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JAEA Reports

The Preliminary tests of the plasma melting treatment for homogenization of low-level radioactive wastes

Nakashio, Nobuyuki*; Osugi, Takeshi; Kurosawa, Shigenobu; Ishikawa, Joji; Hemmi, Ko; Iketani, Shotaro; Yokobori, Tomohiko

JAEA-Technology 2022-016, 47 Pages, 2022/08


The Nuclear Science Research Institute (NSRI) of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) started operation of the Advanced Volume Reduction Facilities (AVWF) for production of waste packages for disposal of low-level radioactive solid wastes (LLW). To clarify the operating conditions for homogenization of non-metallic LLW, preliminary tests were carried out using the plasma melting furnace of the non-metal melting unit. The fluidity of molten waste influences homogenization conditions of solidified products. It was clarified that the viscosity, which is determined by the chemical composition and the melting temperature, influence the fluidity of molten waste greatly through previous literature review and the small-scale melting tests. In the preliminary tests, the simulated waste with a cold tracer loaded in 200 L drums were melted. Using the waste chemical components (basicity, iron oxide concentration) as an experimental parameter, the homogeneity of the chemical components of the solidified product was investigated and the homogenization conditions of melting tests were examined. The retention ratio of the tracer in the molten bath was also confirmed. The viscosity of the molten wastes was measured and the correlation with homogeneity was examined. In addition, the technical requirements that should be concerned in advance for future actual operation were discussed.

Journal Articles

Numerical investigations on the coolability and the re-criticality of a debris bed with the density-stratified configuration

Li, C.-Y.; Uchibori, Akihiro; Takata, Takashi; Pellegrini, M.*; Erkan, N.*; Okamoto, Koji*

Dai-25-Kai Doryoku, Enerugi Gijutsu Shimpojiumu Koen Rombunshu (Internet), 4 Pages, 2021/07

The capability of stable cooling and avoiding re-criticality on the debris bed are the main issues for achieving IVR (In-Vessel Retention). In the actual situation, the debris bed is composed of mixed-density debris particles. Hence, when these mixed-density debris particles were launched to re-distribute, the debris bed would possibly form a density-stratified distribution. For the proper evaluation of this scenario, the multi-physics model of CFD-DEM-Monte-Carlo based neutronics is established to investigate the coolability and re-criticality on the heterogeneous density-stratified debris bed with considering the particle relocation. The CFD-DEM model has been verified by utilizing water injection experiments on the mixed-density particle bed in the first portion of this research. In the second portion, the coupled system of the CFD-DEM-Monte-Carlo based neutronics model is applied to reactor cases. Afterward, the debris particles' movement, debris particles' and coolant's temperature, and the k-eff eigenvalue are successfully tracked. Ultimately, the relocation and stratification effects on debris bed's coolability and re-criticality had been quantitatively confirmed.

Journal Articles

Study on In-Vessel Retention (IVR) of unprotected accident for fast reactor, 1; Overview of IVR evaluation in Anticipated Transient without Scram (ATWS)

Suzuki, Toru; Sogabe, Joji; Tobita, Yoshiharu; Sakai, Takaaki*; Nakai, Ryodai

Nihon Kikai Gakkai Rombunshu (Internet), 83(848), p.16-00395_1 - 16-00395_9, 2017/04

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Gas retention behavior of carbonate slurry under $$gamma$$-ray irradiation

Motooka, Takafumi; Nagaishi, Ryuji; Yamagishi, Isao

QST-M-2; QST Takasaki Annual Report 2015, P. 95, 2017/03

We conducted $$gamma$$ ray irradiation test using simulated carbonate slurry to investigate the cause of stagnant water over the high integrity container (HIC). This test was performed at Co-60 irradiation facility in Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute. We observed a rise in water level, air bubbles in the slurry, a supernatant when the carbonate slurry with 95 g/L density was irradiated by $$gamma$$ ray at a dose rate of 8.5 kGy/h. The cause of the rise in water level was regarded as the volume expansion by the gas retention of the carbonate slurry. It was suggested that the cause of stagnant water over the high integrity container might be the volume expansion by the gas retention.

Journal Articles

Experimental investigation of the influence of Mo contained in stainless steel on Cs chemisorption behavior

Di Lemma, F. G.; Nakajima, Kunihisa; Yamashita, Shinichiro; Osaka, Masahiko

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 484, p.174 - 182, 2017/02

 Times Cited Count:21 Percentile:89.6(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

Chemisorption phenomena can affect fission products retention in the nuclear reactor vessel during a Severe Accident (SA). This paper will describe the influence of molybdenum contained in type 316 stainless steel (SS) on Cs chemisorption. Our experiments showed the formation of Cs-Mo compounds in addition to CsFeSiO$$_{4}$$, observed previously on SS304. The results of high temperature stability tests on the deposits are also presented. These tests aimed at simulating the revaporization of FP from structural materials during a SA. From our results, it can be inferred that Cs-Mo deposits may revaporize, contributing as a delayed source to the radioactive release.

