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Journal Articles

Temporal change in atmospheric radiocesium during the first seven years after the Fukushima Dai-ich Nuclear Power Plant accident

Abe, Tomohisa; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Sanada, Yukihisa

Aerosol and Air Quality Research, 21(7), p.200636_1 -  200636_11, 2021/07

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0(Environmental Sciences)

Journal Articles

The Effect and effectiveness of decontaminating a pond in a residential area of Fukushima

Katengeza, E. W.*; Ochi, Kotaro; Sanada, Yukihisa; Iimoto, Takeshi*; Yoshinaga, Shinji*

Health Physics, 121(1), p.48 - 57, 2021/07

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.02(Environmental Sciences)

Special reconstruction and revitalization bases were designated in Fukushima's difficult-to-return zones by the Japanese government as targets of intensive decontamination to drastically lower air dose rates and enable residents to return. A pond amidst residences of one of these bases was targeted for decontamination and this study aimed at evaluating the effect and effectiveness of the decontamination by decontamination factor, air dose rate reduction factor, and the additional annual effective dose to residents. Air dose rates were measured in-situ with KURAMMA-II while soil core samples were collected and measured for radioactivity in the laboratory by gamma spectrometry. Lower decontamination factors were observed for more deeply distributed radiocesium soil profiles whereas areas covered with gravel demonstrated the largest reduction in air dose rates. Decontamination effectively lowered the radiocesium inventory and air dose rates by 51% and 37-91% respectively. Moreover, the additional annual effective dose to the public changed from 1.7$$pm$$0.79 mSv to 1.2$$pm$$0.57 mSv because of decontamination representing a dose aversion of 29%. These findings demonstrate how decontaminating ponds in residential areas can help to further lower the external exposure.

Journal Articles

Impacts of freeze-thaw processes and subsequent runoff on $$^{137}$$Cs washoff from bare land in Fukushima

Igarashi, Yasunori*; Onda, Yuichi*; Wakiyama, Yoshifumi*; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Kato, Hiroaki*; Kozuka, Shohei*; Manome, Ryo*

Science of the Total Environment, 769, p.144706_1 - 144706_9, 2021/05

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0(Environmental Sciences)

JAEA Reports

Radiation monitoring using manned helicopter around the Nuclear Power Station in the fiscal year 2019 (Contract research)

Futemma, Akira; Sanada, Yukihisa; Ishizaki, Azusa; Kawasaki, Yoshiharu*; Iwai, Takeyuki*; Hiraga, Shogo*; Sato, Kazuhiko*; Haginoya, Masashi*; Matsunaga, Yuki*; Kikuchi, Hikaru*; et al.

JAEA-Technology 2020-018, 121 Pages, 2021/02


By the nuclear disaster of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS), Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO), caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake and the following tsunami on March 11, 2011, a large amount of radioactive material was released from the FDNPS. After the nuclear disaster, airborne radiation monitoring using manned helicopter has been conducted around FDNPS. The results in the fiscal 2019 were summarized in this report. Analysis taken topographical effects into consideration was applied to the result of airborne monitoring to improve the precision of conventional method. In addition, discrimination method of gamma rays from Rn-progenies was also utilized to evaluate their effect on aerial radiation monitoring.

JAEA Reports

Development of the Sintering Solidification Method for Spent Zeolite to Long-term Stabilization (Contract research); FY2019 Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project

Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science; Shibaura Institute of Technology*

JAEA-Review 2020-049, 78 Pages, 2021/01


JAEA/CLADS had been conducting the Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project. Among the adopted proposals in FY2018, this report summarizes the research results of the "Development of the Sintering Solidification Method for Spent Zeolite to Long-term Stabilization" conducted in FY2019.

JAEA Reports

Contribution to risk reduction in decommissioning works by the elucidation of basic property of radioactive microparticles (Contract research); FY2019 Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project

Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science; Ibaraki University*

JAEA-Review 2020-033, 84 Pages, 2021/01


JAEA/CLADS had been conducting the Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project in FY2019. Among the adopted proposals in FY2018, this report summarizes the research results of the "Contribution to Risk Reduction in Decommissioning Works by the Elucidation of Basic Property of Radioactive Microparticles" conducted in FY2019.

