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Journal Articles

Correction method of measurement volume effects on time-averaged statistics for laser Doppler velocimetry

Wada, Yuki; Furuichi, Noriyuki*; Tsuji, Yoshiyuki*

European Journal of Mechanics B, Fluids, 91, p.233 - 243, 2022/01

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:64.45(Mechanics)

Journal Articles

Coherent eddies transporting passive scalars through the plant canopy revealed by Large-Eddy simulations using the lattice Boltzmann method

Watanabe, Tsutomu*; Takagi, Marie*; Shimoyama, Ko*; Kawashima, Masayuki*; Onodera, Naoyuki; Inagaki, Atsushi*

Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 181(1), p.39 - 71, 2021/10

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:47.23(Meteorology & Atmospheric Sciences)

A double-distribution-function lattice Boltzmann model for large-eddy simulations of a passive scalar field is described within and above a plant canopy. For a top-down scalar, for which the plant canopy serves as a distributed sink, the flux of the scalar near the canopy top are predominantly determined by sweep motions originating far above the canopy. By contrast, scalar ejection events are induced by coherent eddies generated near the canopy top. In this paper, the generation of such eddies is triggered by the downward approach of massive sweep motions to existing wide regions of weak ejective motions from inside to above the canopy.

Journal Articles

Self-organization of zonal flows and isotropic eddies in toroidal electron temperature gradient driven turbulence

Kawai, Chika*; Idomura, Yasuhiro; Ogawa, Yuichi*; Yamada, Hiroshi*

Physics of Plasmas, 27(8), p.082302_1 - 082302_11, 2020/08

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:9.89(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

Self-organization in the toroidal electron temperature gradient driven (ETG) turbulence is investigated based on a global gyrokinetic model in a weak magnetic shear configuration. Because of global profile effects, toroidal ETG modes with higher toroidal mode number n are excited at the outer magnetic surfaces, leading to strong linear wave dispersion. The resulting anisotropic wave turbulence boundary and the inverse energy cascade generate the self-organization of zonal flows, which is the unique mechanism in the global gyrokinetic model. The self-organization is confirmed both in the decaying turbulence initialized by random noises and in the toroidal ETG turbulence. It is also shown that the self-organization process generates zonal flows and isotropic eddies depending on a criterion parameter, which is determined by the ion to electron temperature ratio and the turbulence intensity.

Journal Articles

Isotope and plasma size scaling in ion temperature gradient driven turbulence

Idomura, Yasuhiro

Physics of Plasmas, 26(12), p.120703_1 - 120703_5, 2019/12

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:17.01(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

This Letter presents the impacts of the hydrogen isotope mass and the normalized gyroradius $$rho^*$$ on L-mode like hydrogen (H) and deuterium (D) plasmas dominated by ion temperature gradient driven (ITG) turbulence using global full-f gyrokinetic simulations. In ion heated numerical experiments with adiabatic electrons, the energy confinement time shows almost no isotope mass dependency, and is determined by Bohm like $$rho^*$$ scaling. Electron heated numerical experiments with kinetic electrons show clear isotope mass dependency caused by the isotope effect on the collisional energy transfer from electrons to ions, and the H and D plasmas show similar ion and electron temperature profiles at an H to D heating power ratio of $$sim 1.4$$. The normalized collisionless ion gyrokinetic equations for H and D plasmas become identical at the same $$rho^*$$, and collisions weakly affect ITG turbulence. Therefore, the isotope mass dependency is mainly contributed by the $$rho^*$$ scaling and the heating sources.

