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論文

High-temperature rupture failure of high-burnup LWR-MOX fuel under a reactivity-initiated accident condition

谷口 良徳; 三原 武; 垣内 一雄; 宇田川 豊

Annals of Nuclear Energy, 195, p.110144_1 - 110144_11, 2024/01

A reactivity-initiated accident (RIA)-simulated test CN-1 on a high-burnup 64 GWd/t mixed-oxide fuel rod sheathed with M5$$^{TM}$$ cladding was conducted at the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor, resulting in fuel failure. A small opening with slight ballooning deformation characterized the post-test visual appearance of the test fuel rod. Simulation using fuel performance codes FEMAXI-8/RANNS predicted rod survival under early phase loading induced by pellet-cladding mechanical interaction and subsequent boiling transition, and the cladding surface temperature measured online confirmed the occurrence of boiling transition. The experimental observation and simulation indicate that the failure was caused by a high-temperature rupture following increased rod-internal pressure. The RANNS sensitivity analysis revealed that a mechanical state parameter dedicated to predicting plastic instability might be an effective index for evaluating the risk of rupture failure during RIAs.

論文

The Precipitation and redistribution of alloying element in Zircaloy-4 cladding tube oxidized in high-temperature steam

天谷 政樹

High Temperature Corrosion of Materials, 15 Pages, 2024/00

Zirconium (Zr)-based alloys are widely used as fuel cladding material for light water reactors. Under a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) condition, the oxidation of fuel cladding by high-temperature steam induces the degradation of mechanical properties of the cladding and would affect the integrity of fuel rods and/or assemblies, etc., during LOCA. In this study, the distribution of the elements (zirconium, oxygen, tin, iron and chromium) in Zircaloy-4 cladding specimens oxidized in the temperature range of $$sim$$ 1350- $$sim$$ 1700 K in steam was analyzed along the radial direction of the specimens by using SEM/EPMA, and the cause of element distribution in the specimens was discussed in consideration of the morphology of precipitates in the specimens and hypothesized phase diagrams related to the elements contained in the specimens. The form of the particles precipitated and the comparison between SEM/EPMA results and hypothesized phase diagrams of Zr-Sn-O system suggested that the liquefaction of tin-rich material and/or Zr-(Fe,Cr) compounds occurred during the oxidation test. The results obtained indicate that Zircaloy-4 cladding tubes would start melting at the melting point of tin-oxide and the eutectic point of Zr-(Fe,Cr)compounds, which is much lower than the melting point of Zr, $$alpha$$-Zr(O), or zirconium oxide (ZrO$$_{2}$$).

論文

Oxidation and embrittlement behavior of FeCrAl-ODS cladding tube under loss-of-coolant accident conditions

成川 隆文; 近藤 啓悦; 藤村 由希; 垣内 一雄; 宇田川 豊; 根本 義之

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 587, p.154736_1 - 154736_8, 2023/12

To evaluate the oxidation and embrittlement behavior of an oxide-dispersion-strengthened FeCrAl (FeCrAl-ODS) cladding tube under loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) conditions, we conducted isothermal oxidation and ring-compression tests on unirradiated, stress-relieved FeCrAl-ODS cladding tube specimens. Further, we discussed the loss of coolable geometry of the reactor core loaded with the FeCrAl-ODS cladding tubes under LOCA conditions, using data from the ring-compression tests in this study and the integral thermal shock tests from our previous study. The results reveal that oxidation kinetics of the FeCrAl-ODS cladding tube at 1523 K is four orders of magnitude lower than that of a conventional Zircaloy cladding tube, which highlights the exceptional oxidation resistance of the FeCrAl-ODS cladding tube. The breakaway oxidation of the FeCrAl-ODS cladding tube was observed at 1623 K for durations equal to or exceeding 6 h, and melting was observed at 1723 K. The ring-compression and the integral thermal shock tests indicate that, depending on the oxidation time, the ductile to brittle transition threshold - as determined by the ring-compression test - exists between 1623 K and 1723 K. Meanwhile, the fracture threshold - established through the integral thermal shock test - falls between 1573 K and 1673 K. Therefore, taking a conservative approach based on available data, the fracture and non-fracture results from the integral thermal shock tests can define the lower and upper boundaries of the threshold for the loss of coolable geometry of the reactor core during a LOCA.