Journal Articles

Calculations for ambient dose equivalent rates in nine forests in eastern Japan from $$^{134}$$Cs and $$^{137}$$Cs radioactivity measurements

Malins, A.; Imamura, Naohiro*; Niizato, Tadafumi; Takahashi, Junko*; Kim, M.; Sakuma, Kazuyuki; Shinomiya, Yoshiki*; Miura, Satoru*; Machida, Masahiko

Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 226, p.106456_1 - 106456_12, 2021/01

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0(Environmental Sciences)

JAEA Reports

Investigations on distribution of radioactive substances owing to the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station Accident in the fiscal year 2019 (Contract research)

Group for Fukushima Mapping Project

JAEA-Technology 2020-014, 158 Pages, 2020/12


This report presents results of the investigations on the distribution-mapping project of radioactive substances owing to TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS) conducted in FY2019. Car-borne surveys, a flat ground measurement using survey meters, a walk survey and an unmanned helicopter survey were carried out to obtain air dose rate data. Air dose rate distribution maps were created and temporal changes of the air dose rates were analyzed. Regarding radiocesium deposition into the ground, surveys on depth profile of radiocesium and in-situ measurements were performed. Based on these measurement results, effective half-lives of the temporal changes in the air dose rates and the deposition were evaluated. In the examination of scoring to classify the importance of measurement points, we created a score map of Fukushima Prefecture and that within 80 km from the FDNPS based on the "score" method developed in 2018. The way of monitoring radioactive materials in land area was examined and the representativeness of monitoring points was proposed. Using the Bayesian hierarchical modeling approach, we obtained maps that integrated the air dose rate distribution data obtained from aircraft monitoring, car-borne surveys, and walk surveys with respect to the region within 80 km from the FDNPS and Fukushima Prefecture. The measurement results for FY2019 were published on the "Expansion Site of Distribution Map of Radiation Dose", and measurement data were stored as CSV format. Radiation monitoring and analysis of environmental samples owing to the comprehensive radiation monitoring plan were carried out.

JAEA Reports

Upgrading of recovery method for radioactive microparticles by heavy liquid separation aiming to volume reduction of contaminated soil (Contract research); FY2019 Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project

Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science; University of Tsukuba*

JAEA-Review 2020-037, 53 Pages, 2020/12


JAEA/CLADS had been conducting the Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project in FY2019. Among the adopted proposals in FY2018, this report summarizes the research results of the "Upgrading of Recovery Method for Radioactive Microparticles by Heavy Liquid Separation Aiming to Volume Reduction of Contaminated Soil" conducted in FY2019.

Journal Articles

Impact of soil erosion potential uncertainties on numerical simulations of the environmental fate of radiocesium in the Abukuma River basin

Ikenoue, Tsubasa; Shimadera, Hikari*; Kondo, Akira*

Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 225, p.106452_1 - 106452_12, 2020/12

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:0(Environmental Sciences)

This study focused on the uncertainty of the factors of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and evaluated its impacts on the environmental fate of $$^{137}$$Cs simulated by a radiocesium transport model in the Abukuma River basin. The USLE has five physically meaningful factors: the rainfall and runoff factor (R), soil erodibility factor (K), topographic factor (LS), cover and management factor (C), and support practice factor (P). The simulation results showed total suspended sediment and $$^{137}$$Cs outflows were the most sensitive to C and P among the all factors. Therefore, land cover and soil erosion prevention act have the great impact on outflow of suspended sediment and $$^{137}$$Cs. Focusing on land use, the outflow rates of $$^{137}$$Cs from the forest areas, croplands, and undisturbed paddy fields were large. This study indicates that land use, especially forest areas, croplands, and undisturbed paddy fields, has a significant impact on the environmental fate of $$^{137}$$Cs.

