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Journal Articles

Effects of fine-scale surface alterations on tracer retention in a fractured crystalline rock from the Grimsel Test Site

Tachi, Yukio; Ito, Tsuyoshi*; Akagi, Yosuke*; Sato, Hisao*; Martin, A. J.*

Water Resources Research, 54(11), p.9287 - 9305, 2018/11

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:51.52(Environmental Sciences)

Effects of fine-scale surface alterations on radionuclide migration in fractured crystalline rocks were investigated by a comprehensive approach coupling a series of laboratory tests, microscopic observations and modelling, using a single fractured granodiorite sample from the Grimsel Test Site, Switzerland. Laboratory tests including through-diffusion, batch sorption and flow-through tests using five tracers indicated that tracer retention was consistently in the sequence of HDO, Se, Cs, Ni, Eu, and as well as showing the existence of a diffusion-resistance layer near the fracture surface, cation excess and anion exclusion effects for diffusion. Microscale heterogeneities in structural properties around the fracture were clarified quantitatively by coupling X-ray CT and EPMA. A three layer model including weathered vermiculite, foliated mica and undisturbed matrix layers, and their properties such as porosity, sorption and diffusion parameters, could provide a reasonable interpretation for breakthrough curves and concentration distributions near fracture surface of all tracers, measured in flow-through tests.

Journal Articles

High precision analysis of isotopic composition for samples used for nuclear cross-section measurements

Shibahara, Yuji*; Hori, Junichi*; Takamiya, Koichi*; Fujii, Toshiyuki*; Fukutani, Satoshi*; Sano, Tadafumi*; Harada, Hideo

EPJ Web of Conferences, 146, p.03028_1 - 03028_4, 2017/09

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100

Journal Articles

Uranium particle identification with SEM-EDX for isotopic analysis by secondary ion mass spectrometry

Esaka, Fumitaka; Magara, Masaaki

Mass Spectrometry Letters, 7(2), p.41 - 44, 2016/06

Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is a promising tool to measure isotope ratios of individual uranium particles in environmental samples for nuclear safeguards. However, the analysis requires prior identification of a small number of uranium particles that coexist with a large number of other particles without uranium. In the present study, this identification was performed by scanning electron microscopy -energy dispersive X-ray analysis with automated particle search mode. The analytical results for an environmental sample taken at a nuclear facility indicated that the observation of backscattered electron images with $$times$$ 1000 magnification was appropriate to efficiently identify uranium particles. Lower magnification (less than $$times$$ 500) made it difficult to detect smaller particles of approximately 1 $$mu$$m diameter.

Journal Articles

Noble gas monitoring at the Takasaki radionuclide station of JAEA; Certification by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) Organization

Yamamoto, Yoichi

Isotope News, (736), p.31 - 33, 2015/08

The Takasaki radionuclide (RN) station for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) has been in operation for monitoring of radioactive noble gases (radioxenon) by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) since 2007, first as a test run prior to receiving the certification. The noble gas system in the station was certified by the CTBT Organization (CTBTO) on December 19, 2014. Monitoring of radioxenon is expected to have a particularly valuable role in detection of an underground nuclear test. The Takasaki RN station detected radioxenon isotopes simultaneously with radioactive concentration exceeding normal background range in April, 2013. This abnormal event was identified as being associated with the nuclear test declared by North Korea in February, 2013. Since the Takasaki RN station is located at the east end of Asia, it is receiving widespread international attention as the station for radionuclides dispersed by the westerlies.

Journal Articles

Comparative modeling of an in situ diffusion experiment in granite at the Grimsel Test Site

Soler, J. M.*; Landa, J.*; Havlova, V.*; Tachi, Yukio; Ebina, Takanori*; Sardini, P.*; Siitari-Kauppi, M.*; Eikenberg, J.*; Martin, A. J.*

Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 179, p.89 - 101, 2015/08

 Times Cited Count:30 Percentile:12.15(Environmental Sciences)

Matrix diffusion is a key process for radionuclide retention in crystalline rocks. An in-situ diffusion experiment in granite matrix was performed at the Grimsel Test Site (Switzerland). Several tracers (HTO, Na$$^{+}$$, Cs$$^{+}$$) were circulated through a borehole and the decrease in tracer concentrations was monitored for 2.5 years. Then, the borehole section was overcored and the tracer profiles in the rock were analyzed. Transport distances in the rock were 20 cm for HTO, 10 cm for Na$$^{+}$$ and 1 cm for Cs$$^{+}$$. The dataset was analyzed with diffusion-sorption models by different teams using different codes, with the goal of obtaining effective diffusivities (De) and rock capacity factors. There was a rather good agreement between the values from different teams, implied that De and capacity factors in the borehole damaged zone are larger than those in the bulk rock. However, HTO seems to display large discrepancies between measured and modeled results.