Journal Articles

Toroidal angular momentum balance during rotation changes induced by electron heating modulation in tokamak plasmas

Idomura, Yasuhiro

Physics of Plasmas, 24(8), p.080701_1 - 080701_5, 2017/08


 Times Cited Count:9 Percentile:51.54(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

An electron heating modulation numerical experiment based on a global full-f gyrokinetic model shows that transitions from ion temperature gradient driven (ITG) turbulence to trapped electron mode (TEM) turbulence induced by electron heating generate density peaking and rotation changes. Toroidal angular momentum balance during the rotation changes is revealed by direct observation of toroidal angular momentum conservation, in which in addition to ion turbulent stress, ion neoclassical stress, radial currents, and toroidal field stress of ions and electrons are important. Toroidal torque flipping between ITG and TEM phases is found to be related to reversal of the ion radial current that indicates coupling of particle and momentum transport channels. The ion and electron radial currents are balanced to satisfy the ambipolar condition, and the electron radial current is cancelled by the electron toroidal field stress, which indirectly affects toroidal torque.

Journal Articles

Cross-scale interactions between turbulence driven by electron and ion temperature gradients via sub-ion-scale structures

Maeyama, Shinya*; Watanabe, Tomohiko*; Idomura, Yasuhiro; Nakata, Motoki*; Ishizawa, Akihiro*; Nunami, Masanori*

Nuclear Fusion, 57(6), p.066036_1 - 066036_10, 2017/05

 Times Cited Count:12 Percentile:59.74(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

Multi-scale plasma turbulence including electron and ion temperature gradient (ETG/ITG) modes has been investigated by means of electromagnetic gyrokinetic simulations. Triad transfer analyses on nonlinear mode coupling reveal cross-scale interactions between electron and ion scales. One of the interactions is suppression of electron-scale turbulence by ion- scale turbulence, where ITG-driven short-wavelength eddies act like shear flows and suppress ETG turbulence. Another cross-scale interaction is enhancement of ion-scale turbulence in the presence of electron-scale turbulence. This is caused via short-wavelength zonal flows, which are created by the response of passing kinetic electrons in ITG turbulence, suppress ITG turbulence by their shearing, and are damped by ETG turbulence. In both cases, sub-ion-scale structures between electron and ion scales play important roles in the cross-scale interactions.

Journal Articles

Impact of plasma parameter on self-organization of electron temperature gradient driven turbulence

Kawai, Chika*; Idomura, Yasuhiro; Maeyama, Shinya*; Ogawa, Yuichi*

Physics of Plasmas, 24(4), p.042303_1 - 042303_13, 2017/04


 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:12.25(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

Self-organization in the slab electron temperature gradient driven (ETG) turbulence is investigated based on gyrokinetic simulations and the Hasegawa-Mima (HM) equation. The scale and the anisotropy of self-organized turbulent structures vary depending on the Rhines scale and the characteristic scale given by the adiabatic response term in the HM equation. The former is determined by competition between the linear wave dispersion and the nonlinear turbulent cascade, while the latter is given as the scale, at which the turbulent cascade is impeded. These scales are controlled by plasma parameters such as the density and temperature gradient, and the temperature ratio of ion to electron. It is found that depending on the plasma parameters, the ETG turbulence shows either isotropic turbulence or zonal flows, which give significantly different transport levels. Although the modulational instability excites zonal modes regardless of the plasma parameters, the final turbulent structure is determined by the self-organization process.

Journal Articles

Cross-scale interactions between electron and ion scale turbulence in a tokamak plasma

Maeyama, Shinya*; Idomura, Yasuhiro; Watanabe, Tomohiko*; Nakata, Motoki*; Yagi, Masatoshi; Miyato, Naoaki; Ishizawa, Akihiro*; Nunami, Masanori*

Physical Review Letters, 114(25), p.255002_1 - 255002_5, 2015/06

 Times Cited Count:79 Percentile:94.9(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

Multiscale gyrokinetic turbulence simulations with the real ion-to-electron mass ratio and $$beta$$ value are realized for the first time, where the $$beta$$ value is given by the ratio of plasma pressure to magnetic pressure and characterizes electromagnetic effects on microinstabilities. Numerical analysis at both the electron scale and the ion scale is used to reveal the mechanism of their cross-scale interactions. Even with the real- mass scale separation, ion-scale turbulence eliminates electron-scale streamers and dominates heat transport, not only of ions but also of electrons. When the ion-scale modes are stabilized by finite-$$beta$$ effects, the contribution of the electron-scale dynamics to the turbulent transport becomes non-negligible and turns out to enhance ion-scale turbulent transport.

