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Journal Articles

A Predicted CRISPR-mediated symbiosis between uncultivated archaea

Esser, S. P.*; Rahlff, J.*; Zhao, W.*; Predl, M.*; Plewka, J.*; Sures, K.*; Wimmer, F.*; Lee, J.*; Adam, P. S.*; McGonigle, J.*; et al.

Nature Microbiology (Internet), 8(9), p.1619 - 1633, 2023/09

 Times Cited Count:1

JAEA Reports

Data report of ROSA/LSTF experiment IB-HL-01; 17% hot leg intermediate break LOCA with totally-failed high pressure injection system

Takeda, Takeshi

JAEA-Data/Code 2023-007, 72 Pages, 2023/07


An experiment denoted as IB-HL-01 was conducted on November 19, 2009 using the Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF) in the Rig of Safety Assessment-V (ROSA-V) Program. The ROSA/LSTF experiment IB-HL-01 simulated a 17% hot leg intermediate break loss-of-coolant accident due to a double-ended guillotine break of pressurizer surge line in a pressurized water reactor (PWR). The break was simulated by a long nozzle upwardly mounted flush with a hot leg inner surface. The test assumptions included total failure of both high pressure injection system of emergency core cooling system (ECCS) and auxiliary feedwater system. In the experiment, relatively large size of break led to a fast transient of phenomena. The primary pressure steeply dropped after the break, and became lower than steam generator (SG) secondary-side pressure. Break flow turned from single-phase flow to two-phase flow soon after the break. Core uncovery started simultaneously with liquid level drop in downflow-side of crossover leg before loop seal clearing (LSC). The LSC was induced in both loops by steam condensation on accumulator (ACC) coolant of ECCS injected into cold legs. The whole core was quenched owing to the rapid recovery in the core liquid level after the LSC. Peak cladding temperature of simulated fuel rods was detected almost concurrently with the LSC. During the ACC coolant injection, liquid levels recovered in the hot legs and SG inlet plena because of liquid entrainment from the hot leg into the SG inlet plenum by high-velocity steam flow. After the continuous core cooling was confirmed through the actuation of low pressure injection system of ECCS, the experiment was terminated. This report summarizes the test procedures, conditions, and major observations in the ROSA/LSTF experiment IB-HL-01.

JAEA Reports

Differential pressure rise event for filters of HTTR primary helium gas circulators, 1; Investigation of differential pressure rise event

Nemoto, Takahiro; Arakawa, Ryoki; Kawakami, Satoru; Nagasumi, Satoru; Yokoyama, Keisuke; Watanabe, Masashi; Onishi, Takashi; Kawamoto, Taiki; Furusawa, Takayuki; Inoi, Hiroyuki; et al.

JAEA-Technology 2023-005, 33 Pages, 2023/05


During shut down of the HTTR (High Temperature engineering Test Reactor) RS-14 cycle, an increasing trend of filter differential pressure for the helium gas circulator was observed. In order to investigate this phenomenon, the blower of the primary helium purification system was disassembled and inspected. As a result, it is clear that the silicon oil mist entered into the primary coolant due to the deterioration of the charcoal filter performance. The replacement and further investigation of the filter are planning to prevent the reoccurrence of the same phenomenon in the future.

Journal Articles

Chiral superconductivity in UTe$$_2$$ probed by anisotropic low-energy excitations

Ishihara, Kota*; Roppongi, Masaki*; Kobayashi, Masayuki*; Imamura, Kumpei*; Mizukami, Yuta*; Sakai, Hironori; Opletal, P.; Tokiwa, Yoshifumi; Haga, Yoshinori; Hashimoto, Kenichiro*; et al.

Nature Communications (Internet), 14, p.2966_1 - 2966_7, 2023/05

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:0.01(Multidisciplinary Sciences)

The superconducting symmetry of the heavy fermion uranium-based superconductor UTe$$_2$$ is investigated using low temperature penetration depth measurements. The anisotropic low-energy quasiparticle excitations indicates multiple superconducting components in a chiral complex form. The most consistent is a chiral non-unitary state.

