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Journal Articles

Hierarchical Bayes model to quantify fracture limit uncertainty of high-burnup advanced fuel cladding tubes under LOCA conditions

Narukawa, Takafumi; Hamaguchi, Shusuke*; Takata, Takashi*; Udagawa, Yutaka

Proceedings of Asian Symposium on Risk Assessment and Management 2022 (ASRAM 2022) (Internet), 11 Pages, 2022/12

Journal Articles

Effect of magnesium silicate hydrate (M-S-H) formation on the local atomic arrangements and mechanical properties of calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H); In situ X-ray scattering study

Kim, G.*; Im, S.*; Jee, H.*; Suh, H.*; Cho, S.*; Kanematsu, Manabu*; Morooka, Satoshi; Koyama, Taku*; Nishio, Yuhei*; Machida, Akihiko*; et al.

Cement and Concrete Research, 159, p.106869_1 - 106869_17, 2022/09

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:79.47(Construction & Building Technology)

Journal Articles

Development of a miniature electromagnet probe for the measurement of local velocity in heavy liquid metals

Ariyoshi, Gen; Obayashi, Hironari; Sasa, Toshinobu

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 59(9), p.1071 - 1088, 2022/09

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:75.92(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Electromagnetic induction method is one of the effective techniques for local velocity measurement in heavy liquid metals. Ricou and Vives' probe and Von Weissenfluh's probe are famous instrumentations using a permanent magnet. However, sensitivity and measurement volume of the probes show unexpected variation since demagnetization of the magnet is occurred by temperature increase up to the Curie temperature. In this study, electromagnetic probe incorporating a miniature electromagnet was newly developed to overcome such unexpected variation. The diameter and the length of the sensor was 6 mm and 155 mm, respectively. The sensitivity and the measurement volume of the probe were assessed by measurement of local velocity of flowing mercury in a square channel. To clarify the validity for the measured velocity profiles, numerical velocity profiles were calculated and compared with experiment. And the validity for the measured velocity profiles were confirmed by calculated result.

JAEA Reports

Mechanical property evaluation of Zircaloy cladding tube after LOCA-simulated experiment using nanoindentation method (Joint research)

Kakiuchi, Kazuo; Udagawa, Yutaka; Yamauchi, Akihiro*

JAEA-Research 2022-001, 21 Pages, 2022/06

JAEA-Research-2022-001.pdf:1.84MB

The primary cause of cladding embrittlement during loss-of-cool ant accident (LOCA) is the increase in oxygen concentration in the metallic layer and associated microstructural change due to oxidation. In the case of cladding high temperature rupture, inner surface oxidation by the steam ingress and the consequent increase in hydrogen partial pressure result in hydrogen absorption (secondary hydriding) localized in the axial direction at the distance apart from the rupture opening as is well known from preceding studies. In order to understand the effect of cladding microstructural changes on mechanical property of a fuel rod under LOCA conditions in a more precise and quantitative manner, the nanoindentation method has been applied to evaluation of mechanical properties of a cladding specimen after a LOCA simulated test; results for two samples taken from the rupture opening part and secondary hydriding part were compared with each other. The fraction of plastic work during the indentation was evaluated from the load-displacement curve in addition to hardness and Young's modulus. The plastic work fraction at the secondary hydriding part was found to be clearly lower than that at the rupture opening part and rather close to that in the ZrO$$_{2}$$ and $$alpha$$-Zr(O) layers, suggesting the significant ductility reduction of the secondary hydriding part despite its relatively low oxygen concentration.

Journal Articles

Hydrogen-Ti$$^{3+}$$ complex as a possible origin of localized electron behavior in hydrogen-irradiated SrTiO$$_3$$

Ito, Takashi

e-Journal of Surface Science and Nanotechnology (Internet), 20(3), p.128 - 134, 2022/05

Journal Articles

Effects of azimuthal temperature distribution and rod internal gas energy on ballooning deformation and rupture opening formation of a 17 $$times$$ 17 type PWR fuel cladding tube under LOCA-simulated burst conditions

Furumoto, Kenichiro; Udagawa, Yutaka

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 12 Pages, 2022/00

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Journal Articles

Tree cutting approach for domain partitioning on forest-of-octrees-based block-structured static adaptive mesh refinement with lattice Boltzmann method

Hasegawa, Yuta; Aoki, Takayuki*; Kobayashi, Hiromichi*; Idomura, Yasuhiro; Onodera, Naoyuki

Parallel Computing, 108, p.102851_1 - 102851_12, 2021/12

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Computer Science, Theory & Methods)

The aerodynamics simulation code based on the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) using forest-of-octrees-based block-structured local mesh refinement (LMR) was implemented, and its performance was evaluated on GPU-based supercomputers. We found that the conventional Space-Filling-Curve-based (SFC) domain partitioning algorithm results in costly halo communication in our aerodynamics simulations. Our new tree cutting approach improved the locality and the topology of the partitioned sub-domains and reduced the communication cost to one-third or one-fourth of the original SFC approach. In the strong scaling test, the code achieved maximum $$times1.82$$ speedup at the performance of 2207 MLUPS (mega- lattice update per second) on 128 GPUs. In the weak scaling test, the code achieved 9620 MLUPS at 128 GPUs with 4.473 billion grid points, while the parallel efficiency was 93.4% from 8 to 128 GPUs.