論文

Microstructural evolution of intermetallic phase precipitates in Cr-coated zirconium alloy cladding in high-temperature steam oxidation up to 1400$$^{circ}$$C

Mohamad, A. B.; 根本 義之; 古本 健一郎*; 岡田 裕史*; 佐藤 大樹*

Corrosion Science, 224, p.111540_1 - 111540_15, 2023/11

The steam oxidation test on the Cr-coated Zry cladding was studied up to 1400$$^{circ}$$C to understand the oxidation behavior under the accidental conditions. The double-sided oxidation test study showed that Cr coating can protect Zry cladding at 1200$$^{circ}$$C within 5 min. Cr coating has a protective effect on the Zry cladding up to 1200$$^{circ}$$C in a steam environment. However, in the oxidation test up to 1200$$^{circ}$$C/30 min and 1300$$^{circ}$$C/5 min, Cr coating can no longer protect Zry cladding. Furthermore, at 1300$$^{circ}$$C, the intermetallic phase of the Zr(Cr, Fe)$$_{2}$$ phase that precipitated within the Zry substrate formed as globule microstructures with Fe enrichment. In addition, the transition of the intermetallic phase within the Zry substrate from the solid to the pre-liquid and liquid phases was observed, where it was determined at 1350$$^{circ}$$C/60 min and 1400$$^{circ}$$C/30 min within the ZrO$$_{2}$$ phase (outer side region). The oxidation of the Zr(Cr, Fe)$$_{2}$$ interlayer was also determined in this study, where it resulted in the formation of the oxide phase of Cr, Zr, and Fe. It is worth mentioning that further experiments, such as mechanical testing and modeling, should be considered to support the degradation of the Cr-coated Zry cladding mainly when the liquid phase of the intermetallic phase is obtained for beyond design-basis accident environment.

論文

Hierarchical Bayesian modeling to quantify fracture limit uncertainty of high-burnup advanced fuel cladding tubes under loss-of-coolant accident conditions

成川 隆文; 濱口 修輔*; 高田 孝*; 宇田川 豊

Nuclear Engineering and Design, 411, p.112443_1 - 112443_12, 2023/09

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0.01

For realizing a highly reliable fracture limit evaluation of fuel cladding tubes during loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs) in light-water reactors, we developed a method to quantify the fracture limit uncertainty of high-burnup advanced fuel cladding tubes. This method employs a hierarchical Bayesian model that can quantify uncertainty even with limited experimental data. The fracture limit uncertainty was quantified as a probability using the amount of oxidation (Equivalent cladding reacted: ECR) and the initial hydrogen concentration (the hydrogen concentration in the fuel cladding tubes before the LOCA-simulated tests) as explanatory variables. We divided the regression coefficients of this model into a hierarchical structure with an overall average term common to all types of fuel cladding tubes and a term representing differences among various types of fuel cladding tubes. This hierarchical structure enabled us to quantify the fracture limit uncertainty through the effective use of prior knowledge and data, even for high-burnup advanced fuel cladding tubes with a small number of data points. The fracture limits representing a 5% fracture probability with 95% confidence of the high-burnup advanced fuel cladding tubes evaluated by the hierarchical Bayesian model were higher than 15% ECR for the initial hydrogen concentrations of up to 700-900 wtppm and restraint loads below 535 N. These fracture limits were comparable to the limit of the unirradiated Zircaloy-4 cladding tube, indicating that the burnup extension and use of the advanced fuel cladding tubes do not significantly lower the fracture limit of fuel cladding tubes. Further, we proposed a method to reduce the fracture limit uncertainty by using non-binary data, instead of the binary data, depending on the condition of the fuel cladding tube specimens after performing the LOCA-simulated test, thereby increasing the amount of information in the data.

