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JAEA Reports

Measurement of nuclide production cross-sections in high-energy proton-induced spallation reactions at J-PARC

Nakano, Keita; Matsuda, Hiroki*; Meigo, Shinichiro; Iwamoto, Hiroki; Takeshita, Hayato*; Maekawa, Fujio

JAEA-Research 2021-014, 25 Pages, 2022/03


For the development of accelerator-driven transmutation system (ADS), measurement of nuclide production cross-sections in proton-induced reactions on $$^9$$Be, C, $$^{27}$$Al, $$^{45}$$Sc, and V have been performed. The measured data are compared with the calculations by the latest nuclear reaction models and with the nuclear data library to investigate the reproducibilities.

JAEA Reports

Data comparison of measurement of carbon isotope standards between JAEA-AMS-TONO and JAEA-AMS-MUTSU

Kokubu, Yoko; Matsubara, Akihiro; Fujita, Natsuko; Kuwabara, Jun; Kinoshita, Naoki

JAEA-Technology 2021-028, 33 Pages, 2022/02


Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has two facilities of accelerator mass spectrometry, JAEA-AMS-TONO and JAEA-AMS-MUTSU at Tono Geoscience Center and Aomori Research and Development Center, respectively. In this report, characteristics of each facility and results of standard samples in the inner-comparison test of carbon isotope measurement will be described. Both facilities have been used for research by not only JAEA's staff but also researchers who belong to universities and other institutes on the shared use program of JAEA facilities. Recently, researchers trend to use both facilities with the expansion of demand for the carbon isotope measurement by using the accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS). However, each facility has a spectrometer made by a different manufacturer and equipped with different mechanical components. There is a difference in each ability to the carbon isotope measurement such as background level. This is, for example, due to different ion injection system adapted at each spectrometer. Further, each facility uses a different analytical method adjusted to each main research field. When a researcher uses both facilities, the researcher understands more about the characteristics and need to make a suitable choice of a facility for samples and the analytical method. The report presents a detailed information of characteristics of the spectrometer, sample preparation method and analytical method, and of ability of the measurement based on the inner-comparison test.

Journal Articles

Identification of carbon in glassy cesium-bearing microparticles using electron microscopy and formation mechanisms of the microparticles

Hidaka, Akihide

Nuclear Technology, 208(2), p.318 - 334, 2022/02

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The author previously proposed that the Cs bearing microparticle (Type A) may have been formed by melting and atomization of glass fibers (GF) of the HEPA filter in the SGTS due to flame and blast during the hydrogen explosion in Unit 3. If this hypothesis is correct, the Type A could contain or accompany carbon (C), that ignites spontaneously above 623 K, because of the limited time to be heated up, inclusion of C in the binder applied on the GF surface and closely located charcoal filter. As the previous studies did not focus on C, the present analyses were performed with EPMA whether the Type A contains C. The results showed that the Type A contained C originating from the binder, and non-spherical particles accompanied by the Type A and the film surrounding the Type A contained more C, which is thought to originate from the charcoal filter. These results cannot be explained by the other mechanisms proposed so far, and can be explained consistently by the author proposed hypothesis.

JAEA Reports

Quantitative evaluation of long-term state changes of contaminated reinforced concrete considering the actual environments for rational disposal (Contract research); FY2020 Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project

Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science; The University of Tokyo*