Journal Articles

Experimental discussion on fragmentation mechanism of molten oxide discharged into a sodium pool

Matsuba, Kenichi; Kamiyama, Kenji; Toyooka, Junichi; Tobita, Yoshiharu; Zuev, V. A.*; Kolodeshnikov, A. A.*; Vasilyev, Y. S.*

Proceedings of 23rd International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-23) (DVD-ROM), 6 Pages, 2015/05

To develop a method for evaluating the distance for fragmentation of molten core material discharged into sodium, the particle size distribution of alumina debris obtained in the FR tests was analyzed. The mass median diameters of solidified alumina particles were around 0.4 mm, which are comparable to particle sizes predicted by hydrodynamic instability theories such as Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. However, even though hydrodynamic instability theories predict that particle size decreases with an increase of Weber number, such the dependence of particle size on We was not observed in the FR tests. It can be interpreted that the tendency of measured mass median diameters (i.e., non-dependence on Weber number) suggests that before hydrodynamic instabilities sufficiently grow to induce fragmentation, thermal phenomena such as local coolant vaporization and resultant vapor expansion accelerate fragmentation.

Journal Articles

Safety requirements expected for the prototype fast breeder reactor "Monju"

Saito, Shinzo; Okamoto, Koji*; Kataoka, Isao*; Sugiyama, Kenichiro*; Muramatsu, Ken*; Ichimiya, Masakazu*; Kondo, Satoru; Yonomoto, Taisuke

Proceedings of 23rd International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-23) (DVD-ROM), 10 Pages, 2015/05

Journal Articles

A Preliminary evaluation of unprotected loss-of-flow accident for a prototype fast-breeder reactor

Suzuki, Toru; Tobita, Yoshiharu; Kawada, Kenichi; Tagami, Hirotaka; Sogabe, Joji; Matsuba, Kenichi; Ito, Kei; Ohshima, Hiroyuki

Nuclear Engineering and Technology, 47(3), p.240 - 252, 2015/04

 Times Cited Count:25 Percentile:90.75(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Journal Articles

Impact of wall saturation on particle control in long and high-power-heated discharges in JT-60U

Nakano, Tomohide; Asakura, Nobuyuki; Takenaga, Hidenobu; Kubo, Hirotaka; Miura, Yukitoshi; Shimizu, Katsuhiro; Konoshima, Shigeru; Masaki, Kei; Higashijima, Satoru; JT-60 Team

Nuclear Fusion, 46(5), p.626 - 634, 2006/05

 Times Cited Count:20 Percentile:57.39(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

In order to understand plasma-wall interactions in a long time scale, the discharge pulse length has been extended from 15 s to 65 s, with the NB-heating duration extended to 30 s. Nearly-saturation of the divertor plates was observed in the latter half of long pulse ELMy H-mode discharges. Particle sink into the divertor plates gradually decreased, and subsequently, wall-pumping efficiency became zero. This wall saturation resulted in a rise of the main plasma density without any auxiliary particle supply besides NB with divertor-pumping. Even when the total injected energy reached up to $$sim$$ 350 MJ in a discharge, neither sudden increase of carbon generation such as carbon bloom nor increase of the dilution of the main plasma was observed.

Journal Articles

Ion and neutron beam analyses of hydrogen isotopes

Kubota, Naoyoshi; Ochiai, Kentaro; Kutsukake, Chuzo; Kondo, Keitaro*; Shu, Wataru; Nishi, Masataka; Nishitani, Takeo

Fusion Engineering and Design, 81(1-7), p.227 - 231, 2006/02

 Times Cited Count:5 Percentile:36.44(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Hydrogen isotopes play important roles in the fuel recycling, the plasma condition etc. at the surface region of plasma facing components. The Fusion Neutronics Source (FNS) of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute has started microanalysis studies for fusion components since 2002 by applying the beam analyses. In this study, we have measured tritium depth profiles of TFTR tiles exposed to the deuterium-tritium plasma to reveal the hydrogen isotope behavior at the surface region using some microscopic techniques for material analyses at FNS. As the result of the deuteron nuclear reaction analysis, four kinds of elements; deuterium, tritium, lithium-6 and lithium-7, were identified from the energy spectra. Using the spectra, depth profiles of each element were also calculated. The tritium profile had a peak at 0.5 micron, whereas the deuterium and lithium profiles were uniform from the surface to 1.0 micron depth. In addition, the surface region of the TFTR tile has retained the tritium more than one order of magnitude in the bulk.