論文

Behavior of FeCrAl-ODS cladding tube under loss-of-coolant accident conditions

成川 隆文; 近藤 啓悦; 藤村 由希; 垣内 一雄; 宇田川 豊; 根本 義之

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 582, p.154467_1 - 154467_12, 2023/08

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:96.85(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

To evaluate the behavior of an oxide-dispersion-strengthened FeCrAl (FeCrAl-ODS) cladding tube under loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) conditions of light-water reactors (LWRs), the following two laboratory-scale LOCA-simulated tests were performed: the burst and integral thermal shock tests. Four burst and three integral thermal shock tests were performed on unirradiated, stress-relieved FeCrAl-ODS cladding tube specimens, simulating ballooning and rupture, oxidation, and quenching, which were postulated during a LOCA. The burst temperature of the FeCrAl-ODS cladding tube was 200-300 K higher than that of the Zircaloy cladding tube, and the FeCrAl-ODS cladding tube's maximum circumferential strain was smaller than or equal to the Zircaloy-4 cladding tube. These results indicate that the FeCrAl-ODS cladding tube has higher strength at high temperatures than the conventional Zircaloy cladding tube. The FeCrAl-ODS cladding tube did not fracture after being subjected to an axial restraint load of $$sim$$5000 N, which is more than 10 times higher than the axial restraint load estimated for existing LWRs, during quenching, following isothermal oxidation at 1473 K for 1 h. The FeCrAl-ODS cladding tube was hardly oxidized during this isothermal oxidation condition. However, it melted after a short oxidation at 1673 K and fractured after abnormal oxidation at 1573 K for 1 h. Based on these results, the FeCrAl-ODS cladding tube should not fracture in the time range expected during LOCAs below 1473 K, where no melting or abnormal oxidation occurs.

報告書

Data report of ROSA/LSTF experiment IB-HL-01; 17% hot leg intermediate break LOCA with totally-failed high pressure injection system

竹田 武司

JAEA-Data/Code 2023-007, 72 Pages, 2023/07

JAEA-Data-Code-2023-007.pdf:3.24MB

ROSA-V計画において、大型非定常実験装置(LSTF)を用いた実験(実験番号:IB-HL-01)が2009年11月19日に行われた。ROSA/LSTF IB-HL-01実験では、加圧水型原子炉(PWR)の加圧器サージラインの両端ギロチン破断による17%高温側配管中破断冷却材喪失事故を模擬した。このとき、高温側配管内面に接する様に、長いノズルを上向きに取り付けることにより破断口を模擬した。また、非常用炉心冷却系(ECCS)である高圧注入系の全故障と補助給水系の全故障を仮定した。実験では、比較的大きいサイズの破断が早い過渡現象を引き起こした。破断後一次系圧力が急激に低下し、蒸気発生器(SG)二次側圧力よりも低くなった。破断流は、破断直後に水単相から二相流に変化した。炉心露出は、ループシールクリアリング(LSC)前に、クロスオーバーレグの下降流側の水位低下と同時に開始した。低温側配管に注入されたECCSの蓄圧注入系(ACC)冷却水の蒸気凝縮により両ループのLSCが誘発された。LSC後の炉心水位の急速な回復により、全炉心はクエンチした。模擬燃料棒被覆管最高温度は、LSCとほぼ同時に検出された。ACC冷却水注入時、高速蒸気流による高温側配管からSG入口プレナムへの液体のエントレインメントにより、高温側配管とSG入口プレナムの水位が回復した。ECCSである低圧注入系の作動を通じた継続的な炉心冷却を確認後、実験を終了した。本報告書は、ROSA/LSTF IB-HL-01実験の手順、条件および実験で観察された主な結果をまとめたものである。

論文

Radio-tellurium released into the environment during the complete oxidation of fuel cladding, containment venting and reactor building failure of the Fukushima accident

