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JAEA Reports

Current status and upgrading strategies of J-PARC Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility (MLF) and related components

Teshigawara, Makoto; Nakamura, Mitsutaka; Kinsho, Michikazu; Soyama, Kazuhiko

JAEA-Technology 2021-022, 208 Pages, 2022/02

JAEA-Technology-2021-022.pdf:14.28MB

The Materials and Life science experimental Facility (MLF) is an accelerator driven pulsed spallation neutron and muon source with a 1 MW proton beam. The construction began in 2004, and we started beam operation in 2008. Although problems such as exudation of cooling water from the target container have occurred, as of April 2021, the proton beam power has reached up to 700 kW gradually, and stable operation is being performed. In recent years, the operation experience of the rated 1 MW has been steadily accumulated. Several issues such as the durability of the target container have been revealed according to the increase in the operation time. Aiming at making a further improvement of MLF, we summarized the current status of achievements for the design values, such as accelerator technology (LINAC and RCS), neutron and muon source technology, beam transportation of these particles, detection technology, and neutron and muon instruments. Based on the analysis of the current status, we tried to extract improvement points for upgrade of MLF. Through these works, we will raise new proposals that promote the upgrade of MLF, attracting young people. We would like to lead to the further success of researchers and engineers who will lead the next generation.

Journal Articles

Thick target neutron yields from 100- and 230-MeV/nucleon helium ions bombarding water, PMMA, and iron

Tsai, P.-E.; Heilbronn, L. H.*; Lai, B.-L.*; Iwata, Yoshiyuki*; Murakami, Takeshi*; Sheu, R.-J.*

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 449, p.62 - 70, 2019/06

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.02(Instruments & Instrumentation)

The secondary neutrons produced from 100- and 230-MeV/nucleon He ions, respectively, stopping in the thick iron, PMMA and water targets are measured by the time of flight method combined with the pulse shape discrimination of liquid scintillators. The experimental data show that the secondary neutrons were contributed from breakup of projectiles, emission from overlap regions of projectile nuclei and target nuclei, and evaporation of projectiles and target nuclei. The measured double-differential thick target neutron yields, angular distributions, and total neutron yields per ion, were benchmarked by the PHITS, FLUKA, and MCNP model calculations. The default models in these codes agree the experimental data well at intermediate-to-large angles in the low-to-intermediate energy range. However, the physics models implemented in PHITS need further improvement for some particular nuclear interaction mechanisms, and this work can be an importance reference for future model development.

Journal Articles

Recovery of helium refrigerator performance for cryogenic hydrogen system at J-PARC MLF

Aso, Tomokazu; Teshigawara, Makoto; Hasegawa, Shoichi; Muto, Hideki; Aoyagi, Katsuhiro; Nomura, Kazutaka; Takada, Hiroshi

Journal of Physics; Conference Series, 1021(1), p.012085_1 - 012085_4, 2018/06

BB2016-1899.pdf:0.54MB

Journal Articles

An Evaluation of the long-term stagnancy of porewater in the neogene sedimentary rocks in northern Japan

Nakata, Kotaro*; Hasegawa, Takuma*; Oyama, Takahiro*; Ishii, Eiichi; Miyakawa, Kazuya; Sasamoto, Hiroshi

Geofluids, 2018, p.7823195_1 - 7823195_21, 2018/01

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:40.01(Geochemistry & Geophysics)

A groundwater scenario is one of the scenario for safety assessment of geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. In the safety assessment for groundwater scenario, the slow groundwater flow for a long-term should be an important factor. In the present study, study on stability of groundwater in the Koetoi and Wakkanai formations of Neogene marine based sedimentary rock at the Horonobe area, Hokkaido was performed by investigating the isotopes of chlorine and helium, and the stable isotopes of water. As the results, the stability of groundwater in deeper part of the Wakkanai formation was suggested due to no direct evidence of meteoric water intrusion during the uplift since ca. 1 Ma. Contrary, the groundwater both in the Koetoi formation and the upper Wakkanai formation would be unstable because the meteoric water intrusion was suggested by paleohydrogeological condition and the results of groundwater dating. Likely the Horonobe area, the accurate dating of groundwater would be difficult due to the complex effects of upward and mixing water derived from diagenesis in the thick sediment formation. However, a comparative procedure using both the results of groundwater dating and paleohydrogeological information would be useful for general evaluation of groundwater flow conditions for the long-term (i.e., check the possibility for long-term stability of groundwater).

