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論文

Spontaneous topological Hall effect induced by non-coplanar antiferromagnetic order in intercalated van der Waals materials

高木 寛貴*; 高木 里奈*; 見波 将*; 野本 拓也*; 大石 一城*; 鈴木 通人*; 柳 有起*; 平山 元昭*; Khanh, N.*; 軽部 皓介*; et al.

Nature Physics, 19(7), p.961 - 968, 2023/07

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0.01(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

In ferromagnets, electric current generally induces a transverse Hall voltage in proportion to the internal magnetization. This effect is frequently used for electrical readout of the spin up and down states. While these properties are usually not expected in antiferromagnets, recent theoretical studies predicted that non-coplanar antiferromagnetic order with finite scalar spin chirality - meaning a solid angle spanned by neighboring spins - can induce a large spontaneous Hall effect even without net magnetization or external magnetic field. This phenomenon, the spontaneous topological Hall effect, can potentially be used for the efficient electrical readout of the antiferromagnetic states, but it has not been experimentally verified due to a lack of appropriate materials hosting such magnetism. Here, we report the discovery of all-in-all-out type non-coplanar antiferromagnetic order in triangular lattice compounds CoTa$$_{3}$$S$$_{6}$$ and CoNb$$_{3}$$S$$_{6}$$. These compounds are reported to host unconventionally large spontaneous Hall effect despite their vanishingly small net magnetization, and our analysis reveals that it can be explained in terms of the topological Hall effect that originates from the fictitious magnetic field associated with scalar spin chirality. These results indicate that the scalar spin chirality mechanism offers a promising route to the realisation of giant spontaneous Hall response even in compensated antiferromagnets, and highlight intercalated van der Waals magnets as a promising quasi-two-dimensional material platform to enable various nontrivial ways of electrical reading and possible writing of non-coplanar antiferromagnetic domains.

論文

Accuracy of measuring rebar strain in concrete using a diffractometer for residual stress analysis

安江 歩夢*; 川上 真由*; 小林 謙祐*; Kim, J.; 宮津 裕次*; 西尾 悠平*; 向井 智久*; 諸岡 聡; 兼松 学*

Quantum Beam Science (Internet), 7(2), p.15_1 - 15_14, 2023/05

Neutron diffraction is a noncontact method that can measure the rebar strain inside concrete. In this method, rebar strain and stress are calculated using the diffraction profile of neutrons irradiated during a specific time period. In general, measurement accuracy improves with the length of the measurement time. However, in previous studies, the measurement time was determined empirically, which makes the accuracy and reliability of the measurement results unclear. In this study, the relationship between the measurement time and the measurement standard deviation was examined for reinforced concrete specimens under different conditions. The aim was to clarify the accuracy of the measurement of rebar stress using the neutron diffraction method. It was found that if the optical setup of the neutron diffractometer and the conditions of the specimen are the same, there is a unique relationship between the diffraction intensity and the rebar stress standard deviation. Furthermore, using this unique relationship, this paper proposes a method for determining the measurement time from the allowable accuracy of the rebar stress, which ensures the accuracy of the neutron diffraction method.

論文

High-density nanoprecipitates and phase reversion via maraging enable ultrastrong yet strain-hardenable medium-entropy alloy

Kwon, H.*; Sathiyamoorthi, P.*; Gangaraju, M. K.*; Zargaran, A.*; Wang, J.*; Heo, Y.-U.*; Harjo, S.; Gong, W.; Lee, B.-J.*; Kim, H. S.*

Acta Materialia, 248, p.118810_1 - 118810_12, 2023/04

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0.01(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

Maraging steels, known for ultrahigh strength and good fracture toughness, derive their superior properties from lath martensite structure with high-density nanoprecipitates. In this work, we designed a novel Fe-based medium-entropy alloy with a chemical composition of Fe$$_{60}$$Co$$_{25}$$Ni$$_{10}$$Mo$$_5$$ in atomic% by utilizing the characteristics of the maraging steels. By a single-step aging of only 10 min at 650 $$^{circ}$$C, the alloy showed microstructures consisting of a very high number density of (Fe, Co, Ni)$$_7$$Mo$$_6$$-type nanoprecipitates in lath martensite structure and reverted FCC phase, which led to ultrahigh yield strength higher than 2 GPa. This work demonstrates a novel direction to produce strong and ductile materials by expanding the horizons of material design with the aid of high-entropy concept and overcoming the limits of conventional materials.