日高 昭秀; 川島 茂人*; 梶野 瑞王*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 60(7), p.743 - 758, 2023/07

 被引用回数:2 パーセンタイル:92.04(Nuclear Science & Technology)

福島事故時に放出された放射性物質量の推定は、原子炉の事故進展や環境影響の評価にとって不可欠である。そこで、ヨウ素,Csに次いで放出量が多いTeについて、単位放出量を想定したメソスケール気象モデル計算で得られた時間ごとの沈着量に基づいて沈着量分布を重み付けする、単位放出回帰推定法を用いて検討した。前回の検討では、この手法の適用性確認に主眼を置き、発生源について暫定的な結果を得ることができた。しかし、その後の検討で、放出があったと思われる期間の一部が放出推定期間から欠落していると、ソースターム計算全体に歪みが生じることが判明した。このため、本研究では、推定期間を延長し、主要な放出を全て含むように再計算を行った。その結果、これまで特定されなかった放出事象が明らかになり、炉内事象との対応も確認できた。また、炉心注水時のZr被覆管完全酸化による$$^{rm 129m}$$Te放出事象を考慮することにより、土壌汚染マップにおける$$^{rm 129m}$$Te/$$^{137}$$Cs比の地域依存性を説明することができた。さらに、本検討に基づき、WSPEEDI逆計算では予測できなかった3月11日夜,13日,14日早朝にヨウ素とCsの放出が増加した可能性を指摘した。

論文

Effects of azimuthal temperature distribution and rod internal gas energy on ballooning deformation and rupture opening formation of a 17 $$times$$ 17 type PWR fuel cladding tube under LOCA-simulated burst conditions

古本 健一郎; 宇田川 豊

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 60(5), p.500 - 511, 2023/05

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

In order to contribute to better modeling and evaluation of fuel fragmentation, relocation, and dispersal expected under loss of coolant accident (LOCA) conditions, LOCA-simulated cladding burst experiments were performed on as-received nonirradiated 17 $$times$$ 17 type Zircaloy-4 cladding specimens that were internally pressurized. The experiments were designed to terminate at burst occurrence to focus on ballooning and rupture opening formation and to investigate the effects of various factors. The postburst cladding hoop strain decreased with the increase in azimuthal temperature distribution (ATD) of the cladding, as found previously. The rupture opening size increased with the increase in ATD and the increase in energy of the pressurized gas stored inside the pressure boundary of the test sample system. Comparison with the existing database, which included tests on irradiated rods containing fuel pellets, suggested that formation of the rupture opening was influenced by the characteristic behavior of high burnup fuels, such as limited gas migration in the cladding tube due to fuel-cladding bonding and interaction of the ejected fuel fragments with the cladding tube.

論文

Double diffusive dissolution model of UO$$_{2}$$ pellet in molten Zr cladding

伊藤 あゆみ*; 山下 晋; 田崎 雄大; 垣内 一雄; 小林 能直*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 60(4), p.450 - 459, 2023/04

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The rapid dissolution of UO$$_{2}$$ in molten Zr that could occur during fuel-cladding liquefaction at high temperatures and its kinetics were reformulated considering the convective mass transfer and the chemical effect at the UO$$_{2}$$/Zr interface. The mass transfer coefficient of U was obtained as a correlation including the aspect ratio term by CFD analysis. To explain the gap between the rapid dissolution rate observed in the experiments and the density-driven convective mass transfer, we introduced an idea in which the eutectic melting at the UO$$_{2}$$/Zr interface promotes the grain detachment owing to infiltration of the U-Zr-O liquid into the UO$$_{2}$$ grain boundaries. The developed model was validated with UO$$_{2}$$-Zr crucible experiments at 2273 and 2373 K. The calculated mass percentage ratios of U/Zr agreed with the measurements and the transition times from rapid saturation to precipitation were consistent with the metallographic observations.

