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Journal Articles

3.5.3 Technologies for contaminated water treatment

Uchida, Shunsuke

Genshiryoku No Ima To Ashita, p.63 - 68, 2019/03

The latest situation of contaminated water treatment in Fukushima Daiichi NPP for 8 years after its accident is reviewed. Major subjects, especially tritium treatment, to be solved related to the contaminated water and some proposal for the subjects are introduced.

Journal Articles

Calculation of tritium release from driver fuels into primary coolant of research reactors

Ho, H. Q.; Ishitsuka, Etsuo

Physical Sciences and Technology, 5(2), p.53 - 56, 2019/00

Increasing of tritium concentration in the primary coolant of the research and test reactors during operation had been reported. To check the source for tritium release into the primary coolant during operation of the JMTR and the JRR-3M, the tritium release from the driver fuels was calculated by MCNP6 and PHITS. It is clear that the calculated values of tritium release from fuels are as about 10$$^{7}$$ and 10$$^{6}$$ Bq for the JMTR and JRR-3M, respectively, and that calculated values are about 4 order of magnitude smaller than that of the measured values. These results show that the tritium release from fuels is negligible for both the reactors.

JAEA Reports

Calculations of Tritium Recoil Release from Li and U Impurities in Neutron Reflectors (Joint research)

Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Kenzhina, I.*; Okumura, Keisuke; Ho, H. Q.; Takemoto, Noriyuki; Chikhray, Y.*

JAEA-Technology 2018-010, 33 Pages, 2018/11


As a part of study on the mechanism of tritium release to the primary coolant in research and testing reactors, tritium recoil release rate from Li and U impurities in the neutron reflector made by beryllium, aluminum and graphite were calculated by PHITS code. On the other hand, the tritium production from Li and U impurities in beryllium neutron reflectors for JMTR and JRR-3M were calculated by MCNP6 and ORIGEN2 code. By using both results, the amount of recoiled tritium from beryllium neutron reflectors were estimated. It is clear that the amount of recoiled tritium from Li and U impurities in beryllium neutron reflectors are negligible, and 2 and 5 orders smaller than that from beryllium itself, respectively.

Journal Articles

Nuclear and thermal feasibility of lithium-loaded high temperature gas-cooled reactor for tritium production for fusion reactors

Goto, Minoru; Okumura, Keisuke; Nakagawa, Shigeaki; Inaba, Yoshitomo; Matsuura, Hideaki*; Nakaya, Hiroyuki*; Katayama, Kazunari*

Fusion Engineering and Design, 136(Part.A), p.357 - 361, 2018/11

A High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) is proposed as a tritium production device, which has the potential to produce a large amount of tritium using $$^{6}$$Li(n,$$alpha$$)T reaction. In the HTGR design, generally, boron is loaded into the core as a burnable poison to suppress excess reactivity. In this study, lithium is loaded into the HTGR core instead of boron and is used as a burnable poison aiming to produce thermal energy and tritium simultaneously. The nuclear characteristics and the fuel temperature were calculated to confirm the feasibility of the lithium-loaded HTGR. It was shown that the calculation results satisfied the design requirements and hence the feasibility was confirmed for the lithium-loaded HTGR, which produce thermal energy and tritium.

Journal Articles

Off-gas processing system operations for mercury target vessel replacement at J-PARC

Kai, Tetsuya; Uchida, Toshitsugu; Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Seki, Masakazu; Oi, Motoki; Wakui, Takashi; Haga, Katsuhiro; Kasugai, Yoshimi; Takada, Hiroshi

Journal of Physics; Conference Series, 1021(1), p.012042_1 - 012042_4, 2018/06

Journal Articles

Evaluation of tritium release curve in primary coolant of research reactors

Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Kenzhina, I. E.*

Physical Sciences and Technology, 4(1), p.27 - 33, 2018/06

Increase of tritium concentration in the primary coolant for the research and testing reactors during reactor operation had been reported. To clarify the tritium sources, a curve of the tritium release rate into the primary coolant for the JMTR and the JRR-3M are evaluated. It is also observed that the amount of released tritium is lower in the case of new beryllium components installation, and increases with the reactor operating cycle. These results show the beryllium components in core strongly affect to the tritium release into the primary coolant. As a result, the tritium release rate is related with produced $$^{6}$$Li by (n,$$alpha$$) reaction from $$^{9}$$Be, and evaluation results of tritium release curve are shown as the dominant source of tritium release into the primary coolant for the JMTR and the JRR-3M are beryllium components. Scattering of the tritium release rate with irradiation time were observed, and this phenomena in the JMTR occurred in earlier time than that of the JRR-3M.

