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Hierarchical Bayes model to quantify fracture limit uncertainty of high-burnup advanced fuel cladding tubes under LOCA conditions

成川 隆文; 濱口 修輔*; 高田 孝*; 宇田川 豊

Proceedings of Asian Symposium on Risk Assessment and Management 2022 (ASRAM 2022) (Internet), 11 Pages, 2022/12

To realize a more reliable safety evaluation of loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs) in light-water-reactors, we developed a quantification method of the fracture limit uncertainty of high-burnup advanced fuel cladding tubes using a hierarchical Bayes model that can quantify uncertainty even when experimental data are limited. The fracture limit uncertainty was quantified as a probability using the amount of oxidation and the initial hydrogen concentration (the hydrogen concentration in fuel cladding tubes before the LOCA-simulated tests) as explanatory variables. The hierarchical Bayes model was developed by dividing the regression coefficients into a hierarchical structure with an overall average term common to all types of fuel cladding tubes and a term representing differences between types of fuel cladding tubes. Using the developed model, we showed that the fracture limits of the high-burnup advanced fuel cladding tubes tended to be on average equal to or higher than that of an unirradiated conventional fuel cladding tube. Further, we proposed a method to reduce the fracture limit uncertainty by using non-binary data depending on the condition of the fuel cladding tube specimens after the LOCA-simulated test instead of the binary data, thereby increasing the amount of information in each data.


Effect of magnesium silicate hydrate (M-S-H) formation on the local atomic arrangements and mechanical properties of calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H); In situ X-ray scattering study

Kim, G.*; Im, S.*; Jee, H.*; Suh, H.*; Cho, S.*; 兼松 学*; 諸岡 聡; 小山 拓*; 西尾 悠平*; 町田 晃彦*; et al.

Cement and Concrete Research, 159, p.106869_1 - 106869_17, 2022/09

 被引用回数:2 パーセンタイル:81.14(Construction & Building Technology)

This study explored the effect of M-S-H formation on the local atomic arrangements and mechanical properties of C-S-H. The elastic moduli of the samples were calculated using shifted atomic distances (r) and d-spacings (d) acquired by applying an external load on the pastes during X-ray scattering experiments. The experimental results indicated that the crystal structure of C-S-H remained intact with MgCl$$_{2}$$ addition. At the highest Mg/Si ratio (Ca/Si = 0.6, Mg/Si = 0.2), change in the dominant phase occurred from C-S-H to M-S-H because the low pH environment hindered the formation of C-S-H and facilitated the formation of M-S-H. The elastic modulus decreased with increasing Mg/Si ratio up to 0.1 owing to both C-S-H destabilization and low M-S-H content in the samples. Conversely, the elastic modulus increased in the paste synthesized with the highest Mg/Si ratio because considerable M-S-H had formed, which exhibited a higher elastic modulus than C-S-H.


Development of a miniature electromagnet probe for the measurement of local velocity in heavy liquid metals

有吉 玄; 大林 寛生; 佐々 敏信

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 59(9), p.1071 - 1088, 2022/09

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:77.67(Nuclear Science & Technology)

液体重金属中の局所流速計測において、電磁誘導を用いた計測手法は効果的手法の一つである。永久磁石を利用した流速計として、Ricou and Vives' probeやVon Weissenfluh's probeが広く知られているが、これらの流速計は液温上昇に伴う永久磁石の熱減磁により、流速感度および計測体積が低下することが問題点として挙げられる。特に、永久磁石のキュリー温度を超える温度域では流速検出不能となる。そこで本研究では、流速計が持つ温度依存性の解消を目的とし、小型電磁石を内蔵する流速計を開発した。開発された流速計の直径は6mm、長さは155mmである。流速計の基本性能は、室温環境下における矩形管内水銀流れの局所流速分布計測を通して確認され、流速感度および計測体積が評価された。計測された局所流速分布は数値計算によりその妥当性が確認された。