Journal Articles

Anisotropic enhancement of lower critical field in ultraclean crystals of spin-triplet superconductor candidate UTe$$_2$$

Ishihara, Kota*; Kobayashi, Masayuki*; Imamura, Kumpei*; Konczykowski, M.*; Sakai, Hironori; Opletal, P.; Tokiwa, Yoshifumi; Haga, Yoshinori; Hashimoto, Kenichiro*; Shibauchi, Takasada*

Physical Review Research (Internet), 5(2), p.L022002_1 - L022002_6, 2023/04

Lower superconducting critical fields $$H_{rm c1}$$ of UTe$$_2$$ have been determined. Orthorhombic UTe$$_2$$ has magnetic easy axis along the $$a$$-axis. We found $$H_{rm c1}$$ perpendicular to $$a$$ showed anomalous enhancement. By comparing with anisotropy of upper critical fields, effect of magnetic fluctuations on superconductivity is suggested.

JAEA Reports

Irradiation test using foreign reactor, 1; Study of irradiation test with capsule temperature control system (Joint research)

Takabe, Yugo; Otsuka, Noriaki; Fuyushima, Takumi; Sayato, Natsuki; Inoue, Shuichi; Morita, Hisashi; Jaroszewicz, J.*; Migdal, M.*; Onuma, Yuichi; Tobita, Masahiro*; et al.

JAEA-Technology 2022-040, 45 Pages, 2023/03


Because of the decommission of the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR), the domestic neutron irradiation facility, which had played a central role in the development of innovative nuclear reactors and the development of technologies to further improve the safety, reliability, and efficiency of light water reactors, was lost. Therefore, it has become difficult to pass on the operation techniques of the irradiation test reactors and irradiation technologies, and to train human resources. In order to cope with these issues, we conducted a study on the implementation of irradiation tests using overseas reactors as neutron irradiation sites as an alternative method. Based on the "Arrangement between the National Centre for Nuclear Research and the Japan Atomic Energy Agency for Cooperation in Research and Development on Testing Reactor," the feasibility of conducting an irradiation test at the MARIA reactor (30 MW) owned by the National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ) using the temperature control system, which is one of the JMTR irradiation technologies, was examined. As a result, it was found that the irradiation test was possible by modifying the ready-made capsule manufactured in accordance with the design and manufacturing standards of the JMTR. After the modification, a penetration test, an insulation continuity test, and an operation test in the range of room temperature to 300$$^{circ}$$C, which is the operating temperature of the capsule, were conducted and favorable results were obtained. We have completed the preparations prior to transport to the MARIA reactor.

Journal Articles

Chapter 5, Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFRs)/ Chapter 12, Generation-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) concepts in Japan

Kubo, Shigenobu; Chikazawa, Yoshitaka; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Kamide, Hideki

Handbook of Generation IV Nuclear Reactors, Second Edition, p.173 - 194, 2023/03

Handbook of Generation IV Nuclear Reactors, Second Edition is a fully revised and updated comprehensive resource on the latest research and advances in generation IV nuclear reactor concepts. Editor Igor Pioro and his team of expert contributors have updated every chapter to reflect advances in the field since the first edition published in 2016. JAEA contributes to Chapter 5; Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors (SFRs) and Chapter 12; Generation-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) concepts in Japan. Major characteristics and current technology developments including safety enhancement were described in Chapter 5. Chapter 12 shows design activities of SFR. Innovative technology developments, and update of the Japan sodium-cooled fast reactor design with lessons learned from the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident.

Journal Articles

Selective adsorption of Pd(II) over Ag(I) in nitric acid solutions using nitrogen-donor-type adsorbents

Suzuki, Tomoya*; Otsubo, Ukyo*; Ogata, Takeshi*; Shiwaku, Hideaki; Kobayashi, Toru; Yaita, Tsuyoshi; Matsuoka, Mitsuaki*; Murayama, Norihiro*; Narita, Hirokazu*

Separation and Purification Technology, 308, p.122943_1 - 122943_7, 2023/03

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:26.15(Engineering, Chemical)