Journal Articles

Role of soil-to-leaf tritium transfer in controlling leaf tritium dynamics; Comparison of experimental garden and tritium-transfer model results

Ota, Masakazu; Kwamena, N.-O. A.*; Mihok, S.*; Korolevych, V.*

Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 178-179, p.212 - 231, 2017/11

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:69.03(Environmental Sciences)

Environmental transfer models assume that organically-bound tritium (OBT) is formed directly from tissue-free water tritium (TFWT) in environmental compartments. Nevertheless, studies in the literature have shown that measured OBT/TFWT ratios are variable. The importance of soil-to-leaf HTO transfer pathway in controlling the leaf tritium dynamics is not well understood. A model inter-comparison of two tritium transfer models (CTEM-CLASS-TT and SOLVEG-II) was carried out with measured environmental samples from an experimental garden plot set up next to a tritium-processing facility. The garden plot received one of three different irrigation treatments - no external irrigation, irrigation with low tritium water and irrigation with high tritium water. The contrast between the results obtained with the different irrigation treatments provided insights into the impact of soil-to-leaf HTO transfer on the leaf tritium dynamics. Concentrations of TFWT and OBT in the garden plots that were not irrigated or irrigated with low tritium water were variable, responding to the arrival of the HTO-plume from the tritium-processing facility. In contrast, for the plants irrigated with high tritium water, the TFWT concentration remained elevated due to a continuous source of high HTO in the soil. Calculated concentrations of OBT in the leaves showed an initial increase followed by quasi-equilibration with the TFWT concentration. In this quasi-equilibrium state, concentrations of OBT remained elevated and unchanged despite the arrivals of the plume. These results from the model inter-comparison demonstrate that soil-to-leaf HTO transfer significantly affects OBT/TFWT ratio in the leaf regardless of the atmospheric HTO concentration, only if there is elevated HTO concentrations in the soil. The results of this work indicate that assessment models should be refined to consider the importance of soil-to-leaf HTO transfer to ensure that dose estimates are accurate and conservative.

Journal Articles

Effect of hydrocarbons on the efficiency of catalytic reactor of detritiation system in an event of fire

Edao, Yuki; Sato, Katsumi; Iwai, Yasunori; Hayashi, Takumi

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 53(11), p.1831 - 1838, 2016/11

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:57.25(Nuclear Science & Technology)

JAEA Reports

Calculation by PHITS code for recoil tritium release rate from beryllium under neutron irradiation (Joint research)

Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Kenzhina, I. E.*; Okumura, Keisuke; Takemoto, Noriyuki; Chikhray, Y.*

JAEA-Technology 2016-022, 35 Pages, 2016/10


As a part of study on the mechanism of tritium release to the primary coolant in research and testing reactors, the calculation methods by PHITS code is studied to evaluate the recoil tritium release rate from beryllium core components. Calculations using neutron and triton sources were compared, and it is clear that the tritium release rates in both cases show similar values. However, the calculation speed for the triton source cases is two orders faster than that for the neutron source case. It is also clear that the calculation up to history number per unit volume of 2$$times$$10$$^{4}$$ (cm$$^{-3}$$) is necessary to determine the recoil tritium release rate of two effective digits precision. Furthermore, the relationship between the beryllium shape and recoil tritium release rate using the triton sources was studied. Recoil tritium release rate showed linear relation to the surface area per volume of beryllium, and the recoil tritium release rate showed about half of the conventional equation value.

