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JAEA Reports

Study on the radioactivity evaluation method of biological shielding concrete of JPDR for near surface disposal

Kochiyama, Mami; Okada, Shota; Sakai, Akihiro

JAEA-Technology 2021-010, 61 Pages, 2021/07


It is necessary to evaluate the radioactivity inventory in wastes in order to dispose of radioactive wastes generated from dismantling nuclear reactor in the shallow ground. In this report, we examined radioactivity evaluation method for near surface disposal about biological shield concrete near the core generated from the dismantling of JPDR. We calculated radioactive concentration of the target biological concrete using the DORT code and the ORIGEN-S code, and we estimated radioactivity concentration Di (Bq/t). For DORT calculation, the cross-section library created from the MATXSLIB-J40 file from JENDL-4.0 was used, and for ORIGEN-S, the attached library of SCALE6.0 was used. As a result of comparing the calculation results of the radioactivity concentration with the past measured values in the radial direction and the vertical direction, we found that the trends were generally the same. We calculated radioactive concentration of the target biological concrete Di (Bq/t), and we compared with the estimated Ci (Bq/t) equivalent to the dose criteria of trench disposal calculated for 140 nuclides. As a result we inferred that the except for about 2% of target waste could be disposed of in the trench disposal facility. We also preselected important nuclides for trench disposal based on the ratios (Di/Ci) for each nuclide, H-3, C-14, Cl-36, Ca-41, Co-60, Sr-90, Eu-152 and Cs-137 were selected as important nuclides.

JAEA Reports

Development of burnup/depletion calculation code based on ORIGEN2 cross-section libraries and Chebyshev rational approximation method, CRAMO

Yokoyama, Kenji; Jin, Tomoyuki*

JAEA-Data/Code 2021-001, 47 Pages, 2021/03


A new burnup/depletion calculation code, CRAMO, was developed by combining an ORIGEN2 cross-section library set, ORLIB, based on Japanese evaluated nuclear data library, JENDL, and a burnup/depletion solver based on Chebyshev rational approximation method. CRAMO uses the ORIGEN2 cross-section library set ORLIBJ40 based on JENDL-4.0, and the burnup/depletion solver implemented in the versatile reactor analysis code system, MARBLE. It was confirmed that results of CRAMO agreed well with those of ORIGEN2 for burnup/depletion and radioactivity calculation cases. The development of CRAMO made it possible to use ORLIB without using ORIGEN2. It will be possible to provide an easy-to-use processed JENDL data set for burnup/depletion and radioactivity calculations in combination with a burnup/depletion based on Chebyshev rational approximation method. The present version of CRAMO is a subset of ORIGEN2 and can compute only compositions and radioactivities after irradiation. However, since various kinds of outputs of ORIGEN2 can be evaluated by using the composition, it is possible to reproduce many functions of ORIGEN2 by adding post-processing modules.

JAEA Reports

Selection of nuclides for mass-balance analysis of fission products

Okamura, Tomohiro*; Oizumi, Akito; Nishihara, Kenji; Nakase, Masahiko*; Takeshita, Kenji*

JAEA-Data/Code 2020-023, 32 Pages, 2021/03


Nuclear Material Balance code (NMB code) have been developed in Japan Atomic Energy Agency. The NMB code will be updated with the function of mass balance analysis at the backend process such as reprocessing, vitrification and geological disposal. In order to perform its analysis with high accuracy, it is necessary to expand the number of FP nuclides calculated in the NMB code. In this study, depletion calculation by ORIGEN code was performed under 3 different burn-up conditions such as spent uranium fuel from light water reactor, and nuclides were selected from 5 evaluation indexes such as mass and heat generation. In addition, the FP nuclides required to configure a simple burnup chain with the same calculation accuracy as ORIGEN in the NMB code was selected. As the result, two lists with different number of nuclides, such as "Detailed list" and a "Simplified list", were created.