Journal Articles

Study of the reduction method of the helium gas leakage from bolted gasket flanged connection for HTGRs

Hamamoto, Shimpei; Takada, Shoji

Proceedings of 2017 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP 2017) (CD-ROM), 4 Pages, 2017/04

JAEA Reports

Development of active control technology for impurities in coolant helium using High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR)

Hamamoto, Shimpei; Nemoto, Takahiro; Sekita, Kenji; Saito, Kenji

JAEA-Technology 2015-048, 62 Pages, 2016/03

JAEA-Technology-2015-048.pdf:2.58MB

The decarburization may take place depending on the chemical impurity composition in helium gas used as the primary coolant in High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors, and will significantly reduce the strength of the alloy. The ability to remove impurities by a helium purification system was designed according to the predicted generation rate of impurities so as to make the coolant become the carburizing atmosphere. It has been confirmed that the coolant becomes the carburizing atmosphere during the operation period of the High Temperature engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). However, it is necessary to consider changes of generation rates of impurities since lifetime of commercial reactor is longer than the life of the HTTR. To avoid the influence of the change of generation rate, the control of removal efficiency of impurity in the helium purification system was considered in this study. To reform the decarburizing into the carburizing atmosphere, it is effective to increase the H$$_{2}$$ and CO concentration in the coolant helium. By controlling the efficiency of the Cooper Oxide Trap (CuOT), it is possible to increase the H$$_{2}$$ and CO concentrations. Therefore, an experiment was carried out by injecting the gas mixture of H$$_{2}$$ and CO into the existing purification system of HTTR to investigate the dependencies of temperature and impurity concentration on the removal efficiency of CuOT. The experimental results are described as the following, (1) By adjusting the temperature of helium at the CuOT within a range from 110$$^{circ}$$C to 50$$^{circ}$$C, it is possible to reduce the removal efficiency of H$$_{2}$$ sufficiently. (2) Temperature change of helium gas in the CuOT is sufficiently reduced by the cooler located at the downstream of the CuOT, which does not affect the primary cooling system of HTTR. As the results, the applicability of removal efficiency control of CuOT was verified to improve the decarburizing atmosphere for the actual HTGR system.

Journal Articles

Thermal mixing characteristics of helium gas in high-temperature gas-cooled reactor, 1; Thermal mixing behavior of helium gas in HTTR

Tochio, Daisuke; Fujimoto, Nozomu

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 53(3), p.425 - 431, 2016/03

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:14.27(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The future HTGR is now designed in JAEA. The reactor has many merging points of helium gas with different temperature. It is needed to clear the mixing characteristics of helium gas at the pipe in the HTGR from the viewpoint of structure integrity and temperature control. Previously, the reactor inlet coolant temperature was controlled lower than specific one in the HTTR due to lack of mixing of helium gas in the primary cooling system. Now the control system is improved to use the calculated bulk temperature of reactor inlet helium gas. In this paper, thermal-hydraulic analysis on the primary cooling system of the HTTR was conducted to clarify the mixing behavior of helium gas. As the result, it was confirmed that the mixing behavior of helium gas in the primary cooling system is mainly affected by the aspect ratio of annular flow path, and it is needed to consider the mixing characteristics of helium gas at the piping design of the HTGR.

Journal Articles

Atomic and molecular data activities for fusion research at JAERI

Kubo, Hirotaka; Sataka, Masao; Shirai, Toshizo

Journal of Plasma and Fusion Research SERIES, Vol.7, p.352 - 355, 2006/00

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Helium chemistry in high-temperature gas-cooled reactors; Chemistry control for avoiding Hastelloy XR corrosion in the HTTR-IS system

Sakaba, Nariaki; Hirayama, Yoshiaki*

Proceedings of International Conference on Nuclear Energy System for Future Generation and Global Sustainability (GLOBAL 2005) (CD-ROM), 6 Pages, 2005/10