論文

Effect of extrusion ratio in hot-extrusion on kink deformation during compressive deformation in an $$alpha$$Mg/LPSO dual-phase magnesium alloy monitored by ${it in situ}$ neutron diffraction

Harjo, S.; Gong, W.; 相澤 一也; 川崎 卓郎; 山崎 倫昭*; 眞山 剛*; 河村 能人*

Materials Transactions, 64(4), p.766 - 773, 2023/02

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:79.89(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

To elucidate the effect of extrusion ratio in hot-extrusion on the deformation behavior during compression of Mg$$_{97}$$Zn$$_{1}$$Y$$_{2}$$ alloy containing about 25-vol% long-period stacking ordered phase (LPSO) in the HCP structured $$alpha$$ matrix ($$alpha$$Mg), ${it in situ}$ neutron diffraction measurements were performed under compressive loading using four types of samples: as-cast and after hot extrusion at 623 K with extrusion ratios of 5.0, 7.5 and 12.5. The macroscopic yielding was observed to appear by the occurrence of basal slip of $$alpha$$Mg in the as-cast sample and at the onset of twinning in the hot extruded samples. The applied stress to initiate slip, twinning, and kinking increased by hot extrusion and then decreased with increasing extrusion ratio. LPSO shared higher stress than $$alpha$$Mg and the ratio to the strength increased as the extrusion ratio increased.

論文

Evidence supporting reversible martensitic transformation under cyclic loading on Fe-Mn-Si-Al alloys using ${it in situ}$ neutron diffraction

澤口 孝宏*; 友田 陽*; 吉中 奎貴*; Harjo, S.

Acta Materialia, 242, p.118494_1 - 118494_14, 2023/01

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

Fe-Mn-Si-based alloys, show superior resistance to plastic fatigue compared to the conventional steels, which is ascribed to the reversible back-and-forth movement of Shockley partial dislocations associated with a reversible martensitic transformation between the face-centered cubic $$gamma$$-austenite and hexagonal close-packed $$epsilon$$-martensite. The purpose of this study was to gather evidence of the reversible martensitic transformation using in situ neutron diffraction under cyclic loading. Three Fe-30Mn-Si-Al alloys with different Gibbs free energy differences at 298 K were studied to unravel the effect of phase stability on the degree of reversibility.

論文

Unexpected dynamic transformation from $$alpha$$ phase to $$beta$$ phase in zirconium alloy revealed by in-situ neutron diffraction during high temperature deformation

Guo, B.*; Mao, W.; Chong, Y.*; 柴田 曉伸*; Harjo, S.; Gong, W.; Chen, H.*; Jonas, J. J.*; 辻 伸泰*

Acta Materialia, 242, p.118427_1 - 118427_11, 2023/01

 被引用回数:2 パーセンタイル:32.61(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

Dynamic transformation from alpha (HCP) to beta (BCC) phase in a zirconium alloy was revealed by the use of in-situ neutron diffraction during hot compression. The dynamic transformation was unexpectedly detected during isothermal compression at temperatures of 900$$^{circ}$$C and 950$$^{circ}$$C (alpha + beta two-phase region) and strain rates of 0.01 s$$^{-1}$$ and 0.001 s$$^{-1}$$, even though equilibrium two-phase states were achieved prior to the hot compression. Dynamic transformation was accompanied by diffusion of Sn from beta to alpha phase, which resulted in changes of lattice parameters and a characteristic microstructure of alpha grains. The details of dynamic transformation are discussed using the evolution of lattice constants.