Journal Articles

Feasibility study on tritium recoil barrier for neutron reflectors of research and test reactors

Kenzhina, I.*; Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Ho, H. Q.; Sakamoto, Naoki*; Okumura, Keisuke; Takemoto, Noriyuki; Chikhray, Y.*

Fusion Engineering and Design, 164, p.112181_1 - 112181_5, 2021/03

Tritium release into the primary coolant during operation of the JMTR (Japan Materials Testing Reactor) and the JRR-3M (Japan Research Reactor-3M) had been studied. It is found that the recoil release by $$^{6}$$Li(n$$_{t}$$,$$alpha$$)$$^{3}$$H reaction, which comes from a chain reaction of beryllium neutron reflectors, is dominant. To prevent tritium recoil release, the surface area of beryllium neutron reflectors needs to be minimum in the core design and/or be shielded with other material. In this paper, as the feasibility study of the tritium recoil barrier for the beryllium neutron reflectors, various materials such as Al, Ti, V, Ni, and Zr were evaluated from the viewpoint of the thickness of barriers, activities after long-term operations, and effects on the reactivities. From the results of evaluations, Al would be a suitable candidate as the tritium recoil barrier for the beryllium neutron reflectors.

Journal Articles

Evaluation of tritium release into primary coolant for research and testing reactors

Kenzhina, I.*; Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Okumura, Keisuke; Ho, H. Q.; Takemoto, Noriyuki; Chikhray, Y.*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 58(1), p.1 - 8, 2021/01

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The sources and mechanisms for the tritium release into the primary coolant in the JMTR and the JRR-3M containing beryllium reflectors are evaluated. It is found that the recoil release from chain reaction of $$^{9}$$Be is dominant and its calculation results agree well with trends derived from the measured variation of tritium concentration in the primary coolant. It also indicates that the simple calculation method used in this study for the tritium recoil release from the beryllium reflectors can be utilized for an estimation of the tritium release into the primary coolant for a research and testing reactors containing beryllium reflectors.

JAEA Reports

Development of inventory calculation modules using ORIGEN-S for decommissioning

Matsuda, Norihiro; Konno, Chikara; Ikehara, Tadashi; Okumura, Keisuke; Suyama, Kenya*

JAEA-Data/Code 2020-003, 33 Pages, 2020/03


Data handling modules for the radioactivity calculation code, ORIGEN-S, are developed for the reliable evaluations of radioactivity inventory. By using these modules, an activation cross-section data library for the ORIGEN-S code is updated easily and effectively based on a facility-specific neutron spectrum and multi-group neutron activation cross-section library for decommissioning of nuclear facilities, MAXS2015. In order to guarantee the reliability of the radioactivity calculations, functions of data verification in a visual way and numerical comparison between before and after the data processing are also prepared.

JAEA Reports

Calculations of Tritium Recoil Release from Li and U Impurities in Neutron Reflectors (Joint research)

Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Kenzhina, I.*; Okumura, Keisuke; Ho, H. Q.; Takemoto, Noriyuki; Chikhray, Y.*

JAEA-Technology 2018-010, 33 Pages, 2018/11


As a part of study on the mechanism of tritium release to the primary coolant in research and testing reactors, tritium recoil release rate from Li and U impurities in the neutron reflector made by beryllium, aluminum and graphite were calculated by PHITS code. On the other hand, the tritium production from Li and U impurities in beryllium neutron reflectors for JMTR and JRR-3M were calculated by MCNP6 and ORIGEN2 code. By using both results, the amount of recoiled tritium from beryllium neutron reflectors were estimated. It is clear that the amount of recoiled tritium from Li and U impurities in beryllium neutron reflectors are negligible, and 2 and 5 orders smaller than that from beryllium itself, respectively.

Journal Articles

Burn-up characteristics and criticality effect of impurities in the graphite structure of a commercial-scale prismatic HTGR

