Kawai, Chika*; Idomura, Yasuhiro; Ogawa, Yuichi*; Yamada, Hiroshi*
Physics of Plasmas, 27(8), p.082302_1 - 082302_11, 2020/08
Self-organization in the toroidal electron temperature gradient driven (ETG) turbulence is investigated based on a global gyrokinetic model in a weak magnetic shear configuration. Because of global profile effects, toroidal ETG modes with higher toroidal mode number n are excited at the outer magnetic surfaces, leading to strong linear wave dispersion. The resulting anisotropic wave turbulence boundary and the inverse energy cascade generate the self-organization of zonal flows, which is the unique mechanism in the global gyrokinetic model. The self-organization is confirmed both in the decaying turbulence initialized by random noises and in the toroidal ETG turbulence. It is also shown that the self-organization process generates zonal flows and isotropic eddies depending on a criterion parameter, which is determined by the ion to electron temperature ratio and the turbulence intensity.
Physics of Plasmas, 26(12), p.120703_1 - 120703_5, 2019/12
This Letter presents the impacts of the hydrogen isotope mass and the normalized gyroradius on L-mode like hydrogen (H) and deuterium (D) plasmas dominated by ion temperature gradient driven (ITG) turbulence using global full-f gyrokinetic simulations. In ion heated numerical experiments with adiabatic electrons, the energy confinement time shows almost no isotope mass dependency, and is determined by Bohm like scaling. Electron heated numerical experiments with kinetic electrons show clear isotope mass dependency caused by the isotope effect on the collisional energy transfer from electrons to ions, and the H and D plasmas show similar ion and electron temperature profiles at an H to D heating power ratio of . The normalized collisionless ion gyrokinetic equations for H and D plasmas become identical at the same , and collisions weakly affect ITG turbulence. Therefore, the isotope mass dependency is mainly contributed by the scaling and the heating sources.
Physics of Plasmas, 24(8), p.080701_1 - 080701_5, 2017/08
An electron heating modulation numerical experiment based on a global full-f gyrokinetic model shows that transitions from ion temperature gradient driven (ITG) turbulence to trapped electron mode (TEM) turbulence induced by electron heating generate density peaking and rotation changes. Toroidal angular momentum balance during the rotation changes is revealed by direct observation of toroidal angular momentum conservation, in which in addition to ion turbulent stress, ion neoclassical stress, radial currents, and toroidal field stress of ions and electrons are important. Toroidal torque flipping between ITG and TEM phases is found to be related to reversal of the ion radial current that indicates coupling of particle and momentum transport channels. The ion and electron radial currents are balanced to satisfy the ambipolar condition, and the electron radial current is cancelled by the electron toroidal field stress, which indirectly affects toroidal torque.
Maeyama, Shinya*; Watanabe, Tomohiko*; Idomura, Yasuhiro; Nakata, Motoki*; Ishizawa, Akihiro*; Nunami, Masanori*
Nuclear Fusion, 57(6), p.066036_1 - 066036_10, 2017/05
Multi-scale plasma turbulence including electron and ion temperature gradient (ETG/ITG) modes has been investigated by means of electromagnetic gyrokinetic simulations. Triad transfer analyses on nonlinear mode coupling reveal cross-scale interactions between electron and ion scales. One of the interactions is suppression of electron-scale turbulence by ion- scale turbulence, where ITG-driven short-wavelength eddies act like shear flows and suppress ETG turbulence. Another cross-scale interaction is enhancement of ion-scale turbulence in the presence of electron-scale turbulence. This is caused via short-wavelength zonal flows, which are created by the response of passing kinetic electrons in ITG turbulence, suppress ITG turbulence by their shearing, and are damped by ETG turbulence. In both cases, sub-ion-scale structures between electron and ion scales play important roles in the cross-scale interactions.
