Taniguchi, Yoshinori; Udagawa, Yutaka; Amaya, Masaki
Annals of Nuclear Energy, 139, p.107188_1 - 107188_7, 2020/05
Udagawa, Yutaka; Mihara, Takeshi; Taniguchi, Yoshinori; Kakiuchi, Kazuo; Amaya, Masaki
Annals of Nuclear Energy, 139, p.107268_1 - 107268_9, 2020/05
Kofu, Maiko; Yamamuro, Osamu*
Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, 89(5), p.051002_1 - 051002_12, 2020/05
The behavior of hydrogen in metals has attracted much attention in fundamental and applied research areas for many decades. Among metals, palladium is remarkable in that it can absorb large quantities of hydrogen, and hydrogen atoms are highly mobile in the fcc Pd lattice. The dynamics of hydrogen in Pd have been investigated by means of neutron spectroscopy which is the best tool to provide insights into microscopic dynamics of hydrogen atoms. In this article, we review recent and historical neutron scattering works to facilitate the latest understanding of the hydrogen dynamics in bulk and nanometer-sized Pd hydrides.
Ito, Takashi; Higemoto, Wataru; Shimomura, Koichiro*
Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, 89(5), p.051007_1 - 051007_8, 2020/05
Fukaya, Yuji; Goto, Minoru; Ohashi, Hirofumi
Annals of Nuclear Energy, 138, p.107182_1 - 107182_9, 2020/04
The investigation on self-shielding effect of double heterogeneity for plutonium burner High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) design has been performed. Plutonium burner HTGR designed in the previous study by using the advantage of double heterogeneity to control excess reactivity. In the present study, the mechanism of the self-shielding effect is elucidated by the analysis of burn-up calculation and reactivity decomposition based on exact perturbation theory. As a result, it is revealed that the characteristics of burn-up reactivity are determined by resonance cross section peak at 1 eV of Pu due to the surface term of background cross section, this is, the characteristics of neutron leakage from fuel lump and collision to a moderator. Moreover, significant spectrum shift is caused during the burn-up period, and it enhances reactivity worth of Pu and Pu in EOL.
Lu, K.; Katsuyama, Jinya; Li, Y.
Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, 142(2), p.021208_1 - 021208_11, 2020/04
Kawasaki, Ikuto; Kobata, Masaaki; Fujimori, Shinichi; Takeda, Yukiharu; Yamagami, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Ai*; Iha, Wataru*; Hedo, Masato*; Nakama, Takao*; Onuki, Yoshichika*
Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, 89(4), p.044704_1 - 044704_6, 2020/04
Nakayoshi, Akira; Jegou, C.*; De Windt, L.*; Perrin, S.*; Washiya, Tadahiro
Nuclear Engineering and Design, 360, p.110522_1 - 110522_18, 2020/04
Uwaba, Tomoyuki; Yokoyama, Keisuke; Nemoto, Junichi*; Ishitani, Ikuo*; Ito, Masahiro*; Pelletier, M.*
Nuclear Engineering and Design, 359, p.110448_1 - 110448_7, 2020/04
Coupled computer code analyses of irradiation performance of axially heterogeneous mixed oxide (MOX) fuel elements with high burnup in a fast reactor were conducted. Post-irradiation experiments revealed local concentration of Cs near the interfaces between MOX fuel and blanket columns including the internal blanket of the fuel elements as well as an increase in their cladding diameters. The analyses indicated that the local Cs concentration occurred as a result of Cs axial migration from the MOX fuels toward the blanket pellets near the interfaces. Swelling of the blanket pellets induced by the formation of low-density Cs-U-O compound was not sufficient to cause pellet-to-cladding mechanical interaction (PCMI). The PCMI analyzed in the MOX fuel column regions was insignificant, and the cladding diameter increases were caused mainly by void swelling in cladding and irradiation creep due to fission gas pressure.
Sato, Hiroyuki; Aoki, Takeshi; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Yan, X.
Nuclear Engineering and Design, 360, p.110493_1 - 110493_8, 2020/04
JAEA has been conducting research and development with a central focus on the utilization of HTTR, the first HTGR in Japan, towards the realization of industrial use of nuclear heat. On the basis of licensing experience through the HTTR construction, JAEA initiated an activity to establish an international safety standard for licensing of commercial HTGR cogeneration systems fully taking into account safety features of HTGRs. We have developed a roadmap towards licensing of commercial HTGR cogeneration systems. A test plan using the HTTR to support the establishment of safety standards and safety analysis methods are also presented. In addition, we confirmed that a vessel cooling system, a passive air-cooled decay heat removal system, satisfies the safety requirement.
Radiation Risk Analysis Research Group, Risk Analysis and Applications Research Division
JAEA-Testing 2020-001, 65 Pages, 2020/03
The Nuclear Safety Research Center (NSRC) has developed a Level 3 Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) code, the OSCAAR (Off-Site Consequence Analysis code for Atmospheric Release in Reactor Accident). Using a source-term derived from a severe accident analysis code, OSCAAR calculates the downwind transport, airborne dispersion, and ground deposition of radioactive materials as well as the radiation dose and then can evaluate the effect of early and late protective actions and health effect. The NSRC also developed the OSCAAR Code Package that has a Windows-based interface and framework for performing consequence analysis in order to create or modify input files, execute the OSCAAR and postprocess the output files efficiently and conveniently. The report is a user's manual for the OSCAAR Code Package.