Fukaya, Yuji; Goto, Minoru; Nishihara, Tetsuo

Nuclear Engineering and Design, 326, p.108 - 113, 2018/01


 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:45.99(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Burn-up characteristics and criticality of impurity contained into graphite structure for commercial scale prismatic High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) have been investigated. For HTGR, of which the core is filled graphite structure, the impurity contained into the graphite has unignorable poison effect for criticality. Then, GTHTR300, commercial scale HTGR, employed high grade graphite material named IG-110 to take into account the criticality effect for the reflector blocks next to fuel blocks. The fuel blocks, which should also employ IG-110, employ lower grade graphite material named IG-11 from the economic perspective. In this study, the necessity of high grade graphite material for commercial scale HTGR is reconsidered by evaluating the burn-up characteristics and criticality of the impurity. The poison effect of the impurity, which is used to be expressed by a boron equivalent, reduces exponentially like burn-up of $$^{10}$$B, and saturate at a level of 1 % of the initial value of boron equivalent. On the other hand, the criticality effect of the boron equivalent of 0.03 ppm, which corresponds to a level of 1 % of IG-11 shows ignorable values lower than 0.01 %$$Delta$$k/kk' for both of fuel blocks and reflector blocks. The impurity can be represented by natural boron without problem. Therefore, the poison effect of the impurity is evaluated with whole core burn-up calculations. As a result, it is concluded that the impurity is not problematic from the viewpoint of criticality for commercial scale HTGR because it is burned clearly until End of Cycle (EOC) even with the low grade graphite material of IG-11. According to this result, more economic electricity generation with HTGR is expected by abolishing the utilization of IG-110.

Journal Articles

Validation of decay heat evaluation method based on FPGS cord for fast reactor spent MOX fuels

Usami, Shin; Kishimoto, Yasufumi; Taninaka, Hiroshi; Maeda, Shigetaka

Proceedings of International Conference on the Physics of Reactors; Unifying Theory and Experiments in the 21st Century (PHYSOR 2016) (USB Flash Drive), p.3263 - 3274, 2016/05

The present paper describes the validation of the new decay heat evaluation method using FPGS90 code with both the updated nuclear data library and the rational extent of uncertainty, by comparing the results of the decay heat measurement of the spent fuel subassemblies in Joyo MK-II core and by comparing with the calculation results of ORIGEN2.2 code. The calculated values of decay heat (C) by FPGS90 based on the JENDL-4.0 library were coincident with the measured ones (E) within the calculation uncertainties, and the C/E ranged from 1.01 to 0.93. FPGS90 evaluated the decay heat almost 3% larger than ORIGEN2.2, and it improved the C/E in comparison with the ORIGEN2.2 code. Furthermore, The C/E by FPGS90 based on the JENDL-4.0 library was improved than that based on the JENDL-3.2 library, and the contribution of the revision of reaction cross section library to the improvement was dominant rather than that of the decay data and fission yield data libraries.

JAEA Reports

Calculation of decay heat by new ORIGEN libraries for high temperature engineering test reactor

Simanullang, I. L.*; Honda, Yuki; Fukaya, Yuji; Goto, Minoru; Shimazaki, Yosuke; Fujimoto, Nozomu*; Takada, Shoji

JAEA-Technology 2015-032, 26 Pages, 2016/01


Decay heat of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor had been evaluated by the Shure Equation and/or ORIGEN code based on the LWR's data. However, to evaluate more accurately, a suitable method must be considered because of the differences neutron spectrums from the LWRs. Therefore, the decay heat and the generated nuclides for the neutron spectrums of the core with different graphite moderator amount were calculated by the ORIGEN2 code. As a result, it is clear that the calculated decay heats are similar value with LWRs for about one year after the reactor shutdown, and that the significant differences are observed on the longer period affected by the generated nuclides such as $$^{90}$$Y, $$^{134}$$Cs, $$^{144}$$Pr, $$^{106}$$Rh, $$^{241}$$Am etc. It is also clear that the dose is affected by $$^{241}$$Pu on the initial stage after the reactor shutdown.

JAEA Reports

SWAT4.0; The Integrated burnup code system driving continuous energy Monte Carlo codes MVP, MCNP and deterministic calculation code SRAC

Kashima, Takao; Suyama, Kenya; Takada, Tomoyuki*

JAEA-Data/Code 2014-028, 152 Pages, 2015/03


There have been two versions of SWAT depending on details of its development history: the revised SWAT that uses the deterministic calculation code SRAC as a neutron transportation solver, and the SWAT3.1 that uses the continuous energy Monte Carlo code MVP or MCNP5 for the same purpose. It takes several hours, however, to execute one calculation by the continuous energy Monte Carlo code even on the super computer of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency. Moreover, two-dimensional burnup calculation is not practical using the revised SWAT because it has problems on production of effective cross section data and applying them to arbitrary fuel geometry when a calculation model has multiple burnup zones. Therefore, SWAT4.0 has been developed by adding, to SWAT3.1, a function to utilize the deterministic code SARC2006, which has shorter calculation time, as an outer module of neutron transportation solver for burnup calculation. SWAT4.0 has been enabled to execute two-dimensional burnup calculation by providing an input data template of SRAC2006 to SWAT4.0 input data, and updating atomic number densities of burnup zones in each burnup step. This report describes outline, input data instruction, and examples of calculations of SWAT4.0.