Journal Articles

Experimental study on transport behavior of cesium iodide in the reactor coolant system under LWR severe accident conditions

Miyahara, Naoya; Miwa, Shuhei; Gou$"e$llo, M.*; Imoto, Jumpei; Horiguchi, Naoki; Sato, Isamu*; Osaka, Masahiko

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 57(12), p.1287 - 1296, 2020/12

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:42.23(Nuclear Science & Technology)

In order to clarify the cesium iodide (CsI) transport behavior with a focus on the mechanisms of gaseous iodine formation in the reactor coolant system of LWR under a severe accident condition, a reproductive experiment of CsI transport behavior was conducted using a facility equipped with a thermal gradient tube. Various analyses on deposits and airborne materials during transportation could elucidate two mechanisms for the gaseous iodine formation. One was the gaseous phase chemical reaction in Cs-I-O-H system at relatively high-temperature region, which led to gaseous iodine transport to the lower temperature region without any further changes in gas species due to the kinetics limitation effects. The other one was the chemical reactions related to condensed phase of CsI, namely those of CsI deposits on walls with surface of stainless steel to form Cs$$_{2}$$CrO$$_{4}$$ compound and CsI aerosol particles with steam, which were newly found in this study.

JAEA Reports

Survey on the radioactive substance in the coastal areas near Fukushima Prefecture in FY2019 (Contract research)

Misono, Toshiharu; Tsuruta, Tadahiko; Nakanishi, Takahiro; Sanada, Yukihisa; Shiribiki, Takehiko; Miyamoto, Kenji*; Urabe, Yoshimi*

JAEA-Research 2020-008, 166 Pages, 2020/10


After the accident at TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (1F), marine monitoring survey on radioactive substances have been conducted with financially supported by the Nuclear Regulatory Agency from FY2019. Results obtain in the project in FY2019 are presented in this report. Based on scientific grounds, the concept necessary for "progress of sea area monitoring" was arranged for the future medium- to long-term investigation of radiocesium concentrations. As basic information of survey frequency revise, a seabed topography and sediment distribution survey was conducted, and an attempt was made to understand the relationship between the seabed topography and the grain size distribution of bottom sediment. A columnar core sample was collected in the coastal area and analyzed for radioactive cesium concentration. In order to understand the dynamics of radioactive cesium contained in suspended matter flowing in from a river, suspended solids was collected using a sediment trap and the concentration of radioactive cesium was measured. We re-analyzed the towed monitoring data that had been implemented since 2013, and tried to improve the accuracy of the radioactive cesium distribution estimation map in the coastal area.

JAEA Reports

Status of study of long-term assessment of transport of radioactive contaminants in the environment of Fukushima (FY2018) (Translated document)

Nagao, Fumiya; Niizato, Tadafumi; Sasaki, Yoshito; Ito, Satomi; Watanabe, Takayoshi; Dohi, Terumi; Nakanishi, Takahiro; Sakuma, Kazuyuki; Hagiwara, Hiroki; Funaki, Hironori; et al.

JAEA-Research 2020-007, 249 Pages, 2020/10


The accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. occurred due to the Great East Japan Earthquake, Sanriku offshore earthquake, of 9.0 magnitude and the accompanying tsunami. As a result, large amount of radioactive materials was released into the environment. Under these circumstances, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been conducting "Long-term Assessment of Transport of Radioactive Contaminants in the Environment of Fukushima" concerning radioactive materials released in environment, especially migration behavior of radioactive cesium since November 2012. This report is a summary of the research results that have been obtained in environmental dynamics research conducted by JAEA in Fukushima Prefecture.

Journal Articles

Adsorption behavior of cesium on hybrid microcapsules in spent fuel solution

Onishi, Takashi; Koyama, Shinichi; Mimura, Hitoshi*

Nihon Ion Kokan Gakkai-Shi, 31(3), p.43 - 49, 2020/10

Journal Articles

Simulation analysis of the Compton-to-peak method for quantifying radiocesium deposition quantities

Malins, A.; Ochi, Kotaro; Machida, Masahiko; Sanada, Yukihisa

Proceedings of Joint International Conference on Supercomputing in Nuclear Applications + Monte Carlo 2020 (SNA + MC 2020), p.147 - 154, 2020/10

Journal Articles

Radiocesium distribution in the sediments of the Odaka River estuary, Fukushima, Japan

Hagiwara, Hiroki; Nakanishi, Takahiro; Konishi, Hiromi*; Tsuruta, Tadahiko; Misono, Toshiharu; Fujiwara, Kenso; Kitamura, Akihiro

Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 220-221, p.106294_1 - 106294_9, 2020/09

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0(Environmental Sciences)

Journal Articles

Investigation of high-temperature chemical interaction of calcium silicate insulation and cesium hydroxide

Rizaal, M.; Nakajima, Kunihisa; Saito, Takumi*; Osaka, Masahiko; Okamoto, Koji*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 57(9), p.1062 - 1073, 2020/09

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The interaction of cesium hydroxide and a calcium silicate insulation material was experimentally investigated at high temperature conditions. A thermogravimetry equipped with differential thermal analysis was used to analyze thermal events in the samples of mixed calcium silicate and cesium hydroxide under Ar-5%H$$_{2}$$ and Ar-4%H$$_{2}$$-20%H$$_{2}$$0 with maximum temperature of 1100$$^{circ}$$C. Prior being mixed with cesium hydroxide, a part of calcium silicate was pretreated at high temperature to evaluate the effect of possible structural changes of this material due to a preceding thermal history and also the sake of thermodynamic evaluation to those available ones. Based upon the initial condition (preliminary heat treatment) of calcium silicate, it was found that if the original material consisted of xonotlite (Ca$$_{6}$$Si$$_{6}$$0$$_{17}$$(0H)$$_{2}$$), the endothermic reaction with cesium hydroxide occurred over the temperature range 575-730$$^{circ}$$C meanwhile if the crystal phase of original material was changed to wollastonite (CaSi0$$_{3}$$), the interaction occurred over temperature range 700-1100$$^{circ}$$C. Furthermore, the X-ray diffraction analyses have indicated on both type of pretreated calsils that regardless of Ar-5%H$$_{2}$$ and Ar-4%H$$_{2}$$-20%H$$_{2}$$0 atmosphere, cesium aluminum silicate, CsAlSi0$$_{4}$$ was formed with aluminum in the samples as an impurity or adduct.

Journal Articles

True coincidence summing correction for cylindrical volume samples in $$gamma$$-ray spectrometry

Yamada, Takashi*; Asai, Masato; Yonezawa, Chushiro*; Kakita, Kazutoshi*; Hirai, Shoji*

Radioisotopes, 69(9), p.287 - 297, 2020/09

We have confirmed that the commercially available Japanese `standard' gamma-ray analysis programs do not consider the effect of sample volume in calculating true coincidence summing (TCS) corrections, which results in underestimation of $$^{134}$$Cs radioactivity in cylindrical volume samples. In this work, we have developed and examined a practical TCS correction method for general Ge detectors which consider the effect of sample volume properly, and have confirmed that this method can reduce the $$^{134}$$Cs radioactivity underestimation to less than 1%.

Journal Articles

Analytical study on removal mechanisms of cesium aerosol from a noble gas bubble rising through liquid sodium pool

Miyahara, Shinya*; Kawaguchi, Munemichi; Seino, Hiroshi

Proceedings of 2020 International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE 2020) (Internet), 6 Pages, 2020/08

In a postulated accident of fuel pin failure of sodium cooled fast reactor, a fission product cesium will be released as an aerosol such as cesium iodide and/or oxide together with xenon and/or krypton. In this study, cesium aerosol removal behavior due to inertial deposition, sedimentation and diffusion was analyzed by a computer program which deals with the expansion and the deformation of the bubble together with the aerosol absorption. Initial bubble diameter, sodium pool depth and temperature, aerosol particle diameter and density, initial aerosol concentration were changed as parameter. From the results, it was concluded that the initial bubble diameter was most sensitive parameter to the decontamination factor (DF). It was found that the sodium pool depth, the aerosol particle diameter and density have also important effect on the DF, but the sodium temperature has a marginal effect. To meet these results, the experiments are under planning to validate the results.

Journal Articles

The Ecological half-life of radiocesium in surficial bottom sediments of five ponds in Fukushima based on ${it in situ}$ measurements with Plastic Scintillation Fibers

Katengeza, E. W.*; Sanada, Yukihisa; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Ochi, Kotaro; Iimoto, Takeshi*

Environmental Science; Processes & Impacts, 22(7), p.1566 - 1576, 2020/07

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:59.86(Chemistry, Analytical)

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