論文

Engineering formulation of the irradiation growth behavior of zirconium-based alloys for light water reactors

垣内 一雄; 天谷 政樹; 宇田川 豊

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 573, p.154110_1 - 154110_7, 2023/01

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0.01(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

The irradiation growth behavior of coupon specimens prepared from improved Zr-based alloys for light-water reactor fuel cladding, which have various additive elements and fabrication conditions, was investigated by conducting an irradiation test at 573 and 593 K under typical PWR coolant conditions up to a fast-neutron fluence of $$approx$$7.8$$times$$10$$^{21}$$ (n/cm $$^{2}$$, E $$>$$1 MeV) in the Halden reactor in Norway. Based on the dimensional change data measured at interim and final inspections, the amounts of irradiation growth of the improved Zr-based alloys were formulated from the viewpoint of engineering. The trends of the parameters which express the effects of additive elements on irradiation growth behavior were in good agreement with those previously reported, and it was found that the amount of irradiation growth can be expressed by using a summation rule of the effect of each additive element on irradiation growth.

論文

Hierarchical Bayes model to quantify fracture limit uncertainty of high-burnup advanced fuel cladding tubes under LOCA conditions

成川 隆文; 濱口 修輔*; 高田 孝*; 宇田川 豊

Proceedings of Asian Symposium on Risk Assessment and Management 2022 (ASRAM 2022) (Internet), 11 Pages, 2022/12

To realize a more reliable safety evaluation of loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs) in light-water-reactors, we developed a quantification method of the fracture limit uncertainty of high-burnup advanced fuel cladding tubes using a hierarchical Bayes model that can quantify uncertainty even when experimental data are limited. The fracture limit uncertainty was quantified as a probability using the amount of oxidation and the initial hydrogen concentration (the hydrogen concentration in fuel cladding tubes before the LOCA-simulated tests) as explanatory variables. The hierarchical Bayes model was developed by dividing the regression coefficients into a hierarchical structure with an overall average term common to all types of fuel cladding tubes and a term representing differences between types of fuel cladding tubes. Using the developed model, we showed that the fracture limits of the high-burnup advanced fuel cladding tubes tended to be on average equal to or higher than that of an unirradiated conventional fuel cladding tube. Further, we proposed a method to reduce the fracture limit uncertainty by using non-binary data depending on the condition of the fuel cladding tube specimens after the LOCA-simulated test instead of the binary data, thereby increasing the amount of information in each data.

論文

Irradiation growth behavior and effect of hydrogen absorption of Zr-based cladding alloys for PWR

垣内 一雄; 天谷 政樹; 宇田川 豊

Annals of Nuclear Energy, 171, p.109004_1 - 109004_9, 2022/06

 被引用回数:3 パーセンタイル:80.29(Nuclear Science & Technology)

In order to understand the dimensional stability of the fuel rod during long-term use in commercial LWRs, an irradiation growth testing in the Halden reactor of Norway was conducted on various fuel cladding materials including the improved Zr alloy. In this paper, the effect of hydrogen, which was absorbed in the cladding tube due to corrosion, on the irradiation growth behavior was evaluated. Comparison between the specimens with or without pre-charged hydrogen revealed that the effect of hydrogen absorption, accelerating irradiation growth, became significant when the hydrogen content exceeded the hydrogen solubility limit in the corresponding irradiation temperature. Analysis based on this understanding derived growth acceleration effect (0.06$$pm$$0.01)%/100 ppm, whose denominator is defined as the amount of absorbed hydrogen involved in hydride precipitation under irradiation as a relevant parameter.

論文

LOCA時燃料破断限界評価の信頼性向上を目指して; 不確かさ定量化手法の開発と高燃焼度化の影響評価

成川 隆文

日本原子力学会誌ATOMO$$Sigma$$, 63(11), p.780 - 785, 2021/11

冷却材喪失事故時の軽水炉燃料被覆管の破断限界評価の信頼性向上を目指した原子力機構の取り組みとして、ベイズ統計手法による不確かさの定量化手法の開発、並びに燃焼の進展及び被覆管材質の変更の影響評価に関する研究を紹介する。

論文

OECD/NEA benchmark on pellet-clad mechanical interaction modelling with fuel performance codes; Influence of pellet geometry and gap size

Soba, A.*; Prudil, A.*; Zhang, J.*; Dethioux, A.*; Han, Z.*; Dostal, M.*; Matocha, V.*; Marelle, V.*; Lasnel-Payan, J.*; Kulacsy, K.*; et al.