Journal Articles

Comparisons between passive RCCSs on degree of passive safety features against accidental conditions and methodology to determine structural thickness of scaled-down heat removal test facilities

Takamatsu, Kuniyoshi; Matsumoto, Tatsuya*; Liu, W.*; Morita, Koji*

Annals of Nuclear Energy, 162, p.108512_1 - 108512_10, 2021/11

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The objectives of this study are as follows: to understand the characteristics, degree of passive safety features for heat removal were compared for RCCSs based on atmospheric radiation and based on atmospheric natural circulation under the same conditions. Next, simulations on accidental conditions, such as increasing average heat-transfer coefficient via natural convection due to natural disasters, were performed with STAR-CCM+, and methodology to control the amount of heat removal was discussed. As a result, a new RCCS based on atmospheric radiation is recommended because of the excellent degree of passive safety features/conditions, and the amount of heat removal by heat transfer surfaces which can be controlled. Finally, methodology to determine structural thickness of scaled-down heat removal test facilities for reproducing natural convection and radiation was developed, and experimental methods by using pressurized and decompressed chambers was also proposed.

Journal Articles

Coherent eddies transporting passive scalars through the plant canopy revealed by Large-Eddy simulations using the lattice Boltzmann method

Watanabe, Tsutomu*; Takagi, Marie*; Shimoyama, Ko*; Kawashima, Masayuki*; Onodera, Naoyuki; Inagaki, Atsushi*

Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 181(1), p.39 - 71, 2021/10

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:35.64(Meteorology & Atmospheric Sciences)

A double-distribution-function lattice Boltzmann model for large-eddy simulations of a passive scalar field is described within and above a plant canopy. For a top-down scalar, for which the plant canopy serves as a distributed sink, the flux of the scalar near the canopy top are predominantly determined by sweep motions originating far above the canopy. By contrast, scalar ejection events are induced by coherent eddies generated near the canopy top. In this paper, the generation of such eddies is triggered by the downward approach of massive sweep motions to existing wide regions of weak ejective motions from inside to above the canopy.

Journal Articles

Study on mechanism and threshold conditions for fuel fragmentation during loss-of-coolant accident conditions

Narukawa, Takafumi; Udagawa, Yutaka

Proceedings of TopFuel 2021 (Internet), 10 Pages, 2021/10

Journal Articles

Temperature effects on local structure, phase transformation, and mechanical properties of calcium silicate hydrates

Im, S.*; Jee, H.*; Suh, H.*; Kanematsu, Manabu*; Morooka, Satoshi; Koyama, Taku*; Nishio, Yuhei*; Machida, Akihiko*; Kim, J.*; Bae, S.*

Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 104(9), p.4803 - 4818, 2021/09

 Times Cited Count:5 Percentile:67.23(Materials Science, Ceramics)

Journal Articles

Numerical investigations on the coolability and the re-criticality of a debris bed with the density-stratified configuration

Li, C.; Uchibori, Akihiro; Takata, Takashi; Pellegrini, M.*; Erkan, N.*; Okamoto, Koji*

Dai-25-Kai Doryoku, Enerugi Gijutsu Shimpojiumu Koen Rombunshu (Internet), 4 Pages, 2021/07

The capability of stable cooling and avoiding re-criticality on the debris bed are the main issues for achieving IVR (In-Vessel Retention). In the actual situation, the debris bed is composed of mixed-density debris particles. Hence, when these mixed-density debris particles were launched to re-distribute, the debris bed would possibly form a density-stratified distribution. For the proper evaluation of this scenario, the multi-physics model of CFD-DEM-Monte-Carlo based neutronics is established to investigate the coolability and re-criticality on the heterogeneous density-stratified debris bed with considering the particle relocation. The CFD-DEM model has been verified by utilizing water injection experiments on the mixed-density particle bed in the first portion of this research. In the second portion, the coupled system of the CFD-DEM-Monte-Carlo based neutronics model is applied to reactor cases. Afterward, the debris particles' movement, debris particles' and coolant's temperature, and the k-eff eigenvalue are successfully tracked. Ultimately, the relocation and stratification effects on debris bed's coolability and re-criticality had been quantitatively confirmed.

Journal Articles

In situ diffraction characterization on microstructure evolution in austenitic stainless steel during cyclic plastic deformation and its relation to the mechanical response

Kumagai, Masayoshi*; Akita, Koichi*; Kuroda, Masatoshi*; Harjo, S.