論文

Rearrangement of hydrogen bonds in dehydrated raffinose tetrahydrate; A Time-of-flight neutron diffraction study

川崎 卓郎; 高橋 美和子*; 鬼柳 亮嗣; 大原 高志

Acta Crystallographica Section C; Structural Chemistry (Internet), 78(12), p.743 - 748, 2022/12

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0.01(Chemistry, Multidisciplinary)

Structural changes of the raffinose crystal on dehydration from the pentahydrate to the tetrahydrate were investigated by single-crystal time-of-flight neutron diffraction. It was revealed that during the dehydration, rearrangement occurs in the hydrogen bonds related to the lost water molecule, while the symmetry of the crystal structure is retained. The hydrogen-bonding status of raffinose pentahydrate and tetrahydrate were discussed comprehensively according to Jeffrey's hydrogen-bonding classification. It was shown that water molecules are hydrogen bonded to the surrounding molecules by ${it moderate}$ O-H...O hydrogen bonds and ${it weak}$ C-H...O hydrogen bonds, and the number of these two types of hydrogen bonds determines the water molecules that are removed by dehydration. The lattice constant c showed a significant decrease on dehydration and further dehydration leads to loss of crystallinity of the raffinose crystals.

論文

Microstructure and plasticity evolution during L$"u$ders deformation in an Fe-5Mn-0.1C medium-Mn steel

小山 元道*; 山下 享介*; 諸岡 聡; 澤口 孝宏*; Yang, Z.*; 北條 智彦*; 川崎 卓郎; Harjo, S.

ISIJ International, 62(10), p.2036 - 2042, 2022/10

 被引用回数:4 パーセンタイル:68.37(Metallurgy & Metallurgical Engineering)

The local plasticity and associated microstructure evolution in Fe-5Mn-0.1C medium-Mn steel (wt.%) were investigated in this study. Specifically, the micro-deformation mechanism during L$"u$ders banding was characterized based on multi-scale electron backscatter diffraction measurements and electron channeling contrast imaging. Similar to other medium-Mn steels, the Fe-5Mn-0.1C steel showed discontinuous macroscopic deformation, preferential plastic deformation in austenite, and deformation-induced martensitic transformation during L$"u$ders deformation. Hexagonal close-packed martensite was also observed as an intermediate phase. Furthermore, an in-situ neutron diffraction experiment revealed that the pre-existing body-centered cubic phase, which was mainly ferrite, was a minor deformation path, although ferrite was the major constituent phase.

論文

In situ neutron diffraction analysis of microstructural evolution-dependent stress response in austenitic stainless steel under cyclic plastic deformation

熊谷 正芳*; 黒田 雅利*; 松野 崇*; Harjo, S.; 秋田 貢一*

Materials & Design, 221, p.110965_1 - 110965_8, 2022/09

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:29.58(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

Microstructural evolution in austenitic stainless steels during cyclic plastic deformation has been studied via diffraction line profile analysis; however, their microstructure-dependent mechanical response upon stress partitioning in the matrix (austenite) and deformation-induced martensite has remained largely unexplored. In this study, the stress response analysis of austenitic stainless steel was performed using neutron diffraction, to evaluate the phase stresses in the austenite and martensite, and the relation with dislocation data was discussed.

論文

Work hardening behavior of hot-rolled metastable Fe$$_{50}$$Co$$_{25}$$Ni$$_{10}$$Al$$_{5}$$Ti$$_{5}$$Mo$$_{5}$$ medium-entropy alloy; In situ neutron diffraction analysis

Kwon, H.*; Harjo, S.; 川崎 卓郎; Gong, W.; Jeong, S. G.*; Kim, E. S.*; Sathiyamoorthi, P.*; 加藤 秀実*; Kim, H. S.*

Science and Technology of Advanced Materials, 23(1), p.579 - 586, 2022/00

 被引用回数:3 パーセンタイル:63.89(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

Metastability engineering is a strategy to enhance the strength and ductility of alloys via deliberately lowering phase stability and prompting deformation-induced martensitic transformation. In this work, the martensitic transformation and its effect on the mechanical response of a Fe$$_{50}$$Co$$_{25}$$Ni$$_{10}$$Al$$_{5}$$Ti$$_{5}$$Mo$$_{5}$$ medium-entropy alloy (MEA) were studied by in situ neutron diffraction under tensile loading. This work shows how great a role FCC to BCC martensitic transformation can play in enhancing the mechanical properties of ferrous MEAs.