垣内 一雄; 宇田川 豊; 山内 紹裕*

JAEA-Research 2022-001, 21 Pages, 2022/06




Hydrogen-Ti$$^{3+}$$ complex as a possible origin of localized electron behavior in hydrogen-irradiated SrTiO$$_3$$

伊藤 孝

e-Journal of Surface Science and Nanotechnology (Internet), 20(3), p.128 - 134, 2022/05

A recent muon spin rotation ($$mu^+$$SR) study on a paramagnetic defect complex formed upon implantation of $$mu^+$$ pseudo-proton into SrTiO$$_3$$ is reviewed with a specific focus on the relation with experimental signatures of coexisting delocalized and localized electrons in hydrogen-irradiated metallic SrTiO$$_3$$ films. The paramagnetic defect complex, composed of interstitial $$mu^+$$ and Ti$$^{3+}$$ small polaron, is characterized by a small dissociation energy of about 30 meV. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations in the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) +$$U$$ scheme for a corresponding hydrogen defect complex reveal that a thermodynamic donor level associated with electron transfer from an H$$^+$$-Ti$$^{3+}$$ complex to the conduction band can form just below the conduction band minimum for realistic $$U$$ values. These findings suggest that the coexistence of delocalized and localized electrons can be realized in hydrogen-irradiated SrTiO$$_3$$ in electron-rich conditions.


Effects of azimuthal temperature distribution and rod internal gas energy on ballooning deformation and rupture opening formation of a 17 $$times$$ 17 type PWR fuel cladding tube under LOCA-simulated burst conditions

古本 健一郎; 宇田川 豊

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 12 Pages, 2022/00

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

In order to contribute to better modeling and evaluation of fuel fragmentation, relocation, and dispersal expected under loss of coolant accident (LOCA) conditions, LOCA-simulated cladding burst experiments were performed on as-received nonirradiated 17 $$times$$ 17 type Zircaloy-4 cladding specimens that were internally pressurized. The experiments were designed to terminate at burst occurrence to focus on ballooning and rupture opening formation and to investigate the effects of various factors. The postburst cladding hoop strain decreased with the increase in azimuthal temperature distribution (ATD) of the cladding, as found previously. The rupture opening size increased with the increase in ATD and the increase in energy of the pressurized gas stored inside the pressure boundary of the test sample system. Comparison with the existing database, which included tests on irradiated rods containing fuel pellets, suggested that formation of the rupture opening was influenced by the characteristic behavior of high burnup fuels, such as limited gas migration in the cladding tube due to fuel-cladding bonding and interaction of the ejected fuel fragments with the cladding tube.


Tree cutting approach for domain partitioning on forest-of-octrees-based block-structured static adaptive mesh refinement with lattice Boltzmann method

長谷川 雄太; 青木 尊之*; 小林 宏充*; 井戸村 泰宏; 小野寺 直幸

Parallel Computing, 108, p.102851_1 - 102851_12, 2021/12

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0.01(Computer Science, Theory & Methods)

GPUスーパコンピュータに対して格子ボルツマン法(LBM: lattice Botltzmann method)およびforest-of-octreesに基づくブロック構造型の局所細分化格子(LMR: local mesh refinement)を用いた空力解析コードを実装し、その性能を評価した。性能評価の結果、従来の空間充填曲線(SFC; space-filling curve)に基づく領域分割アルゴリズムでは、本空力解析において袖領域通信のコストが過大となることがわかった。領域分割の改善手法として本稿では挿し木法を提案し、領域分割の局所性とトポロジーを改善し、従来のSFCに基づく手法に比べて通信コストを1/3$$sim$$1/4に削減した。強スケーリング測定では、最大で1.82倍の高速化を示し、128GPUで2207MLUPS(mega-lattice update per second)の性能を達成した。弱スケーリング測定では、8$$sim$$128GPUで93.4%の並列化効率を示し、最大規模の128GPU計算では44.73億格子点を用いて9620MLUPSの性能を達成した。


Comparisons between passive RCCSs on degree of passive safety features against accidental conditions and methodology to determine structural thickness of scaled-down heat removal test facilities