Journal Articles

Observation of the interaction between the geodesic acoustic mode and ambient fluctuation in the JFT-2M tokamak

Ido, Takeshi*; Miura, Yukitoshi; Hoshino, Katsumichi; Kamiya, Kensaku; Hamada, Yasuji*; Nishizawa, Akimitsu*; Kawasumi, Yoshiaki*; Ogawa, Hiroaki; Nagashima, Yoshihiko*; Shinohara, Koji; et al.

Nuclear Fusion, 46(5), p.512 - 520, 2006/05

 Times Cited Count:85 Percentile:93.24(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

The electrostatic fluctuation spectrum and the fluctuation-induced particle flux of the JFT-2M tokamak were estimated using the hevy ion beam probe (HIBP) measurement. A geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) of the frequency about15kHz was identified in the L-mode. The GAM has its peak at about 3cm inside of the separatrix with the electric field of about 1.4kV/m. The estimated turbulent particle flux is found to be intermittent. It is found that the density fluctuation is modulated by the GAM in the wide frequency range and the coherence analysis shows that the flucruation-induced particle flux is partially contributed by the GAM. In the H-mode the GAM disappears and the fluctuation and the flux is much decreased.The mechanism of the large burst-like flux in the L-mode is not understood yet and left as the future problem.

Journal Articles

Bispectral analysis applied to coherent floating potential fluctuations obtained in the edge plasmas on JFT-2M

Nagashima, Yoshihiko*; Ito, Kimitaka*; Ito, Sanae*; Fujisawa, Akihide*; Hoshino, Katsumichi; Takase, Yuichi*; Yagi, Masatoshi*; Ejiri, Akira*; Ida, Katsumi*; Shinohara, Koji; et al.

Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, 48(4), p.S1 - S15, 2006/04

 Times Cited Count:35 Percentile:74.9(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

This paper presents the results of bispectral analysis of floating potential fluctuations in the edge region of ohmically heated plasmas in the JFT-2M tokamak. Inside of the outermost magnetic surface,coherent modes were observed around the frequency of geodesic acoustic mode which is a kind of the zonal flow. The squared bicoherence shows significant nonlinear couplings between the coherent fluctuations and the background fluctuations (which are likely to contain drift wave turbulent fluctuations). The experimental results that the total bicoherence is proportional to the squared amplitude of the coherent fluctuation, and that the biphase of the coherent modes localizes around a constant value $$pi$$, are consistent with the theoretical prediction on the drift wave - zonal flow systems based on the Hasegawa-Mima model.

Journal Articles

Geodesic-acoustic-mode in JFT-2M tokamak plasmas

Ido, Takeshi*; Miura, Yukitoshi; Kamiya, Kensaku; Hamada, Yasuji*; Hoshino, Katsumichi; Fujisawa, Akihide*; Ito, Kimitaka*; Ito, Sanae*; Nishizawa, Akimitsu*; Ogawa, Hiroaki; et al.

Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, 48(4), p.S41 - S50, 2006/04

 Times Cited Count:126 Percentile:96.8(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

The potential and density fluctuations of Geodesic-Acoustic-Mode (GAM) were investigated through the direct and simultaneous measurement of electrostatic and density fluctuations with a heavy ion beam probe(HIBP). It was found that the amplitude of the fluctuation has a maximum inside of the plasma boundary and that it has an almost constant frequency. It was also found that the mode propagates in the radial direction and that the GAM affects the background turbulence. The influence to the background turbulence was found to be in consistent with a theoretical prediction.