Journal Articles

Assessment of amount and concentration of tritium in HTTR-IS system based on tritium behavior during high-temperature continuous operation of HTTR

Dipu, A. L.; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Hamamoto, Shimpei; Sato, Hiroyuki; Nishihara, Tetsuo

Annals of Nuclear Energy, 88, p.126 - 134, 2016/02

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:57.25(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The tritium concentration in the high temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR) was measured during the high temperature continuous operation for 50 days. The tritium concentration in the primary helium gas increased after startup and reached a maximum value. It then decreased slightly over the course during the normal operation phase. Decrease of concentration of tritium in primary helium gas during the normal operation phase could be attributed to the effect of tritium chemisorption on graphite. The tritium concentration in the secondary helium gas showed a peak value during the power ramp up phase. Afterwards, it decreased gradually at the end of normal power operation. It was assessed that the concentration and total quantity of tritium in the secondary helium cooling system for the HTTR-Iodine Sulfur (IS) system can be maintained below the regulatory limits, which means the hydrogen production plant can be exempt from the safety function of the nuclear facility.

Journal Articles

Hydrogen isotope separation by cryogenic distillation

Yamanishi, Toshihiko

Purazuma, Kaku Yugo Gakkai-Shi, 92(1), p.21 - 25, 2016/01


In a fusion reactor, the hydrogen isotope separation system is required in the fuel cycle system to supply deuterium (D) and tritium (T) as its fuel. In ITER, 90% of T must be recycled through the isotope separation system. On the other hand; since the hydrogen (H) gas is finally exhausted to the environment, the T concentration in the H gas from the isotope separation system should be as low as reasonable achievable. Hence, the isotope separation system of a fusion reactor must have a large separation factor. The flow rate of the isotope separation system of a fusion reactor reaches to 300 mol/h. Only the cryogenic distillation method can meet the above conditions (large flow rate and separation factor) and is most likely used as a hydrogen separation system in a fusion reactor. In this chapter, several simulation methods and a set of experimental data of the cryogenic distillation columns are described in detail.

Journal Articles

Progress of target system operation at the pulsed spallation neutron source in J-PARC

Takada, Hiroshi; Naoe, Takashi; Kai, Tetsuya; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Haga, Katsuhiro

Proceedings of 12th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Applications of Accelerators (AccApp '15), p.297 - 304, 2016/00

In J-PARC, we have continuously been making efforts to operate a mercury target of a pulsed spallation neutron source with rated power of 1-MW. One of technical progresses is to mitigate cavitation damages at the target vessel front induced by the 3-GeV proton beam injection at 25 Hz. We have improved the performance of a gas micro-bubbles injection into the mercury target, resulting that no significant cavitation damages was observed on the inner surface of target vessel after operation for 2050 MWh with the 300-kW proton beam. Another progress is to suppress the release of gaseous radioactive isotopes, especially tritium, during the target vessel replacement. We have introduced a procedure to evacuate the target system by an off-gas processing apparatus when it is opened during the replacement operation, achieving to suppress the tritium release through the stack. For example, the amount of released tritium was 12.5 GBq, only 5.4% of the estimated amount, after the 2050 MWh operation. After these progresses, the operating beam power for the pulsed spallation neutron source was ramped up to 500-kW in April, 2015.

Journal Articles

Upgrade in catalytic activity of hydrophobic platinum catalysts by irradiation with electron beams