高松 邦吉; 松元 達也*; Liu, W.*; 守田 幸路*

Annals of Nuclear Energy, 162, p.108512_1 - 108512_10, 2021/11

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)



LOCA時燃料破断限界評価の信頼性向上を目指して; 不確かさ定量化手法の開発と高燃焼度化の影響評価

成川 隆文

日本原子力学会誌ATOMO$$Sigma$$, 63(11), p.780 - 785, 2021/11



Coherent eddies transporting passive scalars through the plant canopy revealed by Large-Eddy simulations using the lattice Boltzmann method

渡辺 力*; 高木 鞠衣*; 下山 宏*; 川島 正行*; 小野寺 直幸; 稲垣 厚至*

Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 181(1), p.39 - 71, 2021/10

 被引用回数:2 パーセンタイル:37.55(Meteorology & Atmospheric Sciences)



Study on mechanism and threshold conditions for fuel fragmentation during loss-of-coolant accident conditions

成川 隆文; 宇田川 豊

Proceedings of TopFuel 2021 (Internet), 10 Pages, 2021/10

To clarify the mechanism and temperature threshold for fuel fragmentation during loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs), out-of-pile heating tests on bare fuel pellet pieces taken from a high-burnup PWR UO$$_{2}$$ fuel rod (segment average burnup: 81 GWd/tU) were performed. The fuel pellet pieces taken from various regions in the radial direction of the fuel pellet were inductively heated with no cladding restraint in vacuum up to 1473 K at a rate of 5 K/s. During the heating tests, the fission gases released from the fuel pellet pieces were continuously analyzed in-situ using a quadrupole mass spectrometer. Following the heating tests, microstructural observation of the fuel pellet fragments was carried out. Based on the relationship between the extent of fuel fragmentation and the terminal temperature, and the time history of fission gas release, temperature thresholds for minor fuel fragmentation and slightly more fuel fragmentation were estimated to be 973 - 1073 K and 1173 - 1273 K, respectively. The extent of fuel fragmentation and the amount of fission gas release became more pronounced with increasing temperature. Further, the microstructural observations after the heating tests revealed that most of the fuel fragments smaller than approximately 500 - 750 $$mu$$m have microstructures consisting of many micropores and subgrains, which are characteristic of the dark zone or high-burnup structure. On the basis of these results, the mechanism of fuel fragmentation during LOCAs was discussed.


Temperature effects on local structure, phase transformation, and mechanical properties of calcium silicate hydrates

Im, S.*; Jee, H.*; Suh, H.*; 兼松 学*; 諸岡 聡; 小山 拓*; 西尾 悠平*; 町田 晃彦*; Kim, J.*; Bae, S.*

Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 104(9), p.4803 - 4818, 2021/09

 被引用回数:5 パーセンタイル:69.04(Materials Science, Ceramics)

This study aims to elucidate the effect of heating on the local atomic arrangements, structure, phase transformation, and mechanical properties of synthesized calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H). The alteration in the atomic arrangement of the synthesized C-S-H (Ca/Si = 0.8) and the formation of crystalline phases that occurred in three distinct transformation stages of dehydration (105-200 $$^{circ}$$C), decomposition (300-600 $$^{circ}$$C), and recrystallization (700-1000 $$^{circ}$$C) were investigated via powder X-ray diffraction, $$^{29}$$Si nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. Further, the deformation of the local atomic bonding environment and variations in mechanical properties during the three stages were assessed via pair distribution function analysis based on in-situ total X-ray scattering. The results revealed that the C-S-H paste before heating exhibited a lower elastic modulus in real space than that in the reciprocal space in the initial loading stage because water molecules acted as a lubricant in the interlayer. At the dehydration stage, the strain as a function of external loading exhibited irregular deformation owing to the formation of additional pores induced by the evaporation of free moisture. At the decomposition stage, the structural deformation of the main d-spacing (d $$approx$$ 3.0 ${AA}$) was similar to that of the real space before the propagation of microcracks. At the recrystallization stage, the elastic modulus increased to 48 GPa owing to the thermal phase transformation of C-S-H to crystalline $$beta$$-wollastonite. The results provide direct experimental evidence of the micro- and nanostructural deformation behavior of C-S-H pastes after exposure to high temperature under external loading.