論文

Anisotropic thermal lattice expansion and crystallographic structure of strontium aluminide within Al-10Sr alloy as measured by in-situ neutron diffraction

Liss, K.-D.*; Harjo, S.; 川崎 卓郎; 相澤 一也; 徐 平光

Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 869, p.159232_1 - 159232_9, 2021/07

AA2020-0822.pdf:1.94MB

 被引用回数:5 パーセンタイル:51.97(Chemistry, Physical)

The aluminium strontium master alloy Al-10Sr has been investigated by in-situ neutron diffraction upon a heating-cooling cycle, revealing composition, crystallographic structure, lattice evolution and linear thermal expansion coefficients. Expansion of the Al matrix between (23.5 ... 26.7)$$times$$10$$^{-6}$$ K$$^{-1}$$ depends on temperature and fits well to the literature values, extrapolating to higher temperature at 800 K. Thermal expansion is highly anisotropic for tetragonal Al$$_{4}$$Sr by a factor of 1.86 with values of 20.8 and 11.1$$times$$10$$^{-6}$$ K$$^{-1}$$ in ${it a}$ and ${it c}$-axis. The even large discrepancy to the Al matrix is prone to residual intergranular phase stresses, explaining the brittleness of such composite material. Upon first heating, recovery of the initially plastically deformed materials is observed until 600 K and 700 K, for Al$$_{4}$$Sr and Al. Rietveld analysis refines the 4${it e}$ Wyckoff positions of the ${it I}$ 4/${it m m m}$ crystal structure to ${it z}$ = 0.39 revealing that local tetrahedrons are regular while local hexagons are stretched, in contrast to the literature. Its lattice parameters report to $$a_{rm I}$$ = 4.44240(48) ${AA}$, $$c_{rm I}$$ = 11.0836(15) ${AA}$ at 300 K. Furthermore, the manuscript demonstrates full technical analysis of the neutron data. Findings feed into data bases and an outlook for improving mechanical properties of Al$$_{4}$$Sr composites is given.

論文

Work hardening behavior of dual phase copper-iron alloy at low temperature

山下 享介*; 古賀 紀光*; 川崎 卓郎; 諸岡 聡; 友野 翔平*; 梅澤 修*; Harjo, S.

Materials Science & Engineering A, 819, p.141509_1 - 141509_10, 2021/07

 被引用回数:11 パーセンタイル:76.93(Nanoscience & Nanotechnology)

In-situ neutron diffraction measurements were performed on a cold-rolled copper-iron (Cu-Fe) alloy during tensile tests at 293 K and 150 K. The roles of Cu and Fe on the deformation behavior of alloys were discussed and clarified. The strength and work-hardening rate of the alloy increased with decreasing test temperature. Furthermore, the phase stress of Fe increased considerably with decreasing test temperature; however, the response of this stress to the applied true stress exhibited no dependence on the temperature. The phase stresses of Cu changed only slightly with decreasing test temperature. However, the Cu phase stress response to the applied true stress increased with decreasing test temperature, indicating an increase in the work-hardening rate. The strengthening of Fe and the increase in the work-hardening of Cu contributed to an increase in the strength and work-hardening rate of the Cu-Fe alloy at low temperatures.

論文

In situ diffraction characterization on microstructure evolution in austenitic stainless steel during cyclic plastic deformation and its relation to the mechanical response

熊谷 正芳*; 秋田 貢一*; 黒田 雅利*; Harjo, S.

Materials Science & Engineering A, 820, p.141582_1 - 141582_9, 2021/07

 被引用回数:5 パーセンタイル:51.97(Nanoscience & Nanotechnology)

In situ neutron diffraction during 250 cycles of plastic deformation was performed and the diffraction line profile analysis was performed to qualitatively evaluate the change in the microstructure of austenitic stainless steel during the cyclic deformation. The dislocation density increased with increasing number of cycles until 50 cycles but thereafter decreased. The cycle number corresponding to this maximum point differed depending on whether it was evaluated as the total dislocation density or was deconvoluted into edge and screw dislocation densities. At the initial state, edge dislocations were predominant; however, screw dislocations greatly increased at the first stage of cyclic loading. Afterwards, edge dislocations formed cell walls and screw dislocations annihilated.