JAEA-Review 2021-047, 127 Pages, 2022/01


The Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science (CLADS), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), had been conducting the Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project (hereafter referred to "the Project") in FY2020. The Project aims to contribute to solving problems in the nuclear energy field represented by the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. (TEPCO). For this purpose, intelligence was collected from all over the world, and basic research and human resource development were promoted by closely integrating/collaborating knowledge and experiences in various fields beyond the barrier of conventional organizations and research fields. The sponsor of the Project was moved from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology to JAEA since the newly adopted proposals in FY2018. On this occasion, JAEA constructed a new research system where JAEA-academia collaboration is reinforced and medium-to-long term research/development and human resource development contributing to the decommissioning are stably and consecutively implemented. Among the adopted proposals in FY2020, this report summarizes the research results of the "Quantitative evaluation of long-term state changes of contaminated reinforced concrete considering the actual environments for rational disposal" conducted in FY2020. The present study aims to construct a database for quantitative prediction of contaminated reinforced concrete inside the reactor building. In FY2020, in chapter 3.1, in order to obtain the data for the evaluation of mesoscale cracking behavior, the equipment for the making and the measurement of the test specimens were prepared, the evaluation method was confirmed, and preliminary experiments were carried out. And, for the prediction of cracking on the surface of thick concrete wall, the rigid-body spring network model associated with heat and moisture

Journal Articles

Initiatives to address the lifetime improvement of HBC stripper foil for 3GeV synchrotron of J-PARC

Yoshimoto, Masahiro; Nakanoya, Takamitsu; Yamazaki, Yoshio; Saha, P. K.; Kinsho, Michikazu; Yamamoto, Shunya*; Okazaki, Hiroyuki*; Taguchi, Tomitsugu*; Yamada, Naoto*; Yamagata, Ryohei*

Proceedings of 18th Annual Meeting of Particle Accelerator Society of Japan (Internet), p.850 - 854, 2021/10

no abstracts in English

JAEA Reports

Preparation of carbonate slurry simulating chemical composition of slurry in overflowed high integrity container and evaluation of its characteristics

Horita, Takuma; Yamagishi, Isao; Nagaishi, Ryuji; Kashiwaya, Ryunosuke*

JAEA-Technology 2021-012, 34 Pages, 2021/07


Waste mainly consisting of carbonate precipitates (carbonate slurry) from the Advanced Liquid Processing System (ALPS) and the improved ALPS at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station of Tokyo Electric Power Holdings, Inc. have been storing in the High Integrity Container (HIC). The supernatant solution of carbonate slurry contained in some of HICs were overflowed in April of 2015. The all of level of liquid in the HICs were investigated; however, almost of the HICs were under the level of overflow. The mechanism of overflow suggested to be depending on the difference of the properties of the carbonate slurry such as the retention/release characteristics of the bubbles. Therefore, in order to clarify the mechanism of leakage, the repeatability experiment was carried out by using simulated carbonate slurry. The simulated carbonate slurry was perpetrated by using the same cross-flow filter system of the actual ALPS. Moreover, the preparative conditions for the simulated carbonate slurry were the same as Mg/Ca concentration ratio in inlet water of the ALPS (raw water) and the ALPS operating conditions. The chemical characteristics of simulated carbonate slurries were revealed by ICP-AES, pH meter, etc. The density of the settled slurry layer tended to increase depending on the calcium concentration in the raw water. The bubble injection test was conducted in order to investigate the bubble retention/release behavior in the simulated carbonate slurry layer. The simulated carbonate slurry with high settling density, which was generated by high calcium concentration solution was revealed to retain the injected bubbles. Since the ratio of concentration calcium and magnesium during the carbonate slurry generation is assumed to affect the retention of bubbles in the slurry layer, the information on the composition of raw water is one of important factor for overflow of HICs.

Journal Articles

Experimental study on modeling of Pu sorption onto quartz

Hemmi, Ko; Walker, A.*; Yamaguchi, Tetsuji

Radiochimica Acta, 109(7), p.539 - 546, 2021/07

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Chemistry, Inorganic & Nuclear)

