成川 隆文; 近藤 啓悦; 藤村 由希; 垣内 一雄; 宇田川 豊; 根本 義之
Journal of Nuclear Materials, 582, p.154467_1 - 154467_12, 2023/08
To evaluate the behavior of an oxide-dispersion-strengthened FeCrAl (FeCrAl-ODS) cladding tube under loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) conditions of light-water reactors (LWRs), the following two laboratory-scale LOCA-simulated tests were performed: the burst and integral thermal shock tests. Four burst and three integral thermal shock tests were performed on unirradiated, stress-relieved FeCrAl-ODS cladding tube specimens, simulating ballooning and rupture, oxidation, and quenching, which were postulated during a LOCA. The burst temperature of the FeCrAl-ODS cladding tube was 200-300 K higher than that of the Zircaloy cladding tube, and the FeCrAl-ODS cladding tube's maximum circumferential strain was smaller than or equal to the Zircaloy-4 cladding tube. These results indicate that the FeCrAl-ODS cladding tube has higher strength at high temperatures than the conventional Zircaloy cladding tube. The FeCrAl-ODS cladding tube did not fracture after being subjected to an axial restraint load of 5000 N, which is more than 10 times higher than the axial restraint load estimated for existing LWRs, during quenching, following isothermal oxidation at 1473 K for 1 h. The FeCrAl-ODS cladding tube was hardly oxidized during this isothermal oxidation condition. However, it melted after a short oxidation at 1673 K and fractured after abnormal oxidation at 1573 K for 1 h. Based on these results, the FeCrAl-ODS cladding tube should not fracture in the time range expected during LOCAs below 1473 K, where no melting or abnormal oxidation occurs.
垣内 一雄; 天谷 政樹; 宇田川 豊
Journal of Nuclear Materials, 573, p.154110_1 - 154110_7, 2023/01
The irradiation growth behavior of coupon specimens prepared from improved Zr-based alloys for light-water reactor fuel cladding, which have various additive elements and fabrication conditions, was investigated by conducting an irradiation test at 573 and 593 K under typical PWR coolant conditions up to a fast-neutron fluence of 7.810 (n/cm , E 1 MeV) in the Halden reactor in Norway. Based on the dimensional change data measured at interim and final inspections, the amounts of irradiation growth of the improved Zr-based alloys were formulated from the viewpoint of engineering. The trends of the parameters which express the effects of additive elements on irradiation growth behavior were in good agreement with those previously reported, and it was found that the amount of irradiation growth can be expressed by using a summation rule of the effect of each additive element on irradiation growth.
成川 隆文; 濱口 修輔*; 高田 孝*; 宇田川 豊
Proceedings of Asian Symposium on Risk Assessment and Management 2022 (ASRAM 2022) (Internet), 11 Pages, 2022/12
To realize a more reliable safety evaluation of loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs) in light-water-reactors, we developed a quantification method of the fracture limit uncertainty of high-burnup advanced fuel cladding tubes using a hierarchical Bayes model that can quantify uncertainty even when experimental data are limited. The fracture limit uncertainty was quantified as a probability using the amount of oxidation and the initial hydrogen concentration (the hydrogen concentration in fuel cladding tubes before the LOCA-simulated tests) as explanatory variables. The hierarchical Bayes model was developed by dividing the regression coefficients into a hierarchical structure with an overall average term common to all types of fuel cladding tubes and a term representing differences between types of fuel cladding tubes. Using the developed model, we showed that the fracture limits of the high-burnup advanced fuel cladding tubes tended to be on average equal to or higher than that of an unirradiated conventional fuel cladding tube. Further, we proposed a method to reduce the fracture limit uncertainty by using non-binary data depending on the condition of the fuel cladding tube specimens after the LOCA-simulated test instead of the binary data, thereby increasing the amount of information in each data.
垣内 一雄; 天谷 政樹; 宇田川 豊
Annals of Nuclear Energy, 171, p.109004_1 - 109004_9, 2022/06
In order to understand the dimensional stability of the fuel rod during long-term use in commercial LWRs, an irradiation growth testing in the Halden reactor of Norway was conducted on various fuel cladding materials including the improved Zr alloy. In this paper, the effect of hydrogen, which was absorbed in the cladding tube due to corrosion, on the irradiation growth behavior was evaluated. Comparison between the specimens with or without pre-charged hydrogen revealed that the effect of hydrogen absorption, accelerating irradiation growth, became significant when the hydrogen content exceeded the hydrogen solubility limit in the corresponding irradiation temperature. Analysis based on this understanding derived growth acceleration effect (0.060.01)%/100 ppm, whose denominator is defined as the amount of absorbed hydrogen involved in hydride precipitation under irradiation as a relevant parameter.