Journal Articles

Influence of blistering on deuterium retention in tungsten irradiated by high flux deuterium 10-100eV plasmas

Luo, G.; Shu, Wataru; Nishi, Masataka

Fusion Engineering and Design, 81(8-14), p.957 - 962, 2006/02

 Times Cited Count:64 Percentile:96.74(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The influence of blistering on deuterium retention in W was investigated using the newly established plasma generator with controllable incident energies ranging from 100 eV down to around 10 eV and incident flux of 1$$times$$10$$^{22}$$ D/m$$^{2}$$/s. The retention in the irradiated samples was measured using a thermal desorption spectrometer (TDS) at a ramping rate of 5 $$^{circ}$$C/s. The results indicate that only one peak appears in each spectrum, with the peak temperatures ranging from 500 until 850 $$^{circ}$$C, much higher than those from the trapping sites like vacancies, grain boundaries, dislocation loops, or impurities, implying probably a direct origin from the molecules existing inside blisters, voids/bubbles. Significant decrease in the retention at a certain incident fluence after blister appearance was observed and attributed to rupturing of the blisters, consistent with the limited size and increasing number of the blisters with increasing the incident fluence, as observed by means of SEM.

Journal Articles

Study of particle behavior for steady-state operation in JT-60U

Kubo, Hirotaka; JT-60 Team

Plasma Science and Technology, 8(1), p.50 - 54, 2006/01

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:7.08(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Measurement of deuterium and tritium retentions on the surface of JT-60 divertor tiles by means of nuclear reaction analysis

Ochiai, Kentaro; Hayashi, Takao; Kutsukake, Chuzo; Goto, Yoshitaka*; Masaki, Kei; Arai, Takashi; Miya, Naoyuki; Nishitani, Takeo

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 329-333(Part1), p.836 - 839, 2004/08

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:29.31(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Effects of basicity and FeO concentration on the retention of $$^{137}$$Cs and $$^{60}$$Co in slag made from non-metallic radioactive wastes

Nakashima, Mikio; Nakashio, Nobuyuki; Kameo, Yutaka; Fukui, Toshiki*; Isobe, Motoyasu*; Otake, Atsushi*; Wakui, Takuji*; Hirabayashi, Takakuni*

Radiochimica Acta, 91(1), p.45 - 51, 2003/01

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:19.02(Chemistry, Inorganic & Nuclear)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Performance of V-4Cr-4Ti alloy exposed to the JFT-2M tokamak environment

Johnson, W. R.*; Trester, P. W.*; Sengoku, Seio; Ishiyama, Shintaro; Fukaya, Kiyoshi; Eto, Motokuni; Oda, Tomomasa*; Hirohata, Yuko*; Hino, Tomoaki*; Tsai, H.*

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 283-287(Part1), p.622 - 627, 2000/12

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:19.45(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Quench of molten aluminum oxide associated with in-vessel debris retention by RPV internal water

Maruyama, Yu; ; Moriyama, Kiyofumi; H.S.Park*; Kudo, Tamotsu; Y.Yang*; Sugimoto, Jun

NEA/CSNI/R(98)18, p.243 - 250, 1999/02

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

ITER physics basis, 8; Plasma operation and control

ITER Physics Expert Group on Disruptions, Plasma Control, and MHD; ITER Physics Expert Group on Energetic Particles, Heating and Current Drive; ITER Physics Expert Group on Diagnostics

Nuclear Fusion, 39(12), p.2577 - 2625, 1999/00

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

New composite composed of boron carbide and carbon fiber with high thermal conductivity for first wall

*; Saido, Masahiro; Nakamura, Kazuyuki; Akiba, Masato; ; Goto, Yoshitaka*; *; *; Yamaki, Takahiro*; *; et al.

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 233-237(PT.A), p.781 - 786, 1996/00

 Times Cited Count:13 Percentile:72.41(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

no abstracts in English

JAEA Reports

Gamma spectrometry of TMI-2 debris

Uetsuka, Hiroshi; Nagase, Fumihisa; *

JAERI-Research 95-084, 36 Pages, 1995/11


no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Retention of deuterium implanted into B$$_{4}$$C-overlaid isotropic graphites and hot-pressed B$$_{4}$$C

*; Saido, Masahiro; Ogiwara, Norio; Ando, Toshiro; *; *

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 196-198, p.958 - 962, 1992/00

 Times Cited Count:24 Percentile:87.8(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

no abstracts in English

30 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)