Journal Articles

Investigation into cause of increasing count rate on PIMS at RRP, 1; Search of potential causes

Mukai, Yasunobu; Nakamura, Hironobu; Nakamichi, Hideo; Kurita, Tsutomu; Noguchi, Yoshihiko*; Tamura, Takayuki*; Ikegame, Ko*; Shimizu, Junji*

Proceedings of INMM 56th Annual Meeting (Internet), 9 Pages, 2015/07

The PIMS used at Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant can quantify plutonium amount in each process vessel located inside glovebox by means of neutron measurement. Since the PIMS is not used for the neutron coincidence counting, it is very important to maintain that those constants meet the actual process condition. PIMS was calibrated in 2006, and then JNFL has been started to measure the Pu amount directly in each glovebox for the purpose of facility NMA. However, it was found that PIMS counting was unexpectedly and continuously increased during long time of inter-campaign. In order to find out the main cause, JAEA and JNFL jointly conducted several investigations. In the investigations, correctness of system parameters and relevant constants, behavior of the neutron generation when MOX powder is stored in actual glovebox for a long time (to see O/M and moisture change) and the behavior focused on the relation between MOX powder and light element using inside glovebox (fluorine is included in the PTFE which is used in many gloveboxes as packing of instruments) were experimentally confirmed using MOX powder in PCDF. As a result, since the same behavior happened in the actual PIMS was confirmed in the testing environment in which MOX powder coexists with fluorine, it is concluded that the main potential cause of PIMS is the increasing of the probability of ($$alpha$$, $$n$$) reactions by a contact between PTFE and MOX powder.

Journal Articles

Development in fission track- thermal ionization mass spectrometry for particle analysis of safeguards environmental samples

Lee, C. G.; Iguchi, Kazunari; Inagawa, Jun; Suzuki, Daisuke; Esaka, Fumitaka; Magara, Masaaki; Sakurai, Satoshi; Watanabe, Kazuo; Usuda, Shigekazu

Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 272(2), p.299 - 302, 2007/05

 Times Cited Count:43 Percentile:5.44(Chemistry, Analytical)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Hydrogen isotope distributions and retentions in the inner divertor tile of JT-60U

Oya, Yasuhisa*; Hirohata, Yuko*; Tanabe, Tetsuo*; Shibahara, Takahiro*; Kimura, Hiromi*; Oyaizu, Makoto*; Arai, Takashi; Masaki, Kei; Goto, Yoshitaka*; Okuno, Kenji*; et al.

Fusion Engineering and Design, 75-79, p.945 - 949, 2005/11

 Times Cited Count:9 Percentile:43.5(Nuclear Science & Technology)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Research activities for development of CTBT-related technologies in JAERI

Shinohara, Nobuo; Asano, Yoshie; Hirota, Naoki*; Hokida, Takanori; Inoue, Yoji; Kumata, Masahiro; Nakahara, Yoshinori*; Oda, Tetsuzo*; Uchikoshi, Takako*; Yamamoto, Yoichi

Proceedings of International Conference on Nuclear Energy System for Future Generation and Global Sustainability (GLOBAL 2005) (CD-ROM), 3 Pages, 2005/10

Research activities of JAERI related to the CTBT verification regime are presented in the International Conference. The subjects of this presentation are (1) an overview of the CTBT verification regime, (2) construction and operation of the radionuclide monitoring stations of Okinawa (RN37) and Takasaki (RN38) and the certified radionuclide laboratory (RL11), and (3) preparation of the National Data Center at Tokai (JAERI NDC) for radionuclide data. The RN38 station has been certified by the CTBTO/PrepCom and sending the measured data every day. The infrastructures and operational manuals for RN37 and RL11 are now preparing for their operations. The JAERI NDC has experimentally analyzed and evaluated the radionuclide data from all over the world through International Data Center (IDC). As an example of the JAERI NDC works, atmospheric dispersion backtracking system has been developing by using WSPEEDI (Worldwide Version of System for Prediction of Environmental Emergency Dose Information) code to estimate a source location of radionuclide release by nuclear explosion/accident.

JAEA Reports

Development of frequency stabilized laser system for long-lived isotope analysis, 3; Computer-based laser frequency tuning system

Miyabe, Masabumi; Oba, Masaki; Kato, Masaaki; Wakaida, Ikuo; Watanabe, Kazuo

JAERI-Tech 2005-043, 27 Pages, 2005/08

JAERI-Tech-2005-043.pdf:2.51MB

Multi-step resonance ionization spectrometry for long-lived nuclei in nuclear waste materials requires laser sources having high frequency stability and tunability. In this study we have developed a novel frequency control system consisting of digital circuitry and computer to improve the frequency tunability of the developed laser stabilization system using dichroic atomic vapor laser lock (DAVLL) and fringe offset lock (FOL) techniques. Based on the heterodyne experiment and multi-step laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy of atomic Ca, the frequency stability and tunability of the developed system were evaluated.