伊藤 あゆみ*; 山下 晋; 田崎 雄大; 垣内 一雄; 小林 能直*
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 10 Pages, 2022/00
The rapid dissolution of UO in molten Zr that could occur during fuel-cladding liquefaction at high temperatures and its kinetics were reformulated considering the convective mass transfer and the chemical effect at the UO/Zr interface. The mass transfer coefficient of U was obtained as a correlation including the aspect ratio term by CFD analysis. To explain the gap between the rapid dissolution rate observed in the experiments and the density-driven convective mass transfer, we introduced an idea in which the eutectic melting at the UO/Zr interface promotes the grain detachment owing to infiltration of the U-Zr-O liquid into the UO grain boundaries. The developed model was validated with UO-Zr crucible experiments at 2273 and 2373 K. The calculated mass percentage ratios of U/Zr agreed with the measurements and the transition times from rapid saturation to precipitation were consistent with the metallographic observations.
古本 健一郎; 宇田川 豊
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 12 Pages, 2022/00
In order to contribute to better modeling and evaluation of fuel fragmentation, relocation, and dispersal expected under loss of coolant accident (LOCA) conditions, LOCA-simulated cladding burst experiments were performed on as-received nonirradiated 17 17 type Zircaloy-4 cladding specimens that were internally pressurized. The experiments were designed to terminate at burst occurrence to focus on ballooning and rupture opening formation and to investigate the effects of various factors. The postburst cladding hoop strain decreased with the increase in azimuthal temperature distribution (ATD) of the cladding, as found previously. The rupture opening size increased with the increase in ATD and the increase in energy of the pressurized gas stored inside the pressure boundary of the test sample system. Comparison with the existing database, which included tests on irradiated rods containing fuel pellets, suggested that formation of the rupture opening was influenced by the characteristic behavior of high burnup fuels, such as limited gas migration in the cladding tube due to fuel-cladding bonding and interaction of the ejected fuel fragments with the cladding tube.
日本原子力学会誌ATOMO, 63(11), p.780 - 785, 2021/11
Soba, A.*; Prudil, A.*; Zhang, J.*; Dethioux, A.*; Han, Z.*; Dostal, M.*; Matocha, V.*; Marelle, V.*; Lasnel-Payan, J.*; Kulacsy, K.*; et al.
Proceedings of TopFuel 2021 (Internet), 10 Pages, 2021/10
The NEA Expert Group on Reactor Fuel Performance (EGRFP) proposed a benchmark on fuel performance codes modeling of pellet-cladding mechanical interation (PCMI). The aim of the benchmark was to improve understanding and modeling of PCMI amongst NEA member organizations. This was achieved by comparing PCMI predictions for a number of specified cases. The results of the two hypothetical cases (1 and 2) were presented earlier. The two final cases (3 and 4) are comparison between calculations and measurements, which will be published as NEA reports. This paper focuses on Case 3, which consists of eight beginning of life (BOL) sub-cases (3a to 3h) each with different pellet designs that have undergone ramping in the Halden Reactor. The aforementioned experiments are known as the IFA-118 experiments and were performed from 1969 to 1970. The variations between cases include four different pellets dimensions (7, 14, 20 and 30 mm of height), two different gapsizes between pellet-cladding (40 and 100 microns) and three variations on pellet face geometry (flat, dishing and dishing with chamfer). Such diversity has allowed exploring the codes sensitivity to these individual factors.
Pham, V. H.; 倉田 正輝; Steinbrueck, M.*
Thermo (Internet), 1(2), p.151 - 167, 2021/09
Since the nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station in 2011, a considerable number of studies have been conducted to develop accident tolerant fuel (ATF) claddings for safety enhancement of light water reactors. Among many potential ATF claddings, silicon carbide is one of the most promising candidates with many superior features suitable for nuclear applications. In spite of many potential benefits of SiC cladding, there are some concerns over the oxidation/corrosion resistance of the cladding, especially at extreme temperatures (up to 2000C) in severe accidents. However, the study of SiC steam oxidation in conventional test facilities in water vapor atmospheres at temperatures above 1600C is very challenging. In recent years, several efforts have been made to modify existing or to develop new advanced test facilities to perform material oxidation tests in steam environments typical of severe accident conditions. In this article, the authors outline the features of SiC oxidation/corrosion at high temperatures, as well as the developments of advanced test facilities in their laboratories, and, finally, give some of the current advances in understanding based on recent data obtained from those advanced test facilities.
永瀬 文久; 成川 隆文; 天谷 政樹
JAEA-Review 2020-076, 129 Pages, 2021/03
宇田川 豊; 更田 豊志*
Comprehensive Nuclear Materials, 2nd Edition, Vol.2, p.322 - 338, 2020/08
This article aims at providing a general outline of fuel behavior during a reactivity-initiated accident (RIA) postulated in light water reactors (LWRs) and at showing experimental data providing technical basis for the current RIA-related regulatory criteria in Japan.