HNO$$_{3}$$ leaching is used in recycling Pd metal from spent products that primarily contain Ag, and most Pd residues are separated from solutions containing Ag(I). However, a small amount of Pd(II) often remains in these Ag(I) solutions. Therefore, the separation of Pd(II) and Ag(I) in HNO$$_{3}$$ solutions is essential to promote efficient Pd recycling. In this study, the separation of Pd(II) and Ag(I) in HNO$$_{3}$$ solutions was investigated using four N-donor-type adsorbents functionalized with amine (R-Amine), iminodiacetic acid (R-IDA), pyridine (R-Py), or bis-picolylamine (R-BPA). R-Amine, R-IDA, and R-Py selectively adsorbed Pd(II) over Ag(I), Cu(II), Ni(II), and Fe(III) from HNO$$_{3}$$ solutions (0.3-7 M), but R-Amine exhibited a lower Pd adsorption efficiency. In contrast, $$>$$90% of Pd(II), Ag(I), and Cu(II) were adsorbed by R-BPA over the entire range of HNO$$_{3}$$ concentrations. Structural analyses of the adsorbed metal ions using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy revealed the separation mechanisms of the N-donor-type adsorbents. Pd(II) adsorption on R-IDA, R-Py, and R-BPA occurred via Pd(II) coordination of the functional groups (iminodiacetic acid, pyridine, and bis-picolylamine, respectively), whereas that on R-Amine occurred via anion exchange of NO$$_{3}$$$$^{-}$$ with [Pd(NO$$_{3}$$)$$_{4}$$]$$^{2-}$$. The coordinative adsorption mechanisms resulted in the higher Pd(II) adsorption behaviors of R-IDA, R-Py, and R-BPA. HCl (5.0 M) and thiourea (0.1 M) eluents desorbed 83% of Pd(II) from R-IDA and 95% from R-Py, respectively. R-Py was the most effective Pd(II) adsorbent based on adsorption selectivity and desorption efficiency.

JAEA Reports

The Study of oxidative stress status in the organs exposed to low dose/low dose-rate radiation (Contract research); FY2021 Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project

Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science; Tohoku University*

JAEA-Review 2022-063, 86 Pages, 2023/02


The Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science (CLADS), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), had been conducting the Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project (hereafter referred to "the Project") in FY2021. The Project aims to contribute to solving problems in the nuclear energy field represented by the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (1F), Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. (TEPCO). For this purpose, intelligence was collected from all over the world, and basic research and human resource development were promoted by closely integrating/collaborating knowledge and experiences in various fields beyond the barrier of conventional organizations and research fields. The sponsor of the Project was moved from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology to JAEA since the newly adopted proposals in FY2018. On this occasion, JAEA constructed a new research system where JAEA-academia collaboration is reinforced and medium-to-long term research/development and human resource development contributing to the decommissioning are stably and consecutively implemented. Among the adopted proposals in FY2019, this report summarizes the research results of the "The study of oxidative stress status in the organs exposed to low dose/low dose-rate radiation" conducted from FY2019 to FY2021. Since the final year of this proposal was FY2021, the results for three fiscal years were summarized. The present study aims to investigate the biological effects of low dose/low dose-rate radiation exposure, which is of great social interest, on the oxidative stress status of individual organs and will contribute to the collection of scientific data in a dose range to be required. The samples to be analyzed in this study were collected from wild Japanese macaques exposed in the ex-evacuation zone after the accident of 1F.

JAEA Reports

Summaries of research and development activities by using supercomputer system of JAEA in FY2021 (April 1, 2021 - March 31, 2022)

HPC Technology Promotion Office

JAEA-Review 2022-035, 219 Pages, 2023/01


Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) conducts research and development (R&D) in various fields related to nuclear power as a comprehensive institution of nuclear energy R&Ds, and utilizes computational science and technology in many activities. As shown in the fact that about 20 percent of papers published by JAEA are concerned with R&D using computational science, the supercomputer system of JAEA has become an important infrastructure to support computational science and technology. In FY2021, the system was used for R&D aiming to restore Fukushima (environmental recovery and nuclear installation decommissioning) as a priority issue, as well as for JAEA's major projects such as research and development of fast reactor cycle technology, research for safety improvement in the field of nuclear energy, and basic nuclear science and engineering research. This report presents a great number of R&D results accomplished by using the system in FY2021, as well as user support, operational records and overviews of the system, and so on.