Numerical investigations on the coolability and the re-criticality of a debris bed with the density-stratified configuration

Li, C.; 内堀 昭寛; 高田 孝; Pellegrini, M.*; Erkan, N.*; 岡本 孝司*

第25回動力・エネルギー技術シンポジウム講演論文集(インターネット), 4 Pages, 2021/07



In situ diffraction characterization on microstructure evolution in austenitic stainless steel during cyclic plastic deformation and its relation to the mechanical response

熊谷 正芳*; 秋田 貢一*; 黒田 雅利*; Harjo, S.

Materials Science & Engineering A, 820, p.141582_1 - 141582_9, 2021/07

 被引用回数:4 パーセンタイル:62.05(Nanoscience & Nanotechnology)

In situ neutron diffraction during 250 cycles of plastic deformation was performed and the diffraction line profile analysis was performed to qualitatively evaluate the change in the microstructure of austenitic stainless steel during the cyclic deformation. The dislocation density increased with increasing number of cycles until 50 cycles but thereafter decreased. The cycle number corresponding to this maximum point differed depending on whether it was evaluated as the total dislocation density or was deconvoluted into edge and screw dislocation densities. At the initial state, edge dislocations were predominant; however, screw dislocations greatly increased at the first stage of cyclic loading. Afterwards, edge dislocations formed cell walls and screw dislocations annihilated.


Data report of ROSA/LSTF experiment SB-PV-09; 1.9% pressure vessel top small break LOCA with SG depressurization and gas inflow

竹田 武司

JAEA-Data/Code 2021-006, 61 Pages, 2021/04


ROSA-V計画において、大型非定常実験装置(LSTF)を用いた実験(実験番号: SB-PV-09)が2005年11月17日に行われた。ROSA/LSTF SB-PV-09実験では、加圧水型原子炉(PWR)の1.9%圧力容器頂部小破断冷却材喪失事故を模擬した。このとき、非常用炉心冷却系(ECCS)である高圧注入系の全故障と蓄圧注入(ACC)タンクから一次系への非凝縮性ガス(窒素ガス)の流入を仮定した。実験では、上部ヘッドに形成される水位が破断流量に影響を与えることを見出した。アクシデントマネジメント(AM)策として、両ループの蒸気発生器(SG)逃し弁開放によるSG二次側減圧を炉心出口最高温度が623Kに到達した時点で開始した。SG二次側圧力が一次系圧力に低下するまで、このAM策は一次系減圧に対して有効とならなかった。一方、炉心出口温度の応答が遅くかつ緩慢であるため、模擬燃料棒の被覆管表面最高温度がLSTFの炉心保護のために予め決定した値(958K)を超えたとき、炉心出力は自動的に低下した。炉心出力の自動低下後、低温側配管内でのACC水と蒸気の凝縮により両ループのループシールクリアリング(LSC)が誘発された。LSC後、炉心水位が回復して炉心はクエンチした。ACCタンクから窒素ガスの流入開始後、一次系とSG二次側の圧力差が大きくなった。ECCSである低圧注入系の作動を通じた継続的な炉心冷却を確認後、実験を終了した。本報告書は、ROSA/LSTF SB-PV-09実験の手順、条件および実験で観察された主な結果をまとめたものである。



永瀬 文久; 成川 隆文; 天谷 政樹

JAEA-Review 2020-076, 129 Pages, 2021/03




Comparison between passive reactor cavity cooling systems based on atmospheric radiation and atmospheric natural circulation

高松 邦吉; 松元 達也*; Liu, W.*; 守田 幸路*

Annals of Nuclear Energy, 151, p.107867_1 - 107867_11, 2021/02

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:34.42(Nuclear Science & Technology)



Quantifying the dislocation structures of additively manufactured Ti-6Al-4V alloys using X-ray diffraction line profile analysis