成川 隆文; 天谷 政樹
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 57(7), p.782 - 791, 2020/07
To evaluate the fracture resistance of high-burnup advanced fuel cladding tubes during the long-term core cooling period following loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs), laboratory-scale four-point-bend tests were performed using the following advanced fuel cladding tubes with burnups of 73 - 84 GWd/t: low-tin ZIRLO, M5, and Zircaloy-2 (LK3). Three four-point-bend tests were performed on the high-burnup advanced fuel cladding tube specimens subjected to the integral thermal shock tests which simulated LOCA conditions (ballooning and rupture, oxidation in high-temperature steam, and quench). During the four-point-bend tests, all the specimens that were oxidized at 1474 K to 9.9% - 21.5% equivalent cladding reacted exhibited brittle fractures. The maximum bending moments were comparable to those of the conventional Zircaloy cladding tube specimens. Furthermore, the effects of oxidation and hydriding on the maximum bending moment were comparable between the high-burnup advanced fuel cladding tube specimens and the unirradiated Zircaloy-4 cladding tube specimens. Therefore, it can be concluded that the post-LOCA fracture resistance of fuel cladding tubes is not significantly reduced by extending the burnup to 84 GWd/t and using the advanced fuel cladding tubes, though it may slightly decrease with increasing initial hydrogen concentration in a relatively lower ECR range ( 15%), as observed for the unirradiated Zircaloy-4 cladding tubes.
谷口 良徳; 宇田川 豊; 天谷 政樹
Annals of Nuclear Energy, 139, p.107188_1 - 107188_7, 2020/05
The fuel-failure-limit data obtained in the simulated reactivity-initiated-accident experiment SPERT-CDC 859 (SPERT859) has entailed a lot of discussions if it represents fuel-failure behavior of typical commercial LWRs for its specific pre-irradiation condition and fuel state. The fuel-rod conditions before and during SPERT859 were thus assessed by the fuel-performance codes FEMAXI-8 and RANNS with focusing on cladding corrosion and its effect on the failure limit of the test rod. The analysis showed that the fuel cladding was probably excessively corroded even when the influential calculation conditions such as fuel swelling and creep models were determined so that the lowest limit of the cladding oxide layer thickness was captured. Such assumption of excessive cladding corrosion during pre-irradiation well explains not only the test-rod state before pulse irradiation but also the fuel-failure limit observed. Such understanding undermines anew the representativeness of the test data as a direct basis of safety evaluation for LWR fuels.
宇田川 豊; 三原 武; 谷口 良徳; 垣内 一雄; 天谷 政樹
Annals of Nuclear Energy, 139, p.107268_1 - 107268_9, 2020/05
This paper reports a computer-code analysis on the base-irradiation behavior of the chromia-and-alumina-doped BWR rod irradiated to 64 GWd/t in Oskarshamn-3, Sweden, and subjected to the reactivity-initiated-accident (RIA) test OS-1, which resulted in a fuel failure due to pellet-cladding mechanical interaction (PCMI) at the lowest fuel-enthalpy increase in all the BWR tests ever performed. The inverse calculation which utilized post-irradiation examination data as its constraint conditions revealed that the OS-1 rod had very likely experienced more intense PCMI loading due to higher swelling rate during base irradiation than other BWR rods subjected to previous RIA tests and thus had been prone to experience enhanced radial-hydride formation. The significant difference in the cladding hoop-stress more than 50 MPa discriminates the OS-1 rod from other BWR rods and supports the interpretation that enhanced radial-hydrides formation differentiated the PCMI-failure behavior observed in the test OS-1 from the previous BWR-fuel tests.
成川 隆文; 天谷 政樹
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 57(1), p.68 - 78, 2020/01
To evaluate the fracture limit of high-burnup advanced fuel cladding tubes under loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) conditions, laboratory-scale integral thermal shock tests were performed using the following advanced fuel cladding tubes with burnups of 73 - 85 GWd/t: M-MDA, low-tin ZIRLO, M5, and Zircaloy-2 (LK3). In total eight integral thermal shock tests were performed for these specimens, simulating LOCA conditions including ballooning and rupture, oxidation, hydriding, and quenching. During the tests, the specimens were oxidized to 10% - 30% equivalent cladding reacted (ECR) at approximately 1473 K and were quenched under axial restraint load of approximately 520 - 530 N. The effects of burnup extension and use of the advanced fuel cladding tubes on the ballooning and rupture, oxidation, and hydriding under LOCA conditions were inconsiderable. Further, the high-burnup advanced fuel cladding tube specimens did not fracture in the ECR values equal to or lower than the fracture limits of the unirradiated Zircaloy-4 cladding tube reported in previous studies. Therefore, it can be concluded that the fracture limit of fuel cladding tubes is not significantly reduced by extending the burnup to approximately 85 GWd/t and using the advanced fuel cladding tubes, though it slightly decreases with increasing initial hydrogen concentration.
