Yokoyama, Keisuke; Watanabe, Masashi; Tokoro, Daishiro*; Sugimoto, Masatoshi*; Morimoto, Kyoichi; Kato, Masato; Hino, Tetsushi*
Nuclear Materials and Energy (Internet), 31, p.101156_1 - 101156_7, 2022/06
In current nuclear fuel cycle systems, to reduce the amount of high-level radioactive waste, minor actinides (MAs) bearing MOX fuel is one option for burning MAs using fast reactor. However, the effects of Am content in fuel on thermal conductivity are unclear because there are no experimental data on thermal conductivity of high Am bearing MOX fuel. In this study, The thermal conductivities of near stoichiometric (UPuAm)O solid solutions(z = 0.05, 0.10, and 0.15) have been measured between room temperature (RT) and 1473 K. The thermal conductivities decreased with increasing Am content and satisfied the classical phonon transport model ((A+BT)) up to about 1473 K. A values increased linearly with increasing Am content because the change in ionic radius affects the conduction of the phonon due to the solid solution in U and Am. B values were independent of Am content.
Haga, Yoshinori; Opletal, P.; Tokiwa, Yoshifumi; Yamamoto, Etsuji; Tokunaga, Yo; Kambe, Shinsaku; Sakai, Hironori
Journal of Physics; Condensed Matter, 34(17), p.175601_1 - 175601_7, 2022/04
Hashimoto, Shunsuke*; Nakajima, Kenji; Kikuchi, Tatsuya*; Kamazawa, Kazuya*; Shibata, Kaoru; Yamada, Takeshi*
Journal of Molecular Liquids, 342, p.117580_1 - 117580_8, 2021/11
Quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) and pulsed-field-gradient nuclear magnetic resonance (PFGNMR) analyses of a nanofluid composed of silicon dioxide (SiO) nanoparticles and a base fluid of ethylene glycol aqueous solution were performed. The aim was to elucidate the mechanism increase in the thermal conductivity of the nanofluid above its theoretical value. The obtained experimental results indicate that SiO particles may decrease the self-diffusion coefficient of the liquid molecules in the ethylene glycol aqueous solution because of their highly restricted motion around these nanoparticles. At a constant temperature, the thermal conductivity increases as the self-diffusion coefficient of the liquid molecules decreases in the SiO nanofluids.
Noma, Yuichiro*; Kotegawa, Hisashi*; Kubo, Tetsuro*; To, Hideki*; Harima, Hisatomo*; Haga, Yoshinori; Yamamoto, Etsuji; Onuki, Yoshichika*; Ito, Kohei*; Nakamura, Ai*; et al.
Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, 90(7), p.073707_1 - 073707_5, 2021/07
Sun, Y.*; Abe, Yuta; Muta, Hiroaki*; Oishi, Yuji*
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 57(8), p.917 - 925, 2020/08
Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science; Osaka University*
JAEA-Review 2019-029, 36 Pages, 2020/02
JAEA/CLADS, had been conducting the Center of World Intelligence Project for Nuclear Science/Technology and Human Resource Development (hereafter referred to "the Project") in FY2018. The Project aims to contribute to solving problems in nuclear energy field represented by the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. For this purpose, intelligence was collected from all over the world, and basic research and human resource development were promoted by closely integrating/collaborating knowledge and experiences in various fields beyond the barrier of conventional organizations and research fields. The sponsor of the Project was moved from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology to JAEA since the newly adopted proposals in FY2018. On this occasion, JAEA constructed a new research system where JAEA-academia collaboration is reinforced and medium-to-long term research/development and human resource development contributing to the decommissioning are stably and consecutively implemented. Among the adopted proposals in FY2018, this report summarizes the research results of the "Development of Gel Filler that Facilitates Fuel Debris Retrieval". When gel materials such as polymer, silicate and clay minerals with adjusted viscosity are used in the process of debris retrieval, the gel would not leak down from the damaged parts, resulting in the reduction of surrounding air dose rate. In addition, gel materials can reduce the diffusion and scattering of dust that is produced by cutting. For these reasons, we propose a method where inside of a containment vessel is filled by gel materials in order to simplify the debris retrieval.