Plutonium(IV) sorption onto quartz in carbonate solutions was systematically investigated under anaerobic conditions to analyze the sorption behaviors of Pu(IV) with a non-electrostatic model (NEM). Pu(IV) sorption data was obtained from batch sorption experiments as a function of pH and carbonate concentration. The Pu(IV) sorption onto quartz showed similar tendencies to Th(IV), which is considered to be chemically analogous as a tetravalent actinoid. The distribution coefficient, ${it K}$d, of Pu(IV) onto quartz showed inverse proportionality to the square of the total carbonate concentration under the investigated pH conditions of 8 to 11. The modeling study, however, revealed a Th(IV) sorption model, which is $$equiv$$SOTh(OH)$$_{4}$$$$^{-}$$ and $$equiv$$SOThOH(CO$$_{3}$$)$$_{2}$$$$^{2-}$$, could not be applied to simulate the Pu(IV) sorption onto quartz. It was inferred that the electrostatic repulsion between negatively charged ligands limited the formation of $$equiv$$SOM(OH)$$_{4}$$$$^{-}$$ and $$equiv$$SOMOH(CO$$_{3}$$)$$_{2}$$$$^{2-}$$ for Pu(IV) with smaller ionic radii than Th(IV). The Pu(IV) sorption model was developed as $$equiv$$SOPu(OH)$$_{3}$$ and $$equiv$$SOPu(OH)$$_{4}$$$$^{-}$$. In addition, data of Pu(IV) sorption onto muscovite was obtained in order to be compared with data for quartz.

Journal Articles

Incorporation of U, Pb and rare earth elements in calcite through crystallisation from amorphous calcium carbonate; Simple preparation of reference materials for microanalysis

Miyajima, Yusuke*; Saito, Ayaka*; Kagi, Hiroyuki*; Yokoyama, Tatsunori; Takahashi, Yoshio*; Hirata, Takafumi*

Geostandards and Geoanalytical Research, 45(1), p.189 - 205, 2021/03

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Geochemistry & Geophysics)

Uncertainty for elemental and isotopic analyses of calcite by LA-ICP-MS is largely controlled by the homogeneity of the reference materials (RMs) used for normalization and validation. In order to produce calcite RMs with homogeneous elemental and isotopic compositions, we incorporated elements including U, Pb, and rare earth elements into calcite through heat- and pressure-induced crystallization from amorphous calcium carbonate that was precipitated from element-doped reagent solution. X-ray absorption spectra showed that U was present as U(VI) in the synthesized calcite, probably with a different local structure from that of aqueous uranyl ions. The uptake rate of U by our calcite was higher in comparison to synthetic calcite of previous studies. Variations of element mass fractions in the calcite were better than 12% 2RSD, mostly within 7%. The $$^{207}$$Pb/$$^{206}$$Pb ratio in the calcite showed $$<$$1% variations, while the $$^{238}$$U/$$^{206}$$Pb ratio showed 3-24% variations depending on element mass fractions. Using the synthetic calcite as primary RMs, we could date a natural calcite RM, WC-1, with analytical uncertainty as low as $$<$$3%. The method presented can be useful to produce calcite with controlled and homogeneous element mass fractions, and is a promising alternative to natural calcite RMs for U-Pb geochronology.

Journal Articles

Electrochemical behavior of carbon steel with bentonite/sand in saline environment

Kitayama, Ayami; Taniguchi, Naoki; Mitsui, Seiichiro

Materials and Corrosion, 72(1-2), p.211 - 217, 2021/01

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

Journal Articles

A Proposed method to discriminate a gas derived from deep underground by focusing on the relationship between changes in methane and carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere

Miyakawa, Kazuya; Shimo, Michito*; Niwa, Masakazu; Amano, Kenji; Tokunaga, Tomochika*; Tonokura, Kenichi*

Fukada Chishitsu Kenkyujo Nempo, (22), p.139 - 153, 2021/00

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

The Effects of addition of carbon dioxide and water vapor on the dynamic behavior of spherically expanding hydrogen/air premixed flames

Katsumi, Toshiyuki; Yoshida, Yasuhito*; Nakagawa, Ryo*; Yazawa, Shinya*; Kumada, Masashi*; Sato, Daisuke*; Thwe, T. A.; Chaumeix, N.*; Kadowaki, Satoshi

Journal of Thermal Science and Technology (Internet), 16(2), p.21-00044_1 - 21-00044_13, 2021/00