Journal Articles

A Plan of Proton Irradiation Facility at J-PARC and possibilities of application to nuclear data research

Maekawa, Fujio

JAEA-Conf 2022-001, p.7 - 13, 2022/11

The partitioning and transmutation (P-T) technology has promising potential for volume reduction and mitigation of degree of harmfulness of high-level radioactive waste. JAEA is developing the P-T technology combined with accelerator driven systems (ADS). One of critical issues affecting the feasibility of ADS is the proton beam window (PBW) which functions as a boundary between the accelerator and the sub-critical reactor core. The PBW is damaged by a high-intensity proton beam and spallation neutrons produced in the target, and also by flowing high-temperature liquid lead bismuth eutectic alloy which is corrosive to steel materials. To study the materials damage under the ADS environment, J-PARC is proposing a plan of proton irradiation facility which equips with a liquid lead-bismuth spallation target bombarded by a 400 MeV - 250 kW proton beam. The facility is also open for versatile purposes such as soft error testing of semi-conductor devises, RI production, materials irradiation for fission and fusion reactors, and so on. Application to nuclear data research with using the proton beam and spallation neutrons is also one of such versatile purposes, and we welcome unique ideas from the nuclear data community.

Journal Articles

Measurement of 107-MeV proton-induced double-differential neutron yields for iron for research and development of accelerator-driven systems

Iwamoto, Hiroki; Nakano, Keita; Meigo, Shinichiro; Satoh, Daiki; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Ishi, Yoshihiro*; Uesugi, Tomonori*; Kuriyama, Yasutoshi*; Yashima, Hiroshi*; Nishio, Katsuhisa; et al.

JAEA-Conf 2022-001, p.129 - 133, 2022/11

For accurate prediction of neutronic characteristics for accelerator-driven systems (ADS) and a source term of spallation neutrons for reactor physics experiments for the ADS at Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA), we have launched an experimental program to measure nuclear data on ADS using the Fixed Field Alternating Gradient (FFAG) accelerator at Kyoto University. As part of this program, the proton-induced double-differential thick-target neutron-yields (TTNYs) and cross-sections (DDXs) for iron have been measured with the time-of-flight (TOF) method. For each measurement, the target was installed in a vacuum chamber on the beamline and bombarded with 107-MeV proton beams accelerated from the FFAG accelerator. Neutrons produced from the targets were detected with stacked, small-sized neutron detectors composed of the NE213 liquid organic scintillators and photomultiplier tubes, which were connected to a multi-channel digitizer mounted with a field-programmable gate array (FPGA), for several angles from the incident beam direction. The TOF spectra were obtained from the detected signals and the FFAG kicker magnet's logic signals, where gamma-ray events were eliminated by pulse shape discrimination applying the gate integration method to the FPGA. Finally, the TTNYs and DDXs were obtained from the TOF spectra by relativistic kinematics.

JAEA Reports

Experiment of incineration for Trans-Uranic (TRU) wastes containing chlorides

Yamashita, Kiyoto; Yokoyama, Aya*; Takagai, Yoshitaka*; Maki, Shota; Yokosuka, Kazuhiro; Fukui, Masahiro; Iemura, Keisuke

JAEA-Technology 2022-020, 106 Pages, 2022/10


Radioactive solid wastes generated by Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station disaster may contain high levels of salt from the tsunami and seawater deliberately released into the area. It is assumed that polyvinyl chloride (PVC) products may be used for decommissioning work and for containment of radioactive wastes in the future. Among the method of handling them, incineration is one method that needs to be investigated as it is good method for reduction and stabilization of wastes. But in order to dispose of Trans-Uranic (TRU) solid waste containing chlorides, it is necessary to select the structure and materials of the facility based on the information such as the movement of nuclides and chlorides in the waste gas treating system and the corrosion of equipment due to chlorides. Therefore, we decided to get various data necessary to design a study of the incineration facilities. And we decided to examine the transfer behavior of chlorides to the waste gas treatment system, the corrosion-resistance of materials in the incineration facilities, and the distribution survey of plutonium in them obtained using the Plutonium-contaminated Waste Treatment Facility (PWTF), Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories, which is a unique incinerating facility in Japan. This report describes the transfer behavior of chlorides in the waste gas treatment system, the evaluation of corrosion-resistance materials and the distribution survey of plutonium in the incineration facilities obtained by these tests using the Plutonium-contaminated Waste Treatment Facility, Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories.