Takai, Toshihide; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Yamano, Hidemasa
Nuclear Technology, 205(9), p.1164 - 1174, 2019/09
Aoyama, Taisuke*; Kotegawa, Hisashi*; Kimura, Noriaki*; Yamamoto, Etsuji; Haga, Yoshinori; Onuki, Yoshichika*; To, Hideki*
Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, 88(6), p.064706_1 - 064706_7, 2019/06
Suzuki, Kiichi; Kato, Masato; Sunaoshi, Takeo*; Uno, Hiroki*; Carvajal-Nunez, U.*; Nelson, A. T.*; McClellan, K. J.*
Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 102(4), p.1994 - 2008, 2019/04
The fundamental properties of CeO were assessed using a range of experimental techniques. The oxygen potential of CeO was measured by the thermogravimetric technique, and a numerical fit for the oxygen potential of CeO is derived based on defect chemistry. Mechanical properties of CeO were obtained using sound velocity measurement, resonant ultrasound spectroscopy and nanoindentation. The obtained mechanical properties of CeO are then used to evaluate the Debye temperature and Gruneisen constant. The heat capacity and thermal conductivity of CeO were also calculated using the Debye temperature and the Gruneisen constant. Finally, the thermal conductivity was calculated based upon laser flash analysis measurements. This result demonstrates that the thermal conductivity has strong dependence upon material purity.
Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Ishii, Eiichi
Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, 52(2), p.385 - 401, 2019/02
Excavation of deep underground openings induces permeable fractures around the opening due to stress redistribution. Such a zone is called excavation damaged zone (EDZ). In a high-level radioactive waste disposal project, the EDZ might provide pathways for the migration of radionuclides around the facility. Thus, this study focused on the development of a method for estimating the highest potential hydraulic conductivity in the EDZ around a gallery in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory, Japan. Borehole televiewer surveys, rock core observations, and hydraulic tests were undertaken to investigate the extent and magnitude of hydraulic conductivity in the EDZ around the gallery. The observed extent of the EDZ shows good agreement with the EDZ estimated from hydro-mechanical coupling analysis. The measured hydraulic conductivities of the EDZ are within the range of those based on the Mean Stress Index (MSI), which is defined as the ratio of the effective mean stress derived from numerical analyses to the tensile strength of intact rock. Given that the rock mass is relatively homogeneous and artificial damage (e.g., blasting-induced damage) can be neglected, as in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory, the MSI model is likely to be applicable in estimating the highest potential hydraulic conductivity in the EDZ.
Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Miyara, Nobukatsu; Ishii, Eiichi; Nakayama, Masashi; Kimura, Shun
Proceedings of 13th SEGJ International Symposium (USB Flash Drive), 5 Pages, 2018/11
The construction of underground facilities induces fractures in the rock mass around the underground voids due to the resultant stress redistribution. This has particular implications for high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal projects, where fracture development creates an excavation damaged zone (EDZ) that increases the hydraulic conductivity of the surrounding rock mass and can provide a pathway for the migration of radionuclides from the storage facilities. It is therefore important to understand the long-term evolution of the EDZ and perform a comprehensive HLW disposal risk assessment. An in situ engineered barrier system experiment was conducted in the 350 m gallery at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory, Japan, to observe the near-field coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical (THMC) process in situ and validate coupled THMC models. Here we investigate the evolution of the EDZ around the gallery and model a test pit that was excavated below the floor of the gallery using a series of seismic tomography surveys. There was a significant decrease in the seismic velocity field around the test pit due to its excavation, which became slightly more pronounced over time after the excavation. These seismic results, coupled with hydraulic tests and pore pressure measurements around the pit, indicate that fracture development and the decrease in saturation around the test pit resulted in a decrease in the seismic velocity field after the excavation of the test pit. Furthermore, the increase in saturation around the test pit is a key reason for the increase in the seismic velocity field after the heater test.