Proceedings of TopFuel 2021 (Internet), 10 Pages, 2021/10

The NEA Expert Group on Reactor Fuel Performance (EGRFP) proposed a benchmark on fuel performance codes modeling of pellet-cladding mechanical interation (PCMI). The aim of the benchmark was to improve understanding and modeling of PCMI amongst NEA member organizations. This was achieved by comparing PCMI predictions for a number of specified cases. The results of the two hypothetical cases (1 and 2) were presented earlier. The two final cases (3 and 4) are comparison between calculations and measurements, which will be published as NEA reports. This paper focuses on Case 3, which consists of eight beginning of life (BOL) sub-cases (3a to 3h) each with different pellet designs that have undergone ramping in the Halden Reactor. The aforementioned experiments are known as the IFA-118 experiments and were performed from 1969 to 1970. The variations between cases include four different pellets dimensions (7, 14, 20 and 30 mm of height), two different gapsizes between pellet-cladding (40 and 100 microns) and three variations on pellet face geometry (flat, dishing and dishing with chamfer). Such diversity has allowed exploring the codes sensitivity to these individual factors.

論文

Steam oxidation of silicon carbide at high temperatures for the application as accident tolerant fuel cladding, an overview

Pham, V. H.; 倉田 正輝; Steinbrueck, M.*

Thermo (Internet), 1(2), p.151 - 167, 2021/09

Since the nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station in 2011, a considerable number of studies have been conducted to develop accident tolerant fuel (ATF) claddings for safety enhancement of light water reactors. Among many potential ATF claddings, silicon carbide is one of the most promising candidates with many superior features suitable for nuclear applications. In spite of many potential benefits of SiC cladding, there are some concerns over the oxidation/corrosion resistance of the cladding, especially at extreme temperatures (up to 2000$$^{circ}$$C) in severe accidents. However, the study of SiC steam oxidation in conventional test facilities in water vapor atmospheres at temperatures above 1600$$^{circ}$$C is very challenging. In recent years, several efforts have been made to modify existing or to develop new advanced test facilities to perform material oxidation tests in steam environments typical of severe accident conditions. In this article, the authors outline the features of SiC oxidation/corrosion at high temperatures, as well as the developments of advanced test facilities in their laboratories, and, finally, give some of the current advances in understanding based on recent data obtained from those advanced test facilities.

報告書

軽水型動力炉の非常用炉心冷却系の性能評価指針の技術的根拠と高燃焼度燃料への適用性

永瀬 文久; 成川 隆文; 天谷 政樹

JAEA-Review 2020-076, 129 Pages, 2021/03

JAEA-Review-2020-076.pdf:3.9MB

軽水炉においては、冷却系配管破断等による冷却材喪失事故(LOCA)時にも炉心の冷却可能な形状を維持し放射性核分裂生成物の周辺への放出を抑制するために、非常用炉心冷却系(ECCS)が設置されている。ECCSの設計上の機能及び性能を評価し、評価結果が十分な安全余裕を有することを確認するために、「軽水型動力炉の非常用炉心冷却系の性能評価指針」が定められている。同指針に規定されている基準は1975年に定められた後、1981年に当時の最新知見を参考に見直しが行われている。その後、軽水炉においては燃料の高燃焼度化及びそれに必要な被覆管材料の改良や設計変更が進められたが、それに対応した指針の見直しは行われていない。一方、高燃焼度燃料のLOCA時挙動や高燃焼度燃料への現行指針の適用性に関する多くの技術的な知見が取得されてきている。本報告においては、我が国における指針の制定経緯及び技術的根拠を確認しつつ、国内外におけるLOCA時燃料挙動に係る最新の技術的知見を取りまとめる。また、同指針を高燃焼度燃料に適用することの妥当性に関する見解を述べる。