成川 隆文; 天谷 政樹
Proceedings of International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Conference / Light Water Reactor Fuel Performance Conference (Global/Top Fuel 2019) (USB Flash Drive), p.912 - 921, 2019/09
To evaluate behavior of high-burnup advanced light-water-reactor fuel cladding tubes under loss-of-coolant accident conditions, laboratory-scale isothermal oxidation tests and integral thermal shock tests were performed using the following advanced fuel cladding tubes with burnups of 73-85 GWd/t: M-MDA, low-tin ZIRLO, M5textregistered, and Zircaloy-2 (LK3). The isothermal oxidation tests were performed in steam-flowing conditions at temperatures ranging from 1173 to 1473 K for durations between 120 and 4000 s. The oxidation kinetics of the high-burnup advanced fuel cladding tube specimens was comparable to or slower than that of the unirradiated Zircaloy-4 cladding tube and was slower than that given by the Baker-Just oxidation rate equation. Therefore, the oxidation kinetics is considered to be not significantly accelerated by extending the burnup and changing the alloy composition. During the integral thermal shock tests, the high-burnup advanced fuel cladding tube specimens did not fracture under the oxidation condition equivalent to or lower than the fracture limit of the unirradiated Zircaloy-4 cladding tube. Therefore, the fracture limit of fuel cladding tubes is considered to be not significantly reduced by extending the burnup and changing the alloy composition, though it may slightly decrease with increasing initial hydrogen concentration.
天谷 政樹; 垣内 一雄; 三原 武
Proceedings of International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Conference / Light Water Reactor Fuel Performance Conference (Global/Top Fuel 2019) (USB Flash Drive), p.1048 - 1056, 2019/09
New fuel cladding alloys of which composition was changed from conventional ones have been developed by nuclear fuel vendors and utilities. Since the irradiation growth of fuel cladding is one of the most important parameters which determine the dimensional stability of fuel rod and/or fuel assembly during normal operation, the irradiation growth behavior of the improved Zr-based alloys for light-water reactor fuel cladding was investigated. The coupon specimens were prepared from fuel cladding tubes with various kinds of improved Zr-based alloys. The specimens were loaded into test rigs and had been irradiated in the Halden reactor in Norway under several coolant temperature conditions up to a fast-neutron fluence of 7.810 (n/cm, E 1 MeV). Irradiation conditions such as specimen temperatures had been continuously monitored during the irradiation. During and after the irradiation, the amount of irradiation growth of each specimen was evaluated as a part of the interim and final inspections. The effect of the difference in alloy composition on the amount of irradiation growth seemed insignificant if the other conditions e.g. the final heat treatment condition at fabrication and the irradiation temperature were the same.
谷口 良徳; 宇田川 豊; 三原 武; 天谷 政樹; 垣内 一雄
Proceedings of International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Conference / Light Water Reactor Fuel Performance Conference (Global/Top Fuel 2019) (USB Flash Drive), p.551 - 558, 2019/09
A pulse-irradiation test CN-1 on a high-burnup MOX fuel with M5 cladding was conducted at the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). Although the transient signals obtained during the pulse-irradiation test did not show any signs of the occurrence of PCMI failure, the failure of the test fuel rod was confirmed from the visual inspection carried out after test CN-1. Analyses using fuel performance codes FEMAXI-8 and RANNS were also performed in order to investigate the fuel behavior during normal operation and pulse-irradiation regarding the test fuel rod of CN-1, and the results were consistent with this observation result. These experimental and calculation results suggested that the failure of test fuel rod of CN-1 was not caused by hydride-assisted PCMI but high-temperature rupture following the increase in rod internal pressure. The occurrence of this failure mode might be related to the ductility remained in the M5 cladding owing to its low content of the hydrogen absorbed during normal operation.
山下 真一郎; 井岡 郁夫; 根本 義之; 川西 智弘; 倉田 正輝; 加治 芳行; 深堀 智生; 野澤 貴史*; 佐藤 大樹*; 村上 望*; et al.
Proceedings of International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Conference / Light Water Reactor Fuel Performance Conference (Global/Top Fuel 2019) (USB Flash Drive), p.206 - 216, 2019/09
Pastore, G.*; Gamble, K. A.*; Cherubini, M.*; Giovedi, C.*; Marino, A.*; 山路 哲史*; 加治 芳行; Van Uffelen, P.*; Veshchunov, M.*
Proceedings of International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Conference / Light Water Reactor Fuel Performance Conference (Global/Top Fuel 2019) (USB Flash Drive), p.1038 - 1047, 2019/09