Journal Articles

Sensitivity coefficient evaluation of an accelerator-driven system using ROM-Lasso method

Katano, Ryota; Yamamoto, Akio*; Endo, Tomohiro*

Nuclear Science and Engineering, 196(10), p.1194 - 1208, 2022/10

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

In this study, we propose the ROM-Lasso method that enables efficient evaluation of sensitivity coefficients of neutronics parameters to cross-sections. In the proposed method, a vector of sensitivity coefficients is expanded by subspace bases, so-called Active Subspace (AS) based on the idea of Reduced Order Modeling (ROM). Then, the expansion coefficients are evaluated by the Lasso linear regression between cross-sections and neutronics parameters obtained by the random sampling. The proposed method can be applied in the case where the adjoint method is difficult to be applied since the proposed method uses only forward calculations. In addition, AS is an effective subspace that can expand the vector of sensitivity coefficients with the lower number of dimension. Thus, the number of unknows is reduced from the original number of input parameters and the calculation cost is dramatically improved compared to the Lasso regression without AS. In this paper, we conducted ADS burnup calculations as a verification. We have shown how AS bases are obtained and the applicability of the proposed method.

Journal Articles

The OECD/NEA Working Group on the Analysis and Management of Accidents (WGAMA); Advances in codes and analyses to support safety demonstration of nuclear technology innovations

Nakamura, Hideo; Bentaib, A.*; Herranz, L. E.*; Ruyer, P.*; Mascari, F.*; Jacquemain, D.*; Adorni, M.*

Proceedings of International Conference on Topical Issues in Nuclear Installation Safety; Strengthening Safety of Evolutionary and Innovative Reactor Designs (TIC 2022) (Internet), 10 Pages, 2022/10

JAEA Reports

A GIS-based approach for geomorphological analysis of volcanic edifices to estimate latent magma plumbing system (Contract research)

Nishiyama, Nariaki; Goto, Akira*; Tsukahara, Yuzuko; Kawamura, Makoto; Umeda, Koji*; Niwa, Masakazu

JAEA-Testing 2022-003, 51 Pages, 2022/09


Advancement of the evaluation technology of the magma activity range is essential as one of the technical issues related to volcanic and igneous activities in the evaluation of the long-term stability of the geological environment in the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. As an effective method, topographical analysis of volcanic edifices is expected to be used to determine the distribution area of dikes. In recent years, the development of computer-based topographic analysis technology has made it possible to simply perform a large volume of work that would otherwise be difficult due to the manual handling. This report describes an analysis method for the shape of contour lines that forms volcanic edifices using GIS software.

Journal Articles

Development of a miniature electromagnet probe for the measurement of local velocity in heavy liquid metals

Ariyoshi, Gen; Obayashi, Hironari; Sasa, Toshinobu

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 59(9), p.1071 - 1088, 2022/09

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:49.42(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Electromagnetic induction method is one of the effective techniques for local velocity measurement in heavy liquid metals. Ricou and Vives' probe and Von Weissenfluh's probe are famous instrumentations using a permanent magnet. However, sensitivity and measurement volume of the probes show unexpected variation since demagnetization of the magnet is occurred by temperature increase up to the Curie temperature. In this study, electromagnetic probe incorporating a miniature electromagnet was newly developed to overcome such unexpected variation. The diameter and the length of the sensor was 6 mm and 155 mm, respectively. The sensitivity and the measurement volume of the probe were assessed by measurement of local velocity of flowing mercury in a square channel. To clarify the validity for the measured velocity profiles, numerical velocity profiles were calculated and compared with experiment. And the validity for the measured velocity profiles were confirmed by calculated result.