JAEA Reports

Study on the prediction accuracy of nuclide generation and depletion with JENDL

Okumura, Keisuke; Oki, Shigeo*; Yamamoto, Munenari*; Matsumoto, Hideki*; Ando, Yoshihira*; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi; Sasahara, Akihiro*; Katakura, Junichi; Matsumura, Tetsuo*; Aoyama, Takafumi*; et al.

JAERI-Research 2004-025, 154 Pages, 2005/01


This report summarizes the activity (FY2000-2003) of Working Group (WG) on Evaluation of Nuclide Generation and Depletion under Subcommittee on Nuclear Fuel Cycle of Japanese Nuclear Data Committee. In the WG, analyses of Post Irradiation Examinations have been carried out for UO$$_{2}$$ and MOX fuels irradiated in PWRs, BWRs and FBRs, and for actinide samples irradiated in fast reactors, by using ORIGEN or more detailed calculation codes with their libraries based on JENDL-3.2, JENDL-3.3 and other foreign nuclear data files. From these results, current prediction accuracy and problems for evaluation of nuclide generation and depletion are discussed. Furthermore, this report covers other products of our activity; development of the ORIGEN libraries for PWR, BWR and FBR based on JENDL-3.3, study on introduction of neutron spectrum index to ORIGEN calculations, and results of questionnaire survey on desirable accuracy of ORIGEN calculations.

JAEA Reports

A Set of ORIGEN2 cross section libraries based on JENDL-3.3 library; ORLIBJ33

Katakura, Junichi; Kataoka, Masaharu*; Suyama, Kenya; Jin, Tomoyuki*; Oki, Shigeo*

JAERI-Data/Code 2004-015, 115 Pages, 2004/11


A set of cross section libraries for ORIGEN2 code, ORLIBJ33, has been produced based on the latest Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library JENDL-3.3. The produced libraries are for LWR's which include PWR, BWR and their MOX fuels. The libraries for FBR's are also produced. Using the libraries for LWR, comparisons with old libraries based on JENDL-3.2 were performed. The comparisons with measured PIE data were also carried out. For the libraries for FBR, the comparisons with the calculations using the old libraries were performed and the effects using different libraries were discussed.

Journal Articles

Validation of integrated burnup code system SWAT2 by the analyses of isotopic composition of spent nuclear fuel

Suyama, Kenya; Mochizuki, Hiroki*; Okuno, Hiroshi; Miyoshi, Yoshinori

Proceedings of International Conference on Physics of Fuel Cycles and Advanced Nuclear Systems; Global Developments (PHYSOR 2004) (CD-ROM), 10 Pages, 2004/04

This paper provides validation results of SWAT2, the revised version of SWAT, which is a code system combining point burnup code ORIGEN2 and continuous energy Monte Carlo code MVP, by the analysis of post irradiation examinations (PIEs). Some isotopes show differences of calculation results between SWAT and SWAT2. However, generally, the differences are smaller than the error of PIE analysis that was reported in previous SWAT validation activity, and improved results are obtained for several important fission product nuclides. This study also includes comparison between an assembly and a single pin cell geometry models.

JAEA Reports

Evaluation of radioactive inventory in JRR-1

Akutsu, Atsushi; Kishimoto, Katsumi; Sukegawa, Takenori; Shimada, Taro

JAERI-Tech 2003-090, 75 Pages, 2004/01


The Japan Research Reactor No.1 (JRR-1) that was constructed first in Japan was permanently shut down after operation from 1957 to 1968. At present, the reactor part is in safe store conditions. The JRR-1 facility is being used as an exhibition room for the time being, and will be dismantled in the future. In consideration of future dismantling of the facility, the radioactive inventory in reactor part was calculated using computer codes that are Two-Dimensional Discrete Ordinates Transport Code (DORT) and Oak Ridge Isotope Generation and Depletion Code (ORIGEN-MD). The average concentration of radioactivity is estimated to be 6.40$$times$$$$10^{5}$$ Bq/g in the core tank as of April, 2002. It is also expected that the low level waste (LLW) weights approximately 400kg and very low level waste (VLLW) weights approximately 14,000kg, and the waste which doesn't need to deal as a radioactive material weights approximately 250,000kg.