論文

Transient response of LWR fuels (RIA)

宇田川 豊; 更田 豊志*

Comprehensive Nuclear Materials, 2nd Edition, Vol.2, p.322 - 338, 2020/08

This article aims at providing a general outline of fuel behavior during a reactivity-initiated accident (RIA) postulated in light water reactors (LWRs) and at showing experimental data providing technical basis for the current RIA-related regulatory criteria in Japan.

論文

Four-point-bend tests on high-burnup advanced fuel cladding tubes after exposure to simulated LOCA conditions

成川 隆文; 天谷 政樹

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 57(7), p.782 - 791, 2020/07

 被引用回数:4 パーセンタイル:61.45(Nuclear Science & Technology)

To evaluate the fracture resistance of high-burnup advanced fuel cladding tubes during the long-term core cooling period following loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs), laboratory-scale four-point-bend tests were performed using the following advanced fuel cladding tubes with burnups of 73 - 84 GWd/t: low-tin ZIRLO$textsuperscript{texttrademark}$, M5$textsuperscript{textregistered}$, and Zircaloy-2 (LK3). Three four-point-bend tests were performed on the high-burnup advanced fuel cladding tube specimens subjected to the integral thermal shock tests which simulated LOCA conditions (ballooning and rupture, oxidation in high-temperature steam, and quench). During the four-point-bend tests, all the specimens that were oxidized at 1474 K to 9.9% - 21.5% equivalent cladding reacted exhibited brittle fractures. The maximum bending moments were comparable to those of the conventional Zircaloy cladding tube specimens. Furthermore, the effects of oxidation and hydriding on the maximum bending moment were comparable between the high-burnup advanced fuel cladding tube specimens and the unirradiated Zircaloy-4 cladding tube specimens. Therefore, it can be concluded that the post-LOCA fracture resistance of fuel cladding tubes is not significantly reduced by extending the burnup to 84 GWd/t and using the advanced fuel cladding tubes, though it may slightly decrease with increasing initial hydrogen concentration in a relatively lower ECR range ($$<$$ 15%), as observed for the unirradiated Zircaloy-4 cladding tubes.

論文

Fracture-mechanics-based evaluation of failure limit on pre-cracked and hydrided Zircaloy-4 cladding tube under biaxial stress states

Li, F.; 三原 武; 宇田川 豊; 天谷 政樹

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 57(6), p.633 - 645, 2020/06

 被引用回数:2 パーセンタイル:24.76(Nuclear Science & Technology)

To better understand the failure limit of fuel cladding during the pellet-cladding mechanical interaction (PCMI) phase of a reactivity-initiated accident (RIA), pre-cracked and hydrided cladding samples with base metal final heat-treatment status of cold worked (CW) and recrystallized (RX) were tested under biaxial stress conditions (axial to hoop strain ratios of 0 and 0.5). Displacement-controlled biaxial-expansion-due-to-compression (biaxial-EDC) tests were performed to obtain the hoop strain at failure (failure strain) of the samples. The conversion of the failure strains to J-integral at failure by finite-element analysis involving data of stress-relieved (SR) cladding specimens from our previous study revealed that the failure limit in the dimension of J-integral at failure unifies the effects of pre-crack depth. About 30 to 50 percent reduction in the J-integral at failure was observed as the strain ratio increased from 0 to 0.5 irrespective of the annealing type, pre-crack depth, and hydrogen content. the rate of fractional decreases of J-integral at failure with increase of hydrogen content are in the order of CW$$>$$SR$$>$$RX, which are essentially independent of strain ratio for the CW and SR samples. The results were incorporated into the failure prediction model of the JAEA's fuel performance code in the form of a correction factor that considers the biaxial loading effect.

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