Nakamura, Shota*; Sakakibara, Toshiro*; Shimizu, Yusei*; Kittaka, Shunichiro*; Kono, Yohei*; Haga, Yoshinori; Pospisil, J.; Yamamoto, Etsuji
Progress in Nuclear Science and Technology (Internet), 5, p.123 - 127, 2018/11
Sugita, Yutaka; Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Kubota, Kenji*; Nakata, Eiji*; Oyama, Takahiro*
JAEA-Research 2018-002, 72 Pages, 2018/06
In a excavation of shafts and galleries in the deep underground for disposing radioactive waste, an excavation damaged zone (EDZ) is developed around the galleries and shafts owing to the stress redistribution. Since the characteristic changes of the rock mass in the EDZ affects the radionuclides migration behavior, it is important to understand the long-term behavior of the EDZ. Thus, we performed the in situ experiment to investigate the long-term behavior of EDZ as part of the collaborative research between Japan Atomic Energy Agency and Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry in the 140m gallery in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory. In this research, we investigated the extent, mechanism of the change of hydro-mechanical characteristic, and long-term behavior of the EDZ on the basis of the comprehensive estimation of the results of the observation of the drift wall and the various investigations using boreholes such as geological investigation, the seismic and resistivity tomography, hydraulic test, water content monitoring, borehole loading test, convergence measurement, and so on. In addition, we clarified applicability and future tasks of the testing method used in this research for the investigation of the long-term behavior of the EDZ.
Noma, Yuichiro*; Kotegawa, Hisashi*; Kubo, Tetsuro*; To, Hideki*; Harima, Hisatomo*; Haga, Yoshinori; Yamamoto, Etsuji; Onuki, Yoshichika*; Ito, Kohei*; Haller, E. E.*; et al.
Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, 87(3), p.033704_1 - 033704_5, 2018/03
Kato, Masaji*; Nara, Yoshitaka*; Okazaki, Yuki*; Kono, Masanori*; Sato, Toshinori; Sato, Tsutomu*; Takahashi, Manabu*
Zairyo, 67(3), p.318 - 323, 2018/03
To ensure the safe geological disposal of radioactive wastes, it is important to determine the permeability of clays. The transient pulse test is suitable to apply to the low permeability materials, because it takes relatively short term to determine the permeability. Usually we increase the upstream pore pressure in the measurement with the transient pulse test. However, it is impossible to determine the permeability of clay in this procedure because of the increase of pore pressure. Therefore, the transient pulse test has never been applied to the determination of permeability of clays. In this study, we tried to apply the transient pulse test to a clay obtained in Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory to determine the permeability with decreasing the downstream pore pressure. It was clarified that the transient pulse test with decreasing downstream pore pressure is appropriate from the measurements of granite and sandstone. It was shown that the permeability of a clay was determined by the transient pulse test with decreasing the downstream pore pressure, which agreed with the permeability determined from the falling head test. The measurement time of the transient pulse test is much shorter than that of the falling head test. It is concluded that the transient pulse test is appropriate for the determination of the permeability of clays.
Kawaguchi, Munemichi; Miyahara, Shinya; Uno, Masayoshi*
Netsu Sokutei, 45(1), p.2 - 8, 2018/01
Liquid sodium (Na) has been used as the coolant of fast reactors for the various merits, such as the high thermal conductivity. On the other hand, it is postulated that a steel liner may fail and lead to a sodium-concrete reaction (SCR) during the Na-leak accident. Because of concrete ablation and release of hydrogen gas due to the chemical reactions between Na and concrete components, the SCR is one of the important phenomena in the Na-leak accident. In the study, fundamental experiments related to the SCR were performed using Na and concrete powder. Here, the used concrete powder is milled siliceous concrete which is usually used as the structural concrete in Japanese nuclear power plants. The obvious temperature changes at 3 temperature regions were observed for the reaction process such as Na-melt, NaOH-SiO and Na-HO-SiO reaction, which occurred around 100, 300 and 500C, respectively. Especially, the violent reaction around 500C caused the temperature peak to C, and the reaction heat of kW/g was estimated under the Na-concrete mixing ratio such as . The main components of the reaction products was identified as NaSiO with X-ray diffraction technique. Moreover, the measured thermophysical properties such as melting point, density, specific heat, thermal conductivity and viscosity were similar to those of NaO-SiO ().
Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Kubota, Kenji*; Nakata, Eiji*; Suenaga, Hiroshi*; Nohara, Shintaro*
JAEA-Research 2017-004, 91 Pages, 2017/06
In this study, we performed seismic tomography, seismic refraction survey, resistivity tomography, and hydraulic tests to investigate the hydro-mechanical property of the excavation damaged zone (EDZ) in the 250 m gallery of the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory. As a result of seismic tomography, seismic velocity is significantly decreased within 1 m from the gallery wall. The decrease of seismic velocity is related to the density of fracture induced around the gallery wall as a result of the gallery excavation. Thus the extent of the fractures induced by gallery excavation, i.e., EDZ fractures is clarified to be within 1.0 m from the gallery wall. The enhanced hydraulic conductivity was detected within 0.5 to 1.0 m from the gallery wall on the basis of the result of hydraulic tests. This is almost consistent with the extent of the region that seismic velocity is significantly decreased. Therefore, it is estimated that EDZ fractures induced around the gallery leads to the increase of hydraulic conductivity. In addition, the desaturation zone around the gallery is not induced as a result of resistivity tomography. From these results, the hydro-mechanical property of the EDZ is clarified in detail. Also, the in situ tests and evaluation method applied in this study are appropriate to investigate the EDZ in detail.
Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Ishii, Eiichi; Ishida, Tsuyoshi*
Journal of MMIJ, 133(2), p.25 - 33, 2017/02
In the construction of a deep underground facility, the hydromechanical properties of the rock mass around an underground opening are changed significantly due to stress redistribution. This zone is called an excavation damaged zone (EDZ). In high-level radioactive waste disposal, EDZs can provide a shortcut for the escape of radionuclides to the surface environment. Therefore, it is important to develop a method for predicting the detailed characteristics of EDZs. For prediction of the EDZ in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory of Japan, we conducted borehole televiewer surveys, rock core analyses, and repeated hydraulic conductivity measurements. We observed that niche excavation resulted in the formation of extension fractures within 0.2 to 1.0 m into the niche wall, i.e., the extent of the EDZ is within 0.2 to 1.0 m into the niche wall. These results are largely consistent with the results of a finite element analysis implemented with the failure criteria considering failure mode. The hydraulic conductivity in the EDZ was increased by 3 to 5 orders of magnitude compared with the outer zone. The hydraulic conductivity in and around the EDZ has not changed significantly in the two years following excavation of the niche. These results show that short-term unloading due to excavation of the niche created a highly permeable EDZ.
Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Ishii, Eiichi
Dai-14-Kai Iwa No Rikigaku Kokunai Shimpojiumu Koen Rombunshu (Internet), 6 Pages, 2017/01
The objective of this research is to investigate the hydro-mechanical properties of excavation damaged zones (EDZs) along the galleries excavated in 250 m and 350 m depths. We conducted hydraulic tests, BTV observations and core analyses. As a result, in the 250 m gallery, the extent of the EDZ was 1.0 m into the gallery wall. The hydraulic conductivity was increased by 2 to 3 orders of magnitudes compared with that of intact rock. On the other hand, in the 350 m gallery, the extent of the EDZ was 0.4 m into the gallery wall; the hydraulic conductivity was increased by 5 orders of magnitudes compared with that of intact rock. We investaged the difference of the characteristics of the EDZs on the basis of competence factor and ductility index. As a result, it was estimated that an extent of an EDZ decreases with decrease of competence factor; a hydraulic conductivity in an EDZ increases with decrease of ductility index.
Gochi, Jun*; Sumiyama, Akihiko*; Yamaguchi, Akira*; Motoyama, Gaku*; Kimura, Noriaki*; Yamamoto, Etsuji; Haga, Yoshinori; Onuki, Yoshichika
Physical Review B, 93(17), p.174514_1 - 174514_5, 2016/05