The effects of addition of CO$$_{2}$$ and water vapor on characteristics of dynamic behavior of hydrogen/air premixed flames were elucidated experimentally. By Schlieren photography, wrinkles on the flame surface were clearly observed in low equivalence ratios. The propagation velocity increased monotonically as the flame radius became larger and flame acceleration was found. Increasing the addition of inert gas, the propagation velocity decreased, especially in the case of CO$$_{2}$$ addition. Moreover, the Markstein length and the wrinkling factor decreased. This indicated that the addition of Co$$_{2}$$ or H$$_{2}$$O promoted the unstable motion of hydrogen flames, which could be due to the enhancement of the diffusive-thermal effect. Based on the characteristics of dynamic behavior of hydrogen flames, the parameters used in the mathematical model on propagation velocity including flame acceleration was obtained, and then the flame propagation velocity under various conditions was predicted.

Journal Articles

Development of laser cutting technology of thick steel plates for nuclear facilities

Tamura, Koji*; Toyama, Shinichi

Nihon Genshiryoku Gakkai-Shi ATOMO$$Sigma$$, 62(5), p.268 - 271, 2020/05

The laser cutting technology is expected to be a promising candidate for the decommissioning measure of nuclear facilities, because it has a lot of advantage such as its high controllability and excellent suitability to remote handling by robot arm, etcetera. This report describes the recent result from laser cutting technology development for thick steel materials summarizing the cutting demonstration of 300 mm thick steels and dummy pressure vessel, the analysis of cutting condition of thick steel cutting, the observation of cutting process, remote controlled cutting system, the cutting in pile of steels by the system, and countermeasure for fume produce by cutting process.

Journal Articles

Electrochemical measurements in various environments; Corrosion monitoring of carbon steel in deep underground environment

Taniguchi, Naoki; Nakayama, Masashi

Zairyo To Kankyo, 67(12), p.487 - 494, 2018/12

This article describes the current status of corrosion monitoring methods and examples of the measurement under deep underground environments for carbon steel overpacks for high-level radioactive waste disposal. Based on the studies on corrosion monitoring using AC Impedance technique, some of the typical measurement systems such as the electrodes arrangement are introduced. In-situ corrosion monitoring in engineering scale test is also being attempted using a deep underground research facility, and the measurement method and results are presented in this article.

JAEA Reports

Calculations of Tritium Recoil Release from Li and U Impurities in Neutron Reflectors (Joint research)

Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Kenzhina, I.*; Okumura, Keisuke; Ho, H. Q.; Takemoto, Noriyuki; Chikhray, Y.*

JAEA-Technology 2018-010, 33 Pages, 2018/11


As a part of study on the mechanism of tritium release to the primary coolant in research and testing reactors, tritium recoil release rate from Li and U impurities in the neutron reflector made by beryllium, aluminum and graphite were calculated by PHITS code. On the other hand, the tritium production from Li and U impurities in beryllium neutron reflectors for JMTR and JRR-3M were calculated by MCNP6 and ORIGEN2 code. By using both results, the amount of recoiled tritium from beryllium neutron reflectors were estimated. It is clear that the amount of recoiled tritium from Li and U impurities in beryllium neutron reflectors are negligible, and 2 and 5 orders smaller than that from beryllium itself, respectively.

Journal Articles

Improvements in drill-core headspace gas analysis for samples from microbially active depths

Miyakawa, Kazuya; Okumura, Fumiaki*

Geofluids, 2018, p.2436814_1 - 2436814_11, 2018/10

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:15.51(Geochemistry & Geophysics)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

A Thermodynamic model for the solubility of HfO$$_{2}$$(am) in the aqueous K$$^{+}$$ - HCO$$_{3}$$$$^{-}$$ - CO$$_{3}$$$$^{2-}$$ - OH$$^{-}$$ - H$$_{2}$$O system

Rai, D.*; Kitamura, Akira; Rosso, K.*

Radiochimica Acta, 105(8), p.637 - 647, 2017/08

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:15.39(Chemistry, Inorganic & Nuclear)