Materials Science & Engineering A, 820, p.141582_1 - 141582_9, 2021/07

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:60.25(Nanoscience & Nanotechnology)

JAEA Reports

Data report of ROSA/LSTF experiment SB-PV-09; 1.9% pressure vessel top small break LOCA with SG depressurization and gas inflow

Takeda, Takeshi

JAEA-Data/Code 2021-006, 61 Pages, 2021/04

JAEA-Data-Code-2021-006.pdf:2.78MB

An experiment denoted as SB-PV-09 was conducted on November 17, 2005 using the Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF) in the Rig of Safety Assessment-V (ROSA-V) Program. The ROSA/LSTF experiment SB-PV-09 simulated a 1.9% pressure vessel top small-break loss-of-coolant accident in a pressurized water reactor (PWR). The test assumptions included total failure of high pressure injection system and non-condensable gas (nitrogen gas) inflow to the primary system from accumulator (ACC) tanks of emergency core cooling system (ECCS). In the experiment, liquid level in the upper-head was found to control break flow rate. When maximum core exit temperature reached 623 K, steam generator (SG) secondary-side depressurization was initiated by fully opening the relief valves in both SGs as an accident management (AM) action. The AM action, however, was ineffective on the primary depressurization until the SG secondary-side pressure decreased to the primary pressure. Meanwhile, the core power was automatically reduced when maximum cladding surface temperature of simulated fuel rods exceeded the pre-determined value of 958 K to protect the LSTF core due to late and slow response of core exit temperature. After the automatic core power reduction, loop seal clearing (LSC) was induced in both loops by steam condensation on the ACC coolant injected into cold legs. The whole core was quenched because of core recovery after the LSC. After the ACC tanks started to discharge nitrogen gas, the pressure difference between the primary and SG secondary sides became larger. After the continuous core cooling was confirmed through the actuation of low pressure injection system of ECCS, the experiment was terminated. This report summarizes the test procedures, conditions, and major observations in the ROSA/LSTF experiment SB-PV-09.

JAEA Reports

Technical basis of ECCS acceptance criteria for light-water reactors and applicability to high burnup fuel

Nagase, Fumihisa; Narukawa, Takafumi; Amaya, Masaki

JAEA-Review 2020-076, 129 Pages, 2021/03

JAEA-Review-2020-076.pdf:3.9MB

Each light-water reactor (LWR) is equipped with the Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) to maintain the coolability of the reactor core and to suppress the release of radioactive fission products to the environment even in a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) caused by breaks in the reactor coolant pressure boundary. The acceptance criteria for ECCS have been established in order to evaluate the ECCS performance and confirm the sufficient safety margin in the evaluation. The limits defined in the criteria were determined in 1975 and reviewed based on state-of-the-art knowledge in 1981. Though the fuel burnup extension and necessary improvements of cladding materials and fuel design have been conducted, the criteria have not been reviewed since then. Meanwhile, much technical knowledge has been accumulated regarding the behavior of high-burnup fuel during LOCAs and the applicability of the criteria to the high-burnup fuel. This report provides a comprehensive review of the history and technical bases of the current criteria and summarizes state-of-the-art technical findings regarding the fuel behavior during LOCAs. The applicability of the current criteria to the high-burnup fuel is also discussed.

Journal Articles

Comparison between passive reactor cavity cooling systems based on atmospheric radiation and atmospheric natural circulation

Takamatsu, Kuniyoshi; Matsumoto, Tatsuya*; Liu, W.*; Morita, Koji*

Annals of Nuclear Energy, 151, p.107867_1 - 107867_11, 2021/02

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:33.13(Nuclear Science & Technology)

A new RCCS with passive safety features consists of two continuous closed regions. One is a region surrounding RPV. The other is a cooling region with heat transferred to the ambient air. The new RCCS needs no electrical or mechanical driving devices. We compared the RCCS using atmospheric radiation with that using atmospheric natural circulation in terms of passive safety features and control methods for heat removal. The magnitude relationship for passive safety features is heat conduction $$>$$ radiation $$>$$ natural convection. Therefore, the magnitude for passive safety features of the former RCCS can be higher than that of the latter RCCS. In controlling the heat removal, the former RCCS changes the heat transfer area only. On the other hand, the latter RCCS needs to change the chimney effect. It is necessary to change the air resistance in the duct. Therefore, the former RCCS can control the heat removal more easily than the latter RCCS.

Journal Articles

Quantifying the dislocation structures of additively manufactured Ti-6Al-4V alloys using X-ray diffraction line profile analysis

Yamanaka, Kenta*; Kuroda, Asumi*; Ito, Miyu*; Mori, Manami*; Bian, H.*; Shobu, Takahisa; Sato, Shigeo*; Chiba, Akihiko*

Additive Manufacturing, 37, p.101678_1 - 101678_12, 2021/01

 Times Cited Count:11 Percentile:86.5(Engineering, Manufacturing)

Journal Articles

Major outcomes through recent ROSA/LSTF experiments and future plans

Takeda, Takeshi; Wada, Yuki; Shibamoto, Yasuteru

World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 11(1), p.17 - 42, 2021/01

Journal Articles

Validation of analysis models on relocation behavior of molten core materials in sodium-cooled fast reactors based on the melt discharge experiment

Igarashi, Kai*; Onuki, Ryoji*; Sakai, Takaaki*; Kato, Shinya; Matsuba, Kenichi; Kamiyama, Kenji

Proceedings of 2020 International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE 2020) (Internet), 6 Pages, 2020/08

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