Iwai, Yasunori

Fusion Engineering and Design, 98-99, p.1796 - 1799, 2015/10

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:66.76(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Hydrophobic platinum catalysts have been widely applied in the field of nuclear fusion for the exchange reactions of hydrogen isotopes between hydrogen and vapor in the water detritiation system, and for the oxidation of tritium on the atmospheric detritiation system. Hydrophobic platinum catalysts are hardly susceptible to water mist and water vapor. Hydrophobic platinum catalysts are produced by supporting platinum directly on hydrophobic polymer beads. For the hydrophobic polymer, styrene - divinyl benzene (SDB) has been applied in Japan. It can be pointed out that the upgrade in catalytic activity of hydrophobic catalyst is expected to downsize the catalytic reactor based on a hard look at a large increase in flow rate in future. The upgrade in catalytic activity of two types of commercial Pt/SDB catalysts was found when they were irradiated with electron beams. After irradiation with electron beams, the catalytic activity was evaluated by means of overall reaction rate constant for the oxidation of tritium. The overall reaction rate constant increased as increase in dose. The constant showed the peak value in the dose between 500 to 1000 kGy. After the peak, the constant decreased as increase in dose. The overall reaction rate constant at the peak was 6 times larger than that evaluated with unirradiated. The mechanical strength of irradiated Pt/SDB kept sound until 1500 kGy. The irradiation is a promising method to the upgrading in catalytic activity of Pt/SDB catalyst.

Journal Articles

Study on operation scenario of tritium production for a fusion reactor using a high temperature gas-cooled reactor

Kawamoto, Yasuko*; Nakaya, Hiroyuki*; Matsuura, Hideaki*; Katayama, Kazunari*; Goto, Minoru; Nakagawa, Shigeaki

Fusion Science and Technology, 68(2), p.397 - 401, 2015/09

 Percentile:100(Nuclear Science & Technology)

To start up a fusion reactor, it is necessary to provide a sufficient amount of tritium from an external device. Herein, methods for supplying a fusion reactor with tritium are discussed. Use of a high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) as a tritium production device has been proposed. So far, the analyses have been focused only on the operation in which fuel is periodically exchanged (batch) using the block type HTGR. In the pebble bed type HTGR, it is possible to design an operation that has no time loss for refueling. The pebble bed type HTGR (PBMR) and the block type HTGR (GTHTR300) are assumed as the calculation and comparison targets. Simulation is made using the continuous-energy Monte Carlo transport code MVPBURN. It is shown that the continuous operation using the pebble bed type HTGR has almost the same tritium productivity compared with the batch operation using the block type HGTR. The issues for pebble bed type HTGR as a tritium production device are discussed.

Journal Articles

The Integral experiment on beryllium with D-T neutrons for verification of tritium breeding

Verzilov, Y. M.; Sato, Satoshi; Ochiai, Kentaro; Wada, Masayuki*; Klix, A.*; Nishitani, Takeo

Fusion Engineering and Design, 82(1), p.1 - 9, 2007/01

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:63.51(Nuclear Science & Technology)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Diffusion of tritium in intermetallic compound $$beta$$-LiAl; Relation to the defect structure

Sugai, Hiroyuki

Solid State Ionics, 177(39-40), p.3507 - 3512, 2007/01

The diffusion coefficient and its activation energy (116.3 $$pm$$ 11.7 kJ/mol) of tritium in an intermetallic compound $$beta$$-LiAl are determined at temperatures from 700 to 848 K. Though the present result for the diffusion coefficient is almost the same as that reported previously, the present result for the activation energy turns out nearly twice of that (64.9 $$pm$$ 3.8 kJ/mol). The present result for the activation energy is consistent with the systematics that an increase of lithium concentration in Al-Li systems increases the activation energy, but the previous result is not. Furthermore, a consideration of the crystal structure and defect structure suggests that tritium diffuses and is impeded by the attractive interaction with lithium atom at lithium sublattices.

Journal Articles

Diffusion of tritium in intermetallic compound $$beta$$-LiAl; Relation to the defect structure

Sugai, Hiroyuki

Solid State Ionics, 177(39-40), p.3507 - 3512, 2007/01

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:79.03(Chemistry, Physical)

The diffusion coefficients and its activation energy (103.7$$pm$$9.5 kJ/mol) for tritium in intermetallic compound $$beta$$-LiAl are determined at temperatures from 699 to 886 K. Though the present result for the diffusion coefficient is almost the same as that reported earlier, the activation energy turns out nearly twice of that (64.9$$pm$$3.8 kJ/mol) reported earlier. On the basis of the crystal structure and defect structure, the large activation energy of this study suggest that tritium diffuses interstitially and is impeded by an attractive interaction with lithium atoms in lithium sublattices.