Journal Articles

Global profile effects and structure formations in toroidal electron temperature gradient driven turbulence

Idomura, Yasuhiro; Tokuda, Shinji; Kishimoto, Yasuaki

Nuclear Fusion, 45(12), p.1571 - 1581, 2005/12

 Times Cited Count:38 Percentile:75.95(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

Using a global gyrokinetic toroidal particle code, the toroidal electron temperature gradient driven (ETG) turbulence is studied in positive and reversed shear tokamaks. In the nolinear turbulent state, the ETG turbulence in the positive and reversed shear configurations show quite different structure formations. In the positive shear configuration, the ETG turbulence is dominated by streamers which have a ballooning type structure, and the electron temperature $$T_e$$ profile is quickly relaxed to the marginally stable state in a turbulent time scale. In the reversed shear configuration, quasi-steady zonal flows are produced in the regative shear region, while the positive shear region is characterized by streamers. Accordingly, the electron thermal diffusivity $$chi_e$$ has a gap structure across the $$q_{min}$$ surface, and the $$T_e$$ gradinet is sustained above the marginal value for a long time in the quasi-steady phase. The results suggest a stiffness of the $$T_e$$ profile in positive shear tokamaks, and a possibility of the Te transport barrier in reversed shear tokamaks.

Journal Articles

Observation of nonlinear coupling between small-poloidal wave-number potential fluctuations and turbulent potential fluctuations in Ohmically heated plasmas in the JFT-2M tokamak

Nagashima, Yoshihiko*; Hoshino, Katsumichi; Ejiri, Akira*; Shinohara, Koji; Takase, Yuichi*; Tsuzuki, Kazuhiro; Uehara, Kazuya; Kawashima, Hisato; Ogawa, Hiroaki; Ido, Takeshi*; et al.

Physical Review Letters, 95(9), p.095002_1 - 095002_4, 2005/08

 Times Cited Count:99 Percentile:92.78(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

By a reciprocating electrostatic probe, two types of low frequency coherent electrostatic modes (about1kHz and 10-15kHz) are found,for the first time, in the edge region of ohmically heated plasmas in the JFT-2M tokamak. These modes exists in the last closed surface. The higher frequency mode has features of the geodesic acoustic mode (GAM), though the low frequency mode is not identified yet. A bispectral analysis revealed that significant nonlinear couplings (parametric modulation) between these coherent fluctuations and broadband background turbulent potential fluctuations occur. In the other words, the GAM and the back ground turbulence are modulated by the newly found low frequency electrostatic mode (further, the GAM modulates the background turbulence, also) for the first time. The newly found low frequency mode (frequency about 1kHz) is supposed to contribute to the turbulent diffusion nonlinearly.

Journal Articles

Comparisons of gyrokinetic PIC and CIP codes

Idomura, Yasuhiro; Kishimoto, Yasuaki; Tokuda, Shinji

Europhysics Conference Abstracts (CD-ROM), 29C, 4 Pages, 2005/00

A gyrokinetic simulation is an essential tool to study anomalous turbulent transport in tokamak plasmas. Although a delta-f PIC code or a particle approach has been a standard method, it has difficulty in implementing non-conservative effects such as a heat source and collisions, which are important for a realistic long time turbulence simulation. On the other hand, a Vlasov code or a mesh approach is much more flexible to simulate these non-conservative effects. In this work, a new gyrokinetic Vlasov code is developed based on the CIP method, which is one of recent advanced CFD schemes. Numerical properties and computational costs of the gyrokinetic PIC and CIP codes are compared in ITG turbulence simulations.

JAEA Reports

Global characteristics of zonal flows generated by ion temperature gradient driven turbulence in tokamak plasmas

Miyato, Naoaki; Kishimoto, Yasuaki; Li, J.

JAERI-Research 2004-010, 18 Pages, 2004/08


Global structure of zonal flows driven by ion temperature gradient driven turbulence in tokamak plasmas is investigated using a global electromagnetic Landau fluid code. Characteristics of the coupled system of the zonal flows and the turbulence change with the safety factor ${it q}$. In a low ${it q}$ region stationary zonal flows are excited and suppress the turbulence effectively. Coupling between zonal flows and poloidally asymmetric pressure perturbations via a geodesic curvature makes the zonal flows oscillatory in a high ${it q}$ region. Also we identify energy transfer from the zonal flows to the turbulence via the poloidally asymmetric pressure perturbations in the high ${it q}$ region. Therefore in the high ${it q}$ region the zonal flows cannot quench the turbulet transport completely.