Journal Articles

Validation of minor actinide cross sections by studying samples irradiated for 492 days at the dounreay prototype fast reactor, 2; Burnup calculations

Tsujimoto, Kazufumi; Kono, Nobuaki; Shinohara, Nobuo; Sakurai, Takeshi; Nakahara, Yoshinori; Mukaiyama, Takehiko; Raman, S.*

Nuclear Science and Engineering, 144(2), p.129 - 141, 2003/06

To evaluate neutron cross-section data of minor actinides, separated actinide samples and dosimetry samples were irradiated at the Dounreay Prototype Fast Reactor for 492 effective full power days. Based on the burnup calculations of major actinide and dosimetry samples, the neutron flux distribution and the flux level were adjusted at the locations where minor actinide samples were irradiated. The burnup calculations were carried out for minor actinides using the determined flux distribution and flux level. This paper discusses the burnup calculations and the validation of minor actinide cross-section data in evaluated nuclear data libraries. We find that we can obtain reliable FIMA (fission per initial metallic atom) values by using the $$^{148}$$Nd method except that the uncertainties in the FIMA values are large for $$^{234}$$U, $$^{238}$$Pu, Am isotopes, and Cm isotopes because the $$^{148}$$Nd yields are known poorly for these isotopes and are probably overestimated. For these isotopes, measurements to improve the fission-yield data are needed. We also find that, in general, the JENDL-3.2 nuclear data for the minor actinides are adequate for the conceptual design study of transmutation systems. But, there are some nuclides (especially $$^{238}$$Pu and $$^{242}$$Pu) for which new measurements are needed particulary if the minor actinides constitute a major part of the nuclear fuel.

Journal Articles

Validation of minor actinide cross sections by studying samples irradiated for 492 days at the dounreay prototype fast reactor, 2; Burnup calculations

Tsujimoto, Kazufumi; Kono, Nobuaki; Shinohara, Nobuo; Sakurai, Takeshi; Nakahara, Yoshinori; Mukaiyama, Takehiko*; Raman, S.*

Nuclear Science and Engineering, 144(2), p.129 - 141, 2003/06

 Times Cited Count:10 Percentile:58.26(Nuclear Science & Technology)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Radiological characterisation of LLW arising from JAERI Tokai Research Establishment

Okoshi, Minoru; Sakai, Akihiro; Abe, Masayoshi; Tanaka, Mitsugu

IAEA-CN-87/50 (CD-ROM), p.113 - 118, 2002/12

As the result of research activities for nuclear energy utilization over 45 years, large amounts of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) are stored at Tokai Research Establishment of JAERI. In order to plan the disposal program, JAERI carried out the radiological characterization of the waste. The results show that about 34,400 tons of LLW will arise from the operation and dismantling of the facilities by the end of 2045. The total activities of beta- and gamma-radionuclides and alpha-radionuclides are about 44 PBq and 56 TBq, respectively. By using the estimated total weight and radioactivities of the waste, important radionuclides were selected from the viewpoint of safety according to the performance assessment of near surface disposal facilities. As the results, twenty-seven radionuclides including twelve alpha-ray emitting actinides were selected as the candidate important radionuclides. Those are slightly different from important radionuclides selected for commercial nuclear power plants because of materials used for facilities and so on.

JAEA Reports

Derivation of correction factor to be applied for calculated results of BWR fuel isotopic composition by ORIGEN2.1 code

Nomura, Yasushi; Mochizuki, Hiroki*

JAERI-Tech 2002-068, 131 Pages, 2002/11


no abstracts in English

JAEA Reports

Photon and decay data libraries for ORIGEN2 code based on JENDL FP decay data file 2000

Katakura, Junichi; Yanagisawa, Hiroshi

JAERI-Data/Code 2002-021, 81 Pages, 2002/11


no abstracts in English

51 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)