration the possibility of the deterioration of the function of BMS on the upper part of the concrete-pit, it is necessary to consider that cover-soil with low permeability is equipped on the upper part of the BMS.

Journal Articles

Analysis and mapping of detailed inner information of crystalline grain by wavelength-resolved neutron transmission imaging with individual Bragg-dip profile-fitting analysis

Sakurai, Yosuke*; Sato, Hirotaka*; Adachi, Nozomu*; Morooka, Satoshi; Todaka, Yoshikazu*; Kamiyama, Takashi*

Applied Sciences (Internet), 11(11), p.5219_1 - 5219_17, 2021/06

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:76.99(Chemistry, Multidisciplinary)

Journal Articles

Multiple wavelengths texture measurement using angle dispersive neutron diffraction at WOMBAT

Xu, P. G.; Liss, K.-D.*

Quantum Beam Science (Internet), 5(2), p.11_1 - 11_14, 2021/06

999 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)