Journal Articles

Development of analytical techniques for safeguards environmental samples

Magara, Masaaki; Usuda, Shigekazu; Sakurai, Satoshi; Watanabe, Kazuo; Esaka, Fumitaka; Hirayama, Fumio; Lee, C. G.; Yasuda, Kenichiro; Kono, Nobuaki; Inagawa, Jun; et al.

Dai-26-Kai Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai (INMM) Nippon Shibu Nenji Taikai Rombunshu, p.157 - 164, 2005/00

JAERI has conducted the analysis of domestic and the IAEA samples. JAERI is developing the analytical techniques to improve the analytical ability for the safeguards environmental samples. For bulk analysis, study is focused on the improvement of reliability of isotope ratio measurements by ICP-MS. New chemical separation techniques are under development and a desolvation module is introduced to reduce the polyatomic interferences. In particle analysis, the sample preparation procedure for SIMS method is modified to measure the $$^{234}$$U/$$^{238}$$U and $$^{236}$$U/$$^{238}$$U ratios for individual particles. We are also developing fission track-TIMS method to measure uranium isotope ratios in particles of sub-micrometer size. A screening instrument of X-ray fluorescent analysis is equipped to measure elemental distribution on a swipe surface.

Journal Articles

Development of fission track-thermal ionization mass spectrometry method for safeguards environmental samples

Lee, C. G.; Iguchi, Kazunari; Inagawa, Jun; Suzuki, Daisuke; Esaka, Fumitaka; Magara, Masaaki; Sakurai, Satoshi; Watanabe, Kazuo; Usuda, Shigekazu

Dai-26-Kai Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai (INMM) Nippon Shibu Nenji Taikai Rombunshu, p.171 - 178, 2005/00

Particle analysis by FT-TIMS method is effective for safeguards environmental samples because the isotope ratios of sub-micrometer particles can be determined. The FT-TIMS method developed by the authors, in which the particles are confined in the detector, has merits such as high detection efficiency and the possibility as a screening method for uranium particles according to their enrichment by controlling the etching time. However, it was found that a part of uranium particles contained in a detector may dissolve during the etching process of the detector. In order to overcome the problem, we are developing a novel sample preparing method in which the FT detector and the particle layer are separated. In the conventional FT sample of separated type, the detection process of particles of interest is time-consuming and complicated due to the discrepancy in position between tracks and particles. In contrast, the discrepancy was solved by fixing a part of a detector and a particle layer in our method, which improved the detection efficiency of particles containing fissile materials.

JAEA Reports

Determination of the $$^{40}$$Ca ionization potential by high-precision three-step resonance ionization spectroscopy

Miyabe, Masabumi; Oba, Masaki; Kato, Masaaki; Wakaida, Ikuo; Watanabe, Kazuo

JAERI-Research 2004-023, 17 Pages, 2004/11

JAERI-Research-2004-023.pdf:2.71MB

High precision resonance ionization spectroscopy has been applied to determination of an accurate ionization potential of $$^{40}$$Ca. Three-step resonant excitation with single-mode extended cavity diode lasers populates a series of ${it 4snp}$ ($$^{1}$$P$$_{1}$$) and ${it 4snf}$ ($$^{1}$$F$$_{3}$$) Rydberg states in the rage of ${it n}$=20-150. By using an extended Ritz formula for quantum defect, the series convergence limit has been determined to be 49305.9240 (20) cm$$^{-1}$$ with the accuracy improved one order of magnitude higher than previously reported ones.

Journal Articles

Efficient isotope ratio analysis of uranium particles in swipe samples by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and secondary ion mass spectrometry

Esaka, Fumitaka; Watanabe, Kazuo; Fukuyama, Hiroyasu; Onodera, Takashi; Esaka, Konomi; Magara, Masaaki; Sakurai, Satoshi; Usuda, Shigekazu

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 41(11), p.1027 - 1032, 2004/11

 Times Cited Count:50 Percentile:5(Nuclear Science & Technology)

A new particle recovery method and a sensitive screening method were developed for subsequent isotope ratio analysis of uranium particles in safeguards swipe samples. The particles in the swipe sample were recovered onto a carrier by means of vacuum suction 8211; impact collection method. When grease coating was applied to the carrier, the recovery efficiency was improved to 48 %, which is superior to that of conventionally-used ultrasoneration method. Prior to isotope ratio analysis with secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF) was applied to screen the sample for the presence of uranium particles. By the use of Si carriers in TXRF analysis, the detection limit of 22 pg was achieved for uranium. By combining these methods with SIMS, the isotope ratios of $$^{235}$$U/$$^{238}$$U for individual uranium particles were efficiently determined.