The high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) is capable of producing a massive quantity of hydrogen with no carbon dioxide emission during its production by a thermo chemical IS (Iodine-Sulphur) process. The HTTR (High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor), which is the first high-temperature gas-cooled reactor in Japan, will be connected to some heat utilization system in the near future. The thermo chemical IS process is one of the progressive candidates. The metallic material of the heat transfer tube of the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) and liner in the concentric hot gas duct in the HTTR-IS system, which allows usage in high-temperature conditions, is the nickel-based high-temperature alloy Hastelloy XR. Since the coolant helium contains small amounts of impurities, it is necessary to control the chemical composition in order to minimize corrosion of the Hastelloy XR. Major corrosion phenomena of the Hastelloy XR are carburization, decarburization, oxidation, and carbon deposition depending upon the particular gas composition and its temperature. The carburization and decarburization phenomena can be restricted by controlling the carbon activity and oxygen partial pressure. This paper describes the effect of each coolant impurity for the carburization and decarburization. Also a chemical composition limit was evaluated to avoid the Hastelloy XR corrosion.

Journal Articles

Structural integrity assessments of helium components in the primary cooling system during the safety demonstration test using the HTTR

Sakaba, Nariaki; Tachibana, Yukio; Nakagawa, Shigeaki; Hamamoto, Shimpei

Transactions of 18th International Conference on Structural Mechanics in Reactor Technology (SMiRT-18), p.4499 - 4511, 2005/08

Safety demonstration tests using the HTTR are now underway in order to verify the inherent safety features and to improve the safety design and evaluation technologies for HTGRs, as well as to contribute to research and development for the VHTR, which is one of the Generation IV reactor candidates. The coolant flow reduction test by running down gas circulators, which is one of the safety demonstration tests, is a simulation test of anticipated transients without scram. During the coolant flow reduction test, temperature of the high-temperature helium components and chemistry in the primary circuit are changed rapidly. This paper describes the structural integrity assessments of helium components, e.g. helium pipes, heat exchangers, during the coolant flow reduction test. From the result of this evaluation, it was found that the helium components were kept their structural integrity during temperature and chemistry transient condition in the coolant flow reduction test from the reactor power at 30%. It was also confirmed by this assessment that the coolant flow reduction test will be able to perform with its enough safety margins from the reactor power at 100%.

Journal Articles

Tritium recovery from solid breeder blanket by water vapor addition to helium sweep gas

Kawamura, Yoshinori; Iwai, Yasunori; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Hayashi, Takumi; Yamanishi, Toshihiko; Nishi, Masataka

Fusion Science and Technology, 48(1), p.654 - 657, 2005/07

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:25.79(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Adding some amount of hydrogen to the helium sweep gas is effective for tritium extraction from blanket, but it causes permeation of tritium to a cooling system. In the design study of a demonstration reactor in JAERI, tritium leakage has been estimated to be about 20% of bred tritium under typical sweep gas conditions. If these tritiums are recovered under the ITER-WDS condition, tritium leakage limitation has to be less than 0.3% of typical case. Water vapor addition to the sweep gas is effective not only for blanket tritium extraction but also for permeation prevention. The reaction rate of isotope exchange is larger than the case of H$$_2$$, and the equilibrium constant is also expected to be about 1.0. When the H/T ratio is 100, tritium inventory of breeder material is larger than the case of H$$_2$$ addition. However it is not so large. In case of H$$_2$$O sweep, separation of tritiated water from helium seems to be easyer, but the process that changes HTO to HT is necessary.

Journal Articles

Formation of fullerene(C$$_{60}$$) by laser ablation in superfluid helium at 1.5K

Aratono, Yasuyuki; Wada, Akira*; Akiyama, Kazuhiko; Kitazawa, Shinichi; Hojo, Kiichi; Naramoto, Hiroshi*

Chemical Physics Letters, 408(4-6), p.247 - 251, 2005/06

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:3.19(Chemistry, Physical)

C$$_{60}$$ fulleren was detected in the deposit produced by the laser ablation in superfluid helium at 1.5K. From the mass spectrometry, it was found that the ratio, $$^{12}$$C$$_{60}$$/$$^{12}$$C$$_{59}$$$$^{13}$$C, differs from statistical one calculated by Poisson distribution for natural graphite. Assuming the recombination of atomic carbons to C$$_{2}$$ molecules as an initial stage for C$$_{60}$$ formation, the different isotopic ratio of C$$_{60}$$ from Poisson statistics was ascribed to the tunneling recombination between $$^{12}$$C and $$^{13}$$C atoms in the bubble state.