論文

Multiple wavelengths texture measurement using angle dispersive neutron diffraction at WOMBAT

徐 平光; Liss, K.-D.*

Quantum Beam Science (Internet), 5(2), p.11_1 - 11_14, 2021/06

AA2020-0801.pdf:11.28MB

In contrast to conventional angle dispersive neutron diffractometers with a single-tube detector or a small-size linear position-sensitive detector, the WOMBAT diffractometer at Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) is equipped with a large-area curved position-sensitive detector, spanning 120$$^{circ}$$ for the scattering angle 2$$theta$$ and 15$$^{circ}$$ for the azimuth ${it $eta$}$, respectively. Here, WOMBAT was employed to establish a texture measurement environment for complex textured samples, through measuring neutron diffractograms at two selected wavelengths on a typical reference sample of martensite-austenite multilayered steel sheet. All neutron patterns were simultaneously Rietveld analyzed using the software, Materials Analysis Using Diffraction (MAUD). The shorter wavelength enabled to collect the martensite diffraction peaks 110, 200, 211, 220, 310, 222 as well as the austenite diffraction peaks 111, 200, 220, 311, 222, 331 diffraction peaks simultaneously by pre-setting the detector range to 2$$theta$$ = 30$$sim$$150$$^{circ}$$. The longer wavelength enabled to separate the overlapping strong martensite peak 110 and austenite peak 111 more reliably. Moreover, the detector panel division along the vertical direction covers a good stereographic coverage in the azimuthal angle. Such combination of multiple wavelength neutron diffraction combined with simultaneous Rietveld texture analysis was confirmed much valuable to realize high precision measurements for complex textured samples at an orientation distribution function (ODF) graticule of 5$$^{circ}$$, and in a much shorter beam time than the conventional angle dispersive method.

論文

Analysis of residual stress in steel bar processed by cold drawing and straightening

西田 智*; 西野 創一郎*; 関根 雅彦*; 岡 勇希*; Harjo, S.; 川崎 卓郎; 鈴木 裕士; 森井 幸生*; 石井 慶信*

Materials Transactions, 62(5), p.667 - 674, 2021/05

 被引用回数:2 パーセンタイル:23.5(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

In this study, we used neutron diffraction to analyze in a non-destructive method the distribution of internal residual stress in a free-cutting steel bar processed by cold drawing and straightening. The residual stresses were successfully measured with excellent stress balance. The residual stresses generated by the cold-drawing process were reduced by subsequent straightening, and the distribution of residual stresses by finite element method (FEM) simulation was consistent with the measured values by neutron diffraction. As a result of the FEM analysis, it is assumed that the rod was subjected to strong tensile strains in the axial direction during the drawing process, and the residual stresses were generated when the rod was unloaded. Those residual stresses were presumably reduced by the redistribution of residual stresses in the subsequent straightening process.

論文

Pressure-dependent structure of methanol-water mixtures up to 1.2 GPa; Neutron diffraction experiments and molecular dynamics simulations

Temleitner, L.*; 服部 高典; 阿部 淳*; 中島 陽一*; Pusztai, L.*

Molecules (Internet), 26(5), p.1218_1 - 1218_12, 2021/03

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:0(Biochemistry & Molecular Biology)

全組成域にわたるメタノール水混合系(CD$$_{3}$$OD-D$$_{2}$$O)の全構造因子を中性子回折により約1.2GPaまでの圧力で調べた。最も大きな圧力変化は、$$Q=$$ 5 $AA$^{-1}$$以下の範囲において、第一および第2ピークのシフトとして見られた。この変化の起源を明らかにするために、実験した圧力での分子動力学計算を行った。その結果、ピーク高はあまり再現できなかったものの、ピークシフトは、定量的に再現できた。圧力が隣接分子間の斥力に大きな影響を与えることを考慮すると、実験と計算の一致は満足できるものであると言える。圧力の局所構造への影響を調べるために、計算で得られた構造を水素結合に関係した部分動径分布関数や水素結合環状構造のサイズ分布の観点から解析した。その結果、水リッチおよびメタノールリッチな組成域で、構造の圧力変化に大きな違いがあることが分かった。

論文

Relation between intergranular stress of austenite and martensitic transformation in TRIP steels revealed by neutron diffraction

Harjo, S.; 川崎 卓郎; 土田 紀之*; 諸岡 聡; Gong, W.*

ISIJ International, 61(2), p.648 - 656, 2021/02

 被引用回数:3 パーセンタイル:34.53(Metallurgy & Metallurgical Engineering)