Kawai, Chika*; Idomura, Yasuhiro; Maeyama, Shinya*; Ogawa, Yuichi*
Physics of Plasmas, 24(4), p.042303_1 - 042303_13, 2017/04
Self-organization in the slab electron temperature gradient driven (ETG) turbulence is investigated based on gyrokinetic simulations and the Hasegawa-Mima (HM) equation. The scale and the anisotropy of self-organized turbulent structures vary depending on the Rhines scale and the characteristic scale given by the adiabatic response term in the HM equation. The former is determined by competition between the linear wave dispersion and the nonlinear turbulent cascade, while the latter is given as the scale, at which the turbulent cascade is impeded. These scales are controlled by plasma parameters such as the density and temperature gradient, and the temperature ratio of ion to electron. It is found that depending on the plasma parameters, the ETG turbulence shows either isotropic turbulence or zonal flows, which give significantly different transport levels. Although the modulational instability excites zonal modes regardless of the plasma parameters, the final turbulent structure is determined by the self-organization process.
Maeyama, Shinya*; Idomura, Yasuhiro; Watanabe, Tomohiko*; Nakata, Motoki*; Yagi, Masatoshi; Miyato, Naoaki; Ishizawa, Akihiro*; Nunami, Masanori*
Physical Review Letters, 114(25), p.255002_1 - 255002_5, 2015/06
Multiscale gyrokinetic turbulence simulations with the real ion-to-electron mass ratio and value are realized for the first time, where the value is given by the ratio of plasma pressure to magnetic pressure and characterizes electromagnetic effects on microinstabilities. Numerical analysis at both the electron scale and the ion scale is used to reveal the mechanism of their cross-scale interactions. Even with the real- mass scale separation, ion-scale turbulence eliminates electron-scale streamers and dominates heat transport, not only of ions but also of electrons. When the ion-scale modes are stabilized by finite- effects, the contribution of the electron-scale dynamics to the turbulent transport becomes non-negligible and turns out to enhance ion-scale turbulent transport.
Ido, Takeshi*; Miura, Yukitoshi; Hoshino, Katsumichi; Kamiya, Kensaku; Hamada, Yasuji*; Nishizawa, Akimitsu*; Kawasumi, Yoshiaki*; Ogawa, Hiroaki; Nagashima, Yoshihiko*; Shinohara, Koji; et al.
Nuclear Fusion, 46(5), p.512 - 520, 2006/05
The electrostatic fluctuation spectrum and the fluctuation-induced particle flux of the JFT-2M tokamak were estimated using the hevy ion beam probe (HIBP) measurement. A geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) of the frequency about15kHz was identified in the L-mode. The GAM has its peak at about 3cm inside of the separatrix with the electric field of about 1.4kV/m. The estimated turbulent particle flux is found to be intermittent. It is found that the density fluctuation is modulated by the GAM in the wide frequency range and the coherence analysis shows that the flucruation-induced particle flux is partially contributed by the GAM. In the H-mode the GAM disappears and the fluctuation and the flux is much decreased.The mechanism of the large burst-like flux in the L-mode is not understood yet and left as the future problem.
Nagashima, Yoshihiko*; Ito, Kimitaka*; Ito, Sanae*; Fujisawa, Akihide*; Hoshino, Katsumichi; Takase, Yuichi*; Yagi, Masatoshi*; Ejiri, Akira*; Ida, Katsumi*; Shinohara, Koji; et al.
Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, 48(4), p.S1 - S15, 2006/04
This paper presents the results of bispectral analysis of floating potential fluctuations in the edge region of ohmically heated plasmas in the JFT-2M tokamak. Inside of the outermost magnetic surface,coherent modes were observed around the frequency of geodesic acoustic mode which is a kind of the zonal flow. The squared bicoherence shows significant nonlinear couplings between the coherent fluctuations and the background fluctuations (which are likely to contain drift wave turbulent fluctuations). The experimental results that the total bicoherence is proportional to the squared amplitude of the coherent fluctuation, and that the biphase of the coherent modes localizes around a constant value , are consistent with the theoretical prediction on the drift wave - zonal flow systems based on the Hasegawa-Mima model.
Ido, Takeshi*; Miura, Yukitoshi; Kamiya, Kensaku; Hamada, Yasuji*; Hoshino, Katsumichi; Fujisawa, Akihide*; Ito, Kimitaka*; Ito, Sanae*; Nishizawa, Akimitsu*; Ogawa, Hiroaki; et al.
Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, 48(4), p.S41 - S50, 2006/04
The potential and density fluctuations of Geodesic-Acoustic-Mode (GAM) were investigated through the direct and simultaneous measurement of electrostatic and density fluctuations with a heavy ion beam probe(HIBP). It was found that the amplitude of the fluctuation has a maximum inside of the plasma boundary and that it has an almost constant frequency. It was also found that the mode propagates in the radial direction and that the GAM affects the background turbulence. The influence to the background turbulence was found to be in consistent with a theoretical prediction.
Idomura, Yasuhiro; Tokuda, Shinji; Kishimoto, Yasuaki
Nuclear Fusion, 45(12), p.1571 - 1581, 2005/12
Using a global gyrokinetic toroidal particle code, the toroidal electron temperature gradient driven (ETG) turbulence is studied in positive and reversed shear tokamaks. In the nolinear turbulent state, the ETG turbulence in the positive and reversed shear configurations show quite different structure formations. In the positive shear configuration, the ETG turbulence is dominated by streamers which have a ballooning type structure, and the electron temperature profile is quickly relaxed to the marginally stable state in a turbulent time scale. In the reversed shear configuration, quasi-steady zonal flows are produced in the regative shear region, while the positive shear region is characterized by streamers. Accordingly, the electron thermal diffusivity has a gap structure across the surface, and the gradinet is sustained above the marginal value for a long time in the quasi-steady phase. The results suggest a stiffness of the profile in positive shear tokamaks, and a possibility of the Te transport barrier in reversed shear tokamaks.
Nagashima, Yoshihiko*; Hoshino, Katsumichi; Ejiri, Akira*; Shinohara, Koji; Takase, Yuichi*; Tsuzuki, Kazuhiro; Uehara, Kazuya; Kawashima, Hisato; Ogawa, Hiroaki; Ido, Takeshi*; et al.
Physical Review Letters, 95(9), p.095002_1 - 095002_4, 2005/08
By a reciprocating electrostatic probe, two types of low frequency coherent electrostatic modes (about1kHz and 10-15kHz) are found,for the first time, in the edge region of ohmically heated plasmas in the JFT-2M tokamak. These modes exists in the last closed surface. The higher frequency mode has features of the geodesic acoustic mode (GAM), though the low frequency mode is not identified yet. A bispectral analysis revealed that significant nonlinear couplings (parametric modulation) between these coherent fluctuations and broadband background turbulent potential fluctuations occur. In the other words, the GAM and the back ground turbulence are modulated by the newly found low frequency electrostatic mode (further, the GAM modulates the background turbulence, also) for the first time. The newly found low frequency mode (frequency about 1kHz) is supposed to contribute to the turbulent diffusion nonlinearly.
Idomura, Yasuhiro; Kishimoto, Yasuaki; Tokuda, Shinji
Europhysics Conference Abstracts (CD-ROM), 29C, 4 Pages, 2005/00
A gyrokinetic simulation is an essential tool to study anomalous turbulent transport in tokamak plasmas. Although a delta-f PIC code or a particle approach has been a standard method, it has difficulty in implementing non-conservative effects such as a heat source and collisions, which are important for a realistic long time turbulence simulation. On the other hand, a Vlasov code or a mesh approach is much more flexible to simulate these non-conservative effects. In this work, a new gyrokinetic Vlasov code is developed based on the CIP method, which is one of recent advanced CFD schemes. Numerical properties and computational costs of the gyrokinetic PIC and CIP codes are compared in ITG turbulence simulations.
Miyato, Naoaki; Kishimoto, Yasuaki; Li, J.
JAERI-Research 2004-010, 18 Pages, 2004/08
Global structure of zonal flows driven by ion temperature gradient driven turbulence in tokamak plasmas is investigated using a global electromagnetic Landau fluid code. Characteristics of the coupled system of the zonal flows and the turbulence change with the safety factor . In a low region stationary zonal flows are excited and suppress the turbulence effectively. Coupling between zonal flows and poloidally asymmetric pressure perturbations via a geodesic curvature makes the zonal flows oscillatory in a high region. Also we identify energy transfer from the zonal flows to the turbulence via the poloidally asymmetric pressure perturbations in the high region. Therefore in the high region the zonal flows cannot quench the turbulet transport completely.