JAEA Reports

Development of 2-d position-sensitive neutron detector with individual readout; Operation test and establishment of detection system by means of neutron beam

Tanaka, Hiroki; Yamagishi, Hideshi; Nakamura, Tatsuya; Soyama, Kazuhiko; Aizawa, Kazuya

JAERI-Research 2005-010, 16 Pages, 2005/04

JAERI-Research-2005-010.pdf:3.39MB

We have been developing the 2-d position-sensitive neutron detector with individual readout as next-generation-type detector system for neutron scattering experiments using intense pulsed neutron source. The detection system is designed to fulfill the specifications required for each neutron spectrometer, such as a count rate, efficiency, neutron/$$gamma$$-ray ratio, a spatial resolution and a size, by using suitable detector heads. The fundamental and imaging performances of the developed system assembled with a Multi-wire proportional counter head were evaluated using a collimated neutron beam. The system worked stably for long hours at the gas pressure of 5 atm with a mixture of 30% C$$_{2}$$H$$_{6}$$ (0.26 atm $$^{3}$$He)at gas gain of 450. The spatial resolutions were 1.4, 1.6 mm (FWHM) for a cathode- and a back strip- direction, respectively, considering a beam size. It was also confirmed that the spatial uniformity of the detection efficiency over the whole sensitive detection area was rather good, $$pm$$8 % deviation from the average with the optimum discrimination level.

JAEA Reports

Verification of HTTR hydrogen production system analysis code using experimental data of mock-up model test facility with a full-scale reaction tube; Cooling system of the secondary helium gas using steam generator and radiator (Contract research)

Sato, Hiroyuki; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Inaba, Yoshitomo; Maeda, Yukimasa; Takeda, Tetsuaki; Nishihara, Tetsuo; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki

JAERI-Tech 2005-014, 89 Pages, 2005/03

JAERI-Tech-2005-014.pdf:7.25MB

In a hydrogen production system using HTTR, it is required to control a secondary helium gas temperature within an allowable value at an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) inlet to prevent a reactor scram. To mitigate thermal disturbance of the secondary helium gas caused by the hydrogen production system, a cooling system of the secondary helium gas using a steam generator(SG) and a radiator will be installed at the downstream of the chemical reactor. In order to verify a numerical analysis code of the cooling system, numerical analysis has been conducted. The pressure controllability in SG is highly affected by the heat transfer characteristics of air which flows outside of the heat exchanger tube of the radiator. In order to verify a numerical analysis code of the cooling system, the heat transfer characteristics of air has been investigated with experimental results of a mock-up model test. It was confirmed that numerical analysis results were agreed well with experimental results, and the analysis code was successfully verified.

Journal Articles

Overview of goals and performance of ITER and strategy for plasma-wall interaction investigation

Shimada, Michiya; Costley, A. E.*; Federici, G.*; Ioki, Kimihiro*; Kukushkin, A. S.*; Mukhovatov, V.*; Polevoi, A. R.*; Sugihara, Masayoshi

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 337-339, p.808 - 815, 2005/03

 Times Cited Count:56 Percentile:96.16(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

ITER is an experimental fusion reactor for investigation and demonstration of burning plasmas, characterised of its heating dominated by alpha-particle heating. ITER is a major step from present devices and an indispensable step for fusion reactor development. ITER's success largely depends on the control of plasma-wall interactions(PWI), with power and particle fluxes and time scales one or two orders of magnitude larger than in present devices. The strategy for control of PWI includes the semi-closed divertor, strong fuelling and pumping, disruption and ELM control, replaceable plasma-facing materials and stepwise operation.

Journal Articles

Effects of helium production and heat treatment on neutron irradiation hardening of F82H steels irradiated with neutrons

Wakai, Eiichi; Taguchi, Tomitsugu; Yamamoto, Toshio*; Tomita, Hideki*; Takada, Fumiki; Jitsukawa, Shiro

Materials Transactions, 46(3), p.481 - 486, 2005/03

 Times Cited Count:6 Percentile:50.33(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Operation of a capillary plate under high-pressure $$^{3}$$He for neutron detection

Nakamura, Tatsuya; Masaoka, Sei; Yamagishi, Hideshi; Tanaka, Hiroki; Soyama, Kazuhiko; Aizawa, Kazuya

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 539(1-2), p.363 - 371, 2005/02

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Instruments & Instrumentation)

We evaluated the neutron-detection performance of a capillary plate under high-pressure helium-3 in terms of the gas gain and the distribution of pulse heights, with the aim of using the device as a neutron detector and a gas preamplification device. The capillary plate exhibited a gas gain of more than 1000 up to a gas pressure of 6 atm with a 5% mixture of ethane, confirming an adequate gas gain as a neutron detector. It was also found that the rise times of the signal pulses were correlated with the range and the emission angle of the secondary particles, protons and tritons, thereby providing useful information for developing a system with position-sensitive readouts with a high spatial resolution and a low background.