${it In situ}$ neutron diffraction measurements of two low-alloy steels and a 304-type stainless steel during tensile and creep tests were performed at room temperature. Changes in the diffraction pattern, the integrated peak intensities of austenite ($$gamma$$), and the peak positions of $$gamma$$ were analyzed and discussed to elucidate the relationship between intergranular stress in $$gamma$$ and the occurrence of martensitic transformation during deformation. Tensile loading experiments revealed that the susceptibility to martensitic transformation depended on the $$gamma$$-(hkl) grains, where $$gamma$$-(111) grains underwent martensitic transformation at the latest. The $$gamma$$-hkl dependence of the susceptibility to martensitic transformation was found to be controlled by the shear stress levels in $$gamma$$-(hkl) grains, which were affected by the intergranular stress partitioning during deformation.

論文

Detailed investigations on short- and intermediate-range structures of Ge-Se glasses near the stiffness transition composition

細川 伸也*; 川北 至信; Pusztai, L.*; 池田 一貴*; 大友 季哉*

Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, 90(2), p.024601_1 - 024601_12, 2021/02

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:21.08(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

In order to improve the reliability of short- and intermediate-range atomic structures of Ge$$_x$$Se$$_{1-x}$$ glasses, high quality neutron diffraction data, in both the real and reciprocal spaces, were added to the existing anomalous X-ray scattering and X-ray diffraction datasets [Hosokawa et al., Phys. Rev. B 84, 014201 (2011)] for reverse Monte Carlo modeling. This addition proved to be highly effective for obtaining well-refined structural data and for revealing a close relationship between the compositional stiffness transition occurring at about $$x$$ = 0.20-0.26 and the partial structures. Although the $$S_{ij}(Q)$$ and $$g_{ij}(r)$$ functions gradually change with varying $$x$$, important indications on the stiffness transition are confirmed on the basis of the intermediate-range element-selective atomic structures (${it hyper-ordered structures}$) more clearly than it was possible by previous results. An abrupt decrease in terms of the the prepeak intensity of $$S_{GeGe}(Q)$$, a rapid disappearance of the Ge-Ge homopolar bonds, anomalies in the ratio of edge- and corner-sharing Ge(Se$$_{1/2}$$)$$_4$$ tetrahedra, and characteristic changes in the tetrahedral connections with decreasing X across the so-called intermediate phase have all been observed.

論文

パルス中性子応力測定法による超音波衝撃処理した十字溶接継手の残留応力評価

鈴木 環輝*; 大川 鉄平*; Harjo, S.; 佐々木 敏彦*

日本機械学会論文集(インターネット), 87(894), p.20-00377_1 - 20-00377_15, 2021/02

The residual stress state inside the cruciform welded joints were measured using the pulsed neutron stress measurement method. The points of interest in this study are the weld toe and its interior. We also compared the cases with and without ultrasonic impact treatment (UIT), which is expected as a fatigue strength improvement technology. Furthermore, the case where tensile stress or compressive stress was applied after UIT treatment was also examined. The applied stresses at this time were 75% or 85% of the yield point, respectively. From the above, we considered the cause of the change in the residual stress on the surface after UIT treatment, which was clarified in the preliminary experiment, in the early stage of fatigue. As a result, the load after the UIT treatment caused plastic deformation in a part of the inside, which caused the redistribution of residual stress.

論文

Continuous and discontinuous yielding behaviors in ferrite-cementite steels

Wang, Y.*; 友田 陽*; 大村 孝仁*; Gong, W.*; Harjo, S.; 田中 雅彦*

Acta Materialia, 196, p.565 - 575, 2020/09

 被引用回数:26 パーセンタイル:90.83(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

The continuous and discontinuous yielding behaviors in ferrite-cementite steels were complementarily investigated via nano- and macroscale deformation examinations. The results obtained by electron microscopy, synchrotron X-ray, and neutron diffractions indicate that the ferrite-cementite interface of the heat-treated specimen is semi-coherent with a high internal stress field, whereas that of the recrystallized one is incoherent with a low internal stress field. Moreover, coherency strain, which depends on the total area of the ferrite-cementite interface, and thermal strain, which is governed by temperature, are the two factors that influence peak broadening. The nanoindentation tests revealed that the critical loads are significantly lower near the semi-coherent interface than those near the incoherent interface and the ferrite grain boundary; this suggests that dislocations are easily emitted from the semi-coherent interface.

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