Journal Articles

Application of fission track technique for the analysis of individual particles containing uranium in safeguard swipe samples

Esaka, Konomi; Esaka, Fumitaka; Inagawa, Jun; Iguchi, Kazunari; Lee, C. G.; Sakurai, Satoshi; Watanabe, Kazuo; Usuda, Shigekazu

Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Part 2, 43(7A), p.L915 - L916, 2004/07

 Times Cited Count:33 Percentile:24.24(Physics, Applied)

An effective method for isotope ratio analysis of individual particles containing uranium in safeguards swipe samples was developed by using a fission track (FT) technique combined with thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). The particles in the sample were directly recovered onto a polycarbonate membrane filter, which was set in a filtration system. After the particle recovery, the filter was dissolved to form a non-coated FT detector film containing the particles. Individual particles containing uranium were then identified by the observation of fission tracks created by thermal neutron irradiation. By combination of the FT technique with TIMS, isotope ratios of uranium for individual particles in the swipe sample prepared from a uranium standard reference material could be effectively determined.

JAEA Reports

Annual report on the services for chemical analysis and scientific glassblowing in the fiscal year 2001 and 2002

Ito, Mitsuo; Obara, Kazuhiro; Toida, Yukio*; Suzuki, Daisuke; Gunji, Katsubumi*; Watanabe, Kazuo

JAERI-Review 2004-007, 65 Pages, 2004/03

JAERI-Review-2004-007.pdf:5.53MB

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Mechanical properties and microstructure of F82H steel doped with boron or boron and nitrogen as a function of heat treatment

Wakai, Eiichi; Sato, Michitaka*; Sawai, Tomotsugu; Shiba, Kiyoyuki; Jitsukawa, Shiro

Materials Transactions, 45(2), p.407 - 410, 2004/01

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:65.56(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Analyses of hydrogen isotope distributions in the outer target tile used in the W-shaped divertor of JT-60U

Oya, Yasuhisa*; Morimoto, Yasutomi*; Oyaizu, Makoto*; Hirohata, Yuko*; Yagyu, Junichi; Miyo, Yasuhiko; Goto, Yoshitaka*; Sugiyama, Kazuyoshi*; Okuno, Kenji*; Miya, Naoyuki; et al.

Physica Scripta, T108, p.57 - 62, 2004/00

no abstracts in English

JAEA Reports

Recent status of research activities for development of CTBT-related technologies in JAERI

Hirota, Naoki*; Hokida, Takanori; Inoue, Yoji; Kumata, Masahiro; Kurosawa, Yoshiaki; Miyamoto, Yutaka; Nakahara, Yoshinori; Oda, Tetsuzo; Shinohara, Nobuo; Uchikoshi, Takako*; et al.

JAERI-Review 2003-021, 68 Pages, 2003/08

JAERI-Review-2003-021.pdf:9.73MB

This report describes research activities of the R & D Group for Non-Proliferation Technology related to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) verification regime. The main subjects of this report are (1) an overview of the CTBT verification regime, (2) preparation of the National Data Center for radionuclide data, (3) construction and operation of the radionuclide monitoring stations at Takasaki and Okinawa and the certified rarionuclide laboratory at Tokai in Japan. We have participated in an intercomparison test internationally organized for the certified laboratories and the test results are given here. Scientific application of the CTBT-related technologies to environmental researches is also depicted.

Journal Articles

Present state of JAERI National Data Center (NDC) for CTBT verification

Yamamoto, Yoichi; Hokida, Takanori; Hirota, Naoki*; Oda, Tetsuzo; Nakahara, Yoshinori; Kumata, Masahiro; Inoue, Yoji; Uchikoshi, Takako*; Shinohara, Nobuo; Usuda, Shigekazu

Dai-23-Kai Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai Nippon Shibu Nenji Taikai Rombunshu, p.53 - 60, 2002/12

The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has developed the National Data Center (NDC) for radionuclide as part of the international monitoring regime related to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). JAERI NDC already started to input gamma-ray spectrum data obtained from several International Monitoring System (IMS) stations into a database. Data analysis reports made by the International Data Center (IDC) are also stored in the database. Some software tools are under development for the NDC's independent analysis such as investigation of existence of the radionuclides derived from nuclear explosion and presumptive analysis of source location of radionuclide release. The NDC system will also be able to post IMS data and analysis results to the authorized users on the Internet. This paper presents the role, current state of system development and future plan of JAERI NDC.

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