Bruskin, L. G.*; Oyama, Naoyuki; Mase, Atsushi*; Shinohara, Koji; Miura, Yukitoshi
Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, 46(8), p.1313 - 1330, 2004/08
no abstracts in English
Purazuma, Kaku Yugo Gakkai-Shi, 80(5), p.390 - 395, 2004/05
High performance magnetically confined plasma is realized by having structures in plasmas, where different elementary processes with different time and spatial scales are deeply contributing with each other. A research based on large scale simulation is then essential to understand such hierarchical complex plasmas. We discuss the underlying physical process of the structural plasma and present a prospect for future numerical simulations covering a wide dynamical range.
Ida, Masato; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki*
Physical Review E, 69(4), p.046701_1 - 046701_9, 2004/04
This paper extends our recent theoretical work concerning the feasibility of stable and accurate computation of turbulence using a large eddy simulation. In our previous paper, it was shown, based on a simple assumption regarding the instantaneous streamwise velocity, that the application of the Gaussian filter to the Navier-Stokes equations can result in the appearance of a numerically unstable term. In the present paper, based on assumptions regarding the statistically averaged velocity, we show that in several situations, the shears appearing in the statistically averaged velocity field numerically destabilize the fluctuation components because of the derivation of a numerically unstable term that represents negative diffusion in a fixed direction. This finding can explain the problematic numerical instability that has been encountered in large eddy simulations of wall-bounded flows. The present result suggests that if there is no failure in modeling, the resulting subgrid-scale model can still have unstable characteristics.
Miyato, Naoaki; Li, J.*; Kishimoto, Yasuaki
Journal of Plasma and Fusion Research SERIES, Vol.6, p.581 - 584, 2004/00
Electromagnetic effect on ion temperature gradient driven turbulence and zonal flow generated from the turbulence is investigated based on global electromagnetic Landau fluid simulations in tokamak plasmas. Turbulent transport decreases by increasing beta in a low beta regime. Two types of zonal flow are observed. One is almost stationary flow formed in a low safety factor (q) region, which is weaker at higher beta. The other is flow oscillating coherently at the geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) frequency.
Jolliet, S.*; Angelino, P.*; Bottino, A.*; Idomura, Yasuhiro; Villard, L.*
Theory of Fusion Plasmas, ISPP21, p.345 - 351, 2004/00
Global particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations are a very useful tool for studying the time evolution of turbulence induced by ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) instabilities. Unfortunately, the linear code LORB5 and its non-linear version ORB5 require high computational power. In order to study more sophisticated models, we need to optimize these codes. We will focus on LORB5, which uses a cylindrical grid (r,z) for solving the Vlasov equation and a (s,) grid for the Poisson equation. The approach presented in this work consists of implementing the gyrokinetic model using a single (s,) grid. Here is the straight-field-line poloidal coordinate. A method to avoid the singularity at the magnetic axis is presented, and a benchmark with the CYCLONE case is shown.
Bruskin, L. G.; Mase, Atsushi*; Oyama, Naoyuki; Shinohara, Koji; Miura, Yukitoshi
Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, 45(7), p.1227 - 1245, 2003/07
The capability of microwave reflectometry to estimate the nonlinear coupling in the plasma turbulence is theoretically investigated. The full-wave 2D model of microwave scattering in plasma is applied to simulate the reflectometer response to the turbulent fluctuations, consisting of random and coherent modes, and the simulated data ensemble is further processed to obtain the auto bicoherence function. Sensitivity of the method was analyzed for different ambient plasma profiles, geometry, fluctuation spectra and amplitudes.
Bruskin, L. G.; Oyama, Naoyuki; Shinohara, Koji; Miura, Yukitoshi; Kogi, Yuichiro*; Mase, Atsushi*; Hasegawa, Makoto*; Hanada, Kazuaki*
Review of Scientific Instruments, 74(3), p.1473 - 1476, 2003/03
An analytical model of fluctuation reflectometry is developed, which is capable of handling the plasma profiles of arbitrary shape and curvature. The experimental profiles are piece-wise approximated by the functions, which allow for the integration of the full-wave O-mode equation. The model is applied to the reflectometry of the JT-60U tokamak plasma to provide a preliminary estimation of the fluctuation amplitude and spectral width.