Journal Articles

Reconstruction of wavenumber spectra of plasma turbulence in microwave reflectometry

Bruskin, L. G.*; Oyama, Naoyuki; Mase, Atsushi*; Shinohara, Koji; Miura, Yukitoshi

Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, 46(8), p.1313 - 1330, 2004/08

 Times Cited Count:13 Percentile:41.18(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Advances in plasma and fusion simulation and prospects for the future; From a viewpoint of magnetically confined fusion

Kishimoto, Yasuaki

Purazuma, Kaku Yugo Gakkai-Shi, 80(5), p.390 - 395, 2004/05

High performance magnetically confined plasma is realized by having structures in plasmas, where different elementary processes with different time and spatial scales are deeply contributing with each other. A research based on large scale simulation is then essential to understand such hierarchical complex plasmas. We discuss the underlying physical process of the structural plasma and present a prospect for future numerical simulations covering a wide dynamical range.

Journal Articles

Underlying mechanism of numerical instability in Large-Eddy Simulation of turbulent flows

Ida, Masato; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki*

Physical Review E, 69(4), p.046701_1 - 046701_9, 2004/04

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:5.94(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

This paper extends our recent theoretical work concerning the feasibility of stable and accurate computation of turbulence using a large eddy simulation. In our previous paper, it was shown, based on a simple assumption regarding the instantaneous streamwise velocity, that the application of the Gaussian filter to the Navier-Stokes equations can result in the appearance of a numerically unstable term. In the present paper, based on assumptions regarding the statistically averaged velocity, we show that in several situations, the shears appearing in the statistically averaged velocity field numerically destabilize the fluctuation components because of the derivation of a numerically unstable term that represents negative diffusion in a fixed direction. This finding can explain the problematic numerical instability that has been encountered in large eddy simulations of wall-bounded flows. The present result suggests that if there is no failure in modeling, the resulting subgrid-scale model can still have unstable characteristics.

Journal Articles

Electromagnetic effect on turbulent transport in tokamak based on Landau fluid global simulation

Miyato, Naoaki; Li, J.*; Kishimoto, Yasuaki

Journal of Plasma and Fusion Research SERIES, Vol.6, p.581 - 584, 2004/00

Electromagnetic effect on ion temperature gradient driven turbulence and zonal flow generated from the turbulence is investigated based on global electromagnetic Landau fluid simulations in tokamak plasmas. Turbulent transport decreases by increasing beta in a low beta regime. Two types of zonal flow are observed. One is almost stationary flow formed in a low safety factor (q) region, which is weaker at higher beta. The other is flow oscillating coherently at the geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) frequency.

Journal Articles

Recent advances in nonlinear gyrokinetic PIC simulations in tokamak geometry

Bottino, A.*; Angelino, P.*; Allfrey, S. J.*; Brunner, S.*; Hatzky, R.*; Idomura, Yasuhiro; Jolliet, S.*; Sauter, O.*; Tran, T. M.*; Villard, L.*

Theory of Fusion Plasmas, ISPP21, p.75 - 86, 2004/00

The global nonlinear electrostatic PIC code ORB5 solves the gyrokinetic Vlasov-Poisson system assuming adiabatic electrons in realistic tokamak magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibria. The present version of ORB5 shows remarkable particle and energy conservation properties and can be used for physics studies in toroidal geometry. In particular, the optimized tracer loading method has been adapted to tokamak geometry and implemented in ORB5 together with a new adaptive gyro-average algorithm. Basic physical conservation properties (energy and particle number) are used as indicators of the quality of the numerical simulations. In this paper we present the first nonlinear results of electrostatic collisionless microinstabilities of realistic MHD shaped equilibria, provided by the MHD equilibrium code CHEASE, including the toroidicity induced geometrical coupling of the zonal ExB flow and the parallel velocity nonlinearlity.

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