Journal Articles

Synergistic effects of implanted helium and hydrogen and the effect of irradiation temperature on the microstructure of SiC/SiC composites

Taguchi, Tomitsugu; Igawa, Naoki; Miwa, Shuhei*; Wakai, Eiichi; Jitsukawa, Shiro; Snead, L. L.*; Hasegawa, Akira*

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 335(3), p.508 - 514, 2004/12

 Times Cited Count:30 Percentile:87.54(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

The microstructure of near-stoichiometric fiber SiC/SiC composites implanted with He and H ions was studied at implantation temperatures of 1000 and 1300 $$^{circ}$$C. The average size of He bubbles in the CVI SiC matrix decreases with increasing concentration of implanted H ions. Moreover, the number density of He bubbles increases with increasing irradiation temperature and amount of implanted H. At the irradiation temperature of 1000 $$^{circ}$$C, He bubbles were mainly formed at grain boundary within the matrix. On the other hand, He bubbles were formed both at grain boundaries and within grains at the irradiation temperature of 1300 $$^{circ}$$C. The average size of He bubbles at grain boundaries was much larger than within the grain. The average size of He bubbles in the fiber was smaller than that in the matrix in all cases.

Journal Articles

Achievement of reactor-outlet coolant temperature of 950$$^{circ}$$C in HTTR

Fujikawa, Seigo; Hayashi, Hideyuki; Nakazawa, Toshio; Kawasaki, Kozo; Iyoku, Tatsuo; Nakagawa, Shigeaki; Sakaba, Nariaki

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 41(12), p.1245 - 1254, 2004/12

 Times Cited Count:75 Percentile:97.45(Nuclear Science & Technology)

A High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) is particularly attractive due to its capability of producing high-temperature helium gas and to its inherent safety characteristics. The High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR), which is the first HTGR in Japan, achieved its rated thermal power of 30MW and reactor-outlet coolant temperature of 950$$^{circ}$$C on 19 April 2004. During the high-temperature test operation which is the final phase of the rise-to-power tests, reactor characteristics and reactor performance were confirmed, and reactor operations were monitored to demonstrate the safety and stability of operation. The reactor-outlet coolant temperature of 950$$^{circ}$$C makes it possible to extend high-temperature gas-cooled reactor use beyond the field of electric power. Also, highly effective power generation with a high-temperature gas turbine becomes possible, as does hydrogen production from water. The achievement of 950$$^{circ}$$C will be a major contribution to the actualization of producing hydrogen from water using the high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. This report describes the results of the high-temperature test operation of the HTTR.

Journal Articles

Helium-air counter flow in rectangular channels

Fumizawa, Motoo; Tanaka, Gaku*; Zhao, H.*; Hishida, Makoto*; Shiina, Yasuaki

Nihon Genshiryoku Gakkai Wabun Rombunshi, 3(4), p.313 - 322, 2004/12

This paper deals with a computer simulation of a helium-air counter flow in a rectangular channel. The inclination angle is varied from 0$$^{circ}$$(horizontal) to 90$$^{circ}$$(vertical). Velocity profiles and concentration profiles are calculated with a computer program VSOP sub-module. Following main features of the counter flow are discussed. (1) Time required to establish a quasi-steady state counter flow. (2) The relationship between the inclination angle and the flow patterns of the counter flow (3) The developing process of velocity profiles and concentration profiles (4) The relationship between the inclination angle of the channel and the velocity profiles of upwards flow and the downwards flow (5) The relationship between the concentration profile and the inclination angle (6) The relationship between the net in-flow rate and the inclination angle We compared the computed velocity profile and the net in-flow rate with experimental data. A good agreement is obtained between the calculation and the experiment.

176 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)