Solubility of HfO$$_{2}$$(am) was determined as a function of KHCO$$_{3}$$ concentrations ranging from 0.001$$^{-1}$$ to 0.1$$^{-1}$$. The solubility of HfO$$_{2}$$(am) increased dramatically with the increase in KHCO$$_{3}$$ concentrations, indicating that Hf(IV) makes strong complexes with carbonate. Thermodynamic equilibrium constants for the formation of Hf-carbonate complexes were determined using both the Pitzer and SIT models. The dramatic increase in Hf concentrations with the increase in KHCO$$_{3}$$ concentrations can best be described by the formation of Hf(OH-)$$_{2}$$(CO$$_{3}$$)$$_{2}$$$$^{2-}$$ and Hf(CO$$_{3}$$)$$_{5}$$$$^{6-}$$. The log$$_{10}$$ K$$^{0}$$ values for the reactions [Hf$$^{4+}$$ + 2 CO$$_{3}$$$$^{2-}$$ +2 OH$$^{-}$$ $$leftrightarrow $$ Hf(OH)$$_{2}$$(CO$$_{3}$$)$$_{2}$$$$^{2-}$$] and [Hf$$^{4+}$$ + 5 CO$$_{3}$$$$^{2-}$$ $$leftrightarrow $$ Hf(CO$$_{3}$$)$$_{5}$$$$^{6-}$$], based on the SIT model, were determined to be 44.53 $$pm$$ 0.46 and 41.53 $$pm$$ 0.46, respectively.

Journal Articles

Gas retention behavior of carbonate slurry under $$gamma$$-ray irradiation

Motooka, Takafumi; Nagaishi, Ryuji; Yamagishi, Isao

QST-M-2; QST Takasaki Annual Report 2015, P. 95, 2017/03

We conducted $$gamma$$ ray irradiation test using simulated carbonate slurry to investigate the cause of stagnant water over the high integrity container (HIC). This test was performed at Co-60 irradiation facility in Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute. We observed a rise in water level, air bubbles in the slurry, a supernatant when the carbonate slurry with 95 g/L density was irradiated by $$gamma$$ ray at a dose rate of 8.5 kGy/h. The cause of the rise in water level was regarded as the volume expansion by the gas retention of the carbonate slurry. It was suggested that the cause of stagnant water over the high integrity container might be the volume expansion by the gas retention.

Journal Articles

The Role of low-temperature organic matter diagenesis in carbonate precipitation within a marine deposit

Miyakawa, Kazuya; Ishii, Eiichi; Hirota, Akinari*; Komatsu, Daisuke*; Ikeya, Kosuke*; Tsunogai, Urumu*

Applied Geochemistry, 76, p.218 - 231, 2017/01

 Times Cited Count:8 Percentile:49.44(Geochemistry & Geophysics)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Complex chemistry with complex compounds

Eichler, R.*; Asai, Masato; Brand, H.*; Chiera, N. M.*; Di Nitto, A.*; Dressler, R.*; D$"u$llmann, Ch. E.*; Even, J.*; Fangli, F.*; Goetz, M.*; et al.

EPJ Web of Conferences, 131, p.07005_1 - 07005_7, 2016/12

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:48.51

In recent years gas-phase chemical studies assisted by physical pre-separation allowed for the productions and investigations of fragile single molecular species of superheavy elements. The latest highlight is the formation of very volatile hexacarbonyl compound of element 106, Sg(CO)$$_{6}$$. Following this success, second-generation experiments were performed to measure the first bond dissociation energy between the central metal atom and the surrounding ligand. The method using a tubular decomposition reactor was developed and successfully applied to short-lived Mo(CO)$$_{6}$$, W(CO)$$_{6}$$, and Sg(CO)$$_{6}$$.

Journal Articles

Effect of hydrocarbons on the efficiency of catalytic reactor of detritiation system in an event of fire

Edao, Yuki; Sato, Katsumi; Iwai, Yasunori; Hayashi, Takumi

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 53(11), p.1831 - 1838, 2016/11

 Times Cited Count:6 Percentile:61.4(Nuclear Science & Technology)

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