山中 謙太*; 黒田 あす美*; 伊藤 美優*; 森 真奈美*; Bian, H.*; 菖蒲 敬久; 佐藤 茂男*; 千葉 明彦*

Additive Manufacturing, 37, p.101678_1 - 101678_12, 2021/01

 被引用回数:11 パーセンタイル:85.25(Engineering, Manufacturing)

Ti-6Al-4V alloy is widely used in aerospace and biomedical industries, and its preparation using additive manufacturing techniques has recently attracted considerable attention. Herein, the dislocation structures developed during electron beam and laser beam powder-bed fusion (EB-PBF and LB-PBF, respectively) of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy were quantitatively examined via XRD line profile analysis. Accordingly, a higher dislocation density and finer crystallite size were observed at the top cross-section from the XRD line profile analysis, suggesting that the extent of phase decomposition depended on the duration of the exposure to the elevated temperature. Nonetheless, the saturated dislocation density was as high as 10$$^{14}$$ m$$^{-2}$$, where dislocation strengthening affected the overall strength of the EB-PBF specimen. Diffraction peaks of sufficient intensity that enabled the analysis of the dislocation structures in both the $$alpha$$ ($$alpha$$')-matrix and the nanosized beta-phase precipitates at the $$alpha$$ ($$alpha$$')-laths were obtained under high-energy synchrotron radiation; this revealed that the beta-phase had a much higher dislocation density than the surrounding $$alpha$$ ($$alpha$$')-matrix. The enhanced dislocation accumulation in the nanosized $$beta$$-phase precipitates probably reflects the elemental partitioning that occurred during post-solidification cooling. The valuable insights provided in this study are expected to promote further development of alloy preparation using additive manufacturing processes.


Major outcomes through recent ROSA/LSTF experiments and future plans

竹田 武司; 和田 裕貴; 柴本 泰照

World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 11(1), p.17 - 42, 2021/01

Many experiments have been conducted on accidents and transients of pressurized water reactor (PWR) employing the rig of safety assessment/large-scale test facility (ROSA/LSTF). Major results of the related integral effect tests with the LSTF were reviewed to experimentally identify thermal-hydraulic phenomena involved, regarding the PWR accident sequences in accordance with the new regulatory requirements for the Japanese light-water nuclear power plants. Key results of the recent integral effect tests utilizing the LSTF and future plans were presented relevant to multiple steam generator tube rupture accident with recovery operation, small-break loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) with accident management measure on core exit temperature reliability, and small-break LOCA with thermal stratification under cold water injection from emergency core cooling system into cold legs.


Validation of analysis models on relocation behavior of molten core materials in sodium-cooled fast reactors based on the melt discharge experiment

五十嵐 魁*; 大貫 涼二*; 堺 公明*; 加藤 慎也; 松場 賢一; 神山 健司

Proceedings of 2020 International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE 2020) (Internet), 6 Pages, 2020/08

In order to improve the safety of nuclear power plants, it is necessary to make sure measures against their severe accidents. Especially, in the case of a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR), there is a possibility of significant energy release due to formation of a large-scale molten fuel pool accompanied by re-criticality in the event of a core disruptive accident (CDA). It is important to ensure in-vessel retention that keeps and confines damaged core material in the reactor vessel even if the CDA occurs. CDA scenario initiated by Unprotected Loss Of Flow (ULOF), which is a typical cause of core damage, is generally categorized into four phases according to the progression of core-disruptive status, which are the initiating, early-discharge, material-relocation and heat-removal phases for the latest design in Japan. During the material-relocation phase, the molten core material flows down mainly through the control rod guide tube and is discharged into the inlet coolant plenum below the bottom of the core. The discharged molten core material collides with the bottom plate of the inlet plenum. Clarification of the accumulation behavior of molten core material with such a collision on the bottom plate is important to reduce uncertainties in the safety assessment of CDA. In present study, in order to make clear behavior of core melt materials during the CDAs of SFRs, analysis was conducted using the SIMMER-III code for a melt discharge simulation experiment in which low-melting-point alloy was discharged into a shallow water pool. This report shows the validation results for the melt behavior by comparing with the experimental data.

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