Journal Articles

Hydrogen permeation through heat transfer pipes made of Hastelloy XR during the initial 950$$^{circ}$$C operation of the HTTR

Sakaba, Nariaki; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Takeda, Tetsuaki

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 353(1-2), p.42 - 51, 2006/07

 Times Cited Count:6 Percentile:52.88(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

The permeation of hydrogen isotopes through the Hastelloy XR high-temperature alloy adopted for the heat transfer pipes of the intermediate heat exchanger in the HTTR, is one of the concerns in the hydrogen production system, which will be connected to the HTTR in the near future. The hydrogen permeation between the primary and secondary coolant through the Hastelloy XR was evaluated using the actual hydrogen concentration observed during the initial 950$$^{circ}$$C operation of the HTTR. The hydrogen permeability of the Hastelloy XR was estimated conservatively high as follows. The activation energy E$$_{0}$$ and pre-exponential factor F$$_{0}$$ of the permeability of hydrogen were E$$_{0}$$ = 65.8 kJ/mol and F$$_{0}$$ = 7.8$$times$$10$$^{-9}$$m$$^{3}$$(STP)/(m$$ast$$s$$ast$$Pa$$^{0.5}$$), respectively, in the temperature range from 707K to 900K.

Journal Articles

Safety handling characteristics of high-level tritiated water

Hayashi, Takumi; Ito, Takeshi*; Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Isobe, Kanetsugu; Nishi, Masataka

Fusion Engineering and Design, 81(8-14), p.1365 - 1369, 2006/03

 Times Cited Count:18 Percentile:18.02(Nuclear Science & Technology)

In a fusion reactor, high-level tritiated water of more than GBq/ml will be generated and stored temporally in the various areas. High level tritiated water decomposes by itself and generates hydrogen and oxygen, and becomes to tritiated hydrogen peroxide water, however, effective G-values from tritiated water are different from those obtained $$gamma$$-ray experiments in our previous report. Furthermore, tritiated water of about 250GBq/ml has been stored for several years safely and checked its characteristics. Using the above experiences, this paper summarizes safety requirements for storage of high-level tritiated water and discusses design issues of the safety storage system. Concerning gaseous species, storage tank should be maintained at negative pressure and purged periodically or constantly to dedicated tritium removal system. Specially, it is important that the G-value of high-level tritiated water is increasing with decreasing the tritium concentration. The pH and ORP (Oxidation Reduction Potential) of tritiated water have been also changed depending on the tritium concentration and maintained for more than several years in glass vessel. High-level tritiated water of more than GBq/ml was acid and became to be corrosive depending on the dissolved species. Large amount of tritiated water will be stored in the various tanks of stainless steel, therefore, it should be monitored so that the liquid situation is maintained not to be corrosive.

Journal Articles

Ion and neutron beam analyses of hydrogen isotopes

Kubota, Naoyoshi; Ochiai, Kentaro; Kutsukake, Chuzo; Kondo, Keitaro*; Shu, Wataru; Nishi, Masataka; Nishitani, Takeo

Fusion Engineering and Design, 81(1-7), p.227 - 231, 2006/02

 Times Cited Count:5 Percentile:58.04(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Hydrogen isotopes play important roles in the fuel recycling, the plasma condition etc. at the surface region of plasma facing components. The Fusion Neutronics Source (FNS) of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute has started microanalysis studies for fusion components since 2002 by applying the beam analyses. In this study, we have measured tritium depth profiles of TFTR tiles exposed to the deuterium-tritium plasma to reveal the hydrogen isotope behavior at the surface region using some microscopic techniques for material analyses at FNS. As the result of the deuteron nuclear reaction analysis, four kinds of elements; deuterium, tritium, lithium-6 and lithium-7, were identified from the energy spectra. Using the spectra, depth profiles of each element were also calculated. The tritium profile had a peak at 0.5 micron, whereas the deuterium and lithium profiles were uniform from the surface to 1.0 micron depth. In addition, the surface region of the TFTR tile has retained the tritium more than one order of magnitude in the bulk.

298 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)