Journal Articles

Experimental study of liquid spreading and atomization due to jet impingement in liquid-liquid systems

Yamamura, Sota*; Fujiwara, Kota*; Honda, Kota*; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Horiguchi, Naoki; Kaneko, Akiko*; Abe, Yutaka*

Physics of Fluids, 34(8), p.082110_1 - 082110_13, 2022/08

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:37.13(Mechanics)

Liquid spreading and atomization due to jet impingement in liquid-liquid systems are considered to be crucial for understanding the cooling behavior of high-temperature molten material in a shallow water pool. This phenomenon takes place when a liquid jet enters a pool filled with other immiscible liquid. The jet spreads radially after impinging on the floor while forming a thin liquid film and atomizing droplets. In this paper, we explain the result to quantify the unsteady three-dimensional behavior of the spreading jet by the employment of 3D-LIF measurements and 3-dimensional reconstruction. Under high flow velocity conditions, the phenomena of hydraulic jump and atomization of the liquid film occurred along with the spreading. To evaluate the spreading behavior, a comparison of the jump radius position of the liquid-liquid system as the representative value was made with the one calculated by the existing theory of a gas-liquid system. As the result, the spreading of the liquid film in the liquid-liquid system was suppressed compared with that in the gas-liquid system. Furthermore, the PTV method was successfully used to measure the velocity boundary layer and velocity profile in the liquid film, which are important factors that affect the spreading mechanism of the liquid film. These results revealed that in liquid-liquid systems, shear stress at the liquid-liquid interface causes a decrease in the flow velocity and suppressed the development of the velocity boundary layer. Also, to evaluate the atomization behavior, the number and diameter distribution of the droplets were measured from the acquired 3-dimensional shape data of the jet. As the result, the number of droplets increased with the flow velocity. Based on these results, we concluded that the spreading of the liquid film is affected by such atomization behavior.

Journal Articles

Evaluation of detectability of pump/diagrid link rupture in pool-type sodium-cooled fast reactor

Onoda, Yuichi; Uchita, Masato*; Tokizaki, Minako*; Okazaki, Hitoshi*

Proceedings of 29th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE 29) (Internet), 6 Pages, 2022/08

The safety analyses were carried out to confirm the sufficiency of the function of the plant protection system against the pump/diagrid link rupture. The target plant is a pool-type SFR of about 600 MWe class equipped with an axially homogeneous core currently under development in Japan. In the pool-type SFR, the primary system piping connects primary pump and the high-pressure sodium plenum located at the inlet of fuel sub-assemblies and called "pump/diagrid link". Because this piping is submerged in the reactor vessel, it is difficult to detect small scale sodium leakage in this piping, and thus a certain large pipe break like guillotine should be assumed and evaluated as a design basis event. In order to confirm the detectability of pump/diagrid link rupture by safety protection system signals, a series of analyses of the guillotine break for a pump/diagrid link were carried out. Sensitivity study had also been performed to consider the uncertainty of the reactivity coefficient in the analyses. The sufficiency of the function of the plant protection system against the pump/diagrid link rupture was confirmed by the analysis results that at least two signals are transmitted for the detection of the event, which is the development target of the plant protection system in pool-type SFR.

JAEA Reports

Continuous improvement activities on nuclear facility maintenance in Nuclear Science Research Institute of Japan Atomic Energy Agency in 2021

Task Force on Maintenance Optimization of Nuclear Facilities

JAEA-Technology 2022-006, 80 Pages, 2022/06


The Task force on maintenance optimization of nuclear facilities was organized in the Nuclear Science Research Institute (NSRI) of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) since November 2020, in order to adequately respond to "the New nuclear regulatory inspection system since FY 2020" and to continuously improve the facility maintenance activities. In 2021, the task force has studied (1) optimization of the importance classification on maintenance and inspection of nuclear facilities, and (2) improvement in setting and evaluation of the performance indicators on safety, maintenance and quality management activities, considering "the Graded approach" that is one of the basic methodologies in the new nuclear regulatory inspection system. Each nuclear facility (research reactors, nuclear fuel material usage facilities, others) in the NSRI will steadily improve their respective safety, maintenance and quality management activities, referring the review results suggested by the task force.

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