JAEA-Technology 2019-024, 22 Pages, 2020/03
In various technical fields of nuclear energy, computer codes are often used for transient simulations of target phenomena. Some of the codes were developed many years ago and have been revised with newly acquired findings, rather than newly developed, because of many encompassed numerical models and complexity of algorithms. In many cases, available outputs for users are output text files and graphs showing temporal variations of parameters, despite diversified and huge number of output information items are posing difficulty to the users in grasping the whole picture of the reproduced phenomena. This report compiles a series of know-hows in building a post-processor software for large simulation codes which serves as an interactive tool for code users in understanding the reproduced consequence with visually understandable information items. These know-hows are acquired through post-processor developments for LWR severe accident simulation codes RELAP/SCDAPSIM and MELCOR.
Sekine, Megumi; Matsuki, Takuya; Suzuki, Satoshi*; Tsutagi, Koichi; Nishida, Naoki; Kitao, Takahiko; Tomikawa, Hirofumi; Nakamura, Hironobu; LaFleur, A.*; Browne, M.*
JAEA-Technology 2019-023, 160 Pages, 2020/03
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has proposed in its Research and Development plan (STR-385), the development of technology to enable real-time flow measurement of nuclear material as a part of an advanced approach to effective and efficient safeguards for reprocessing facilities. To address this, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been tackling development of a new detector to enable monitoring of Pu in solutions with numerous FPs as a joint research program with U.S. DOE to cover whole reprocessing process. In this study, High Active Liquid Waste (HALW) Storage Facility in Tokai Reprocessing Plant was used as the test field. At first, the design information of HALW storage tank and radiation (type and intensity) were investigated to develop a Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP) model. And then, dose rate distribution outside/ inside of the concrete cell where the HALW tank is located was measured to design new detectors and check MCNP model applicability. Using the newly designed detectors, gamma rays and neutron were continuously measured at the outside/ inside of the concrete cell to assess the radiation characteristics and to optimize detector position. Finally, the applicability for Pu monitoring technology was evaluated based on the simulation results and gamma-ray/neutron measurement results. We have found that there is possibility to monitor the change of Pu amount in solution by combination both of gamma-ray and neutron measurement. The results of this study suggested the applicability and capability of the Pu motoring to enhance safeguards for entire reprocessing facility which handles Pu with FP as a feasibility study. This is final report of this project.
Nakamura, Masahiko; Kutsukake, Kenichi; Matsuda, Makoto
JAEA-Technology 2019-022, 20 Pages, 2020/03
The JAEA Tokai tandem accelerator (an electrostatic accelerator) has the advantage that it can accelerate an ion beam with proportional energy to its acceleration voltage. Therefore the control of an ion beam energy can be automated when the control of the acceleration voltage can be automated by using the scaling operation system: an electromagnetics proportion of optical device parameters, and the ganged control system: a synchronized controlling related devices in the JAEA Tokai Tandem accelerator control system. We should improve several devices to achieve the automatic control of the accelerator voltage. Especially, the positioning system of the corona probe which adjusts the acceleration voltage had to be automated. However the original corona probe was difficult to be applied to the automation by its poor control system and low positioning precision. We have developed the new corona probe which improved defects of the original one. The new corona probe has an automatic and high precision positioning system and enhanced maintainability by new control system, new driven system and new position detection system. We describe about the development of the new corona probe in detail.
Okihara, Mistunobu*; Yahagi, Ryoji*; Iwatsuki, Teruki; Takeuchi, Ryuji; Murakami, Hiroaki
JAEA-Technology 2019-021, 77 Pages, 2020/03
One of the major subjects of the ongoing geoscientific research program, the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) Project in the Tono area, central Japan, is accumulation of knowledge on monitoring techniques of the geological environment. In this report, the conceptual design of the monitoring system for groundwater pressure and water chemistry was carried out. The currently installed and used system in research galleries at various depths was re-designed to make it possible to collect groundwater and observe the water pressure on the ground.
Mitsumoto, Rika; Hazama, Taira; Takahashi, Keita; Kondo, Satoru
JAEA-Technology 2019-020, 167 Pages, 2020/03
The prototype fast breeder reactor Monju has produced valuable technological achievements through design, construction, operation and maintenance over half a century since 1968. This report compiles the reactor technologies developed for Monju, including the areas: history and major achievements, design and construction, commissioning, safety, reactor physics, fuel, systems and components, sodium technology, materials and structures, operation and maintenance, and accidents and failures.
Group for Fukushima Mapping Project
JAEA-Technology 2019-019, 135 Pages, 2020/03
After the accident at TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS), distribution situation survey on radioactive materials have been conducted with financially supported by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (later the Nuclear Regulatory Agency) from June 2011 to FY2018. Results obtained in the project in FY2018 are presented in this report. Car-borne surveys, a flat ground measurement using survey meters, a walk survey and an unmanned helicopter survey were carried out to obtain air dose rate data. Air dose rate distribution maps were created and temporal changes of air dose rate were analyzed. Regarding radiocesium deposition in the soil, depth profile survey in the soil and in-situ measurement were performed. Based on these measurement results, effective half-life of the air dose rate and the deposition were evaluated. Considering radiation monitoring data obtained in previous surveys and the installation positions of existing monitoring posts, we tried to make the "score" of the importance of measurement points. Using the Bayesian hierarchical modeling approach, we obtained a map that integrated the air dose rate distribution data obtained from aircraft monitoring, car-borne surveys, and walk surveys for the entire region within 80 km from the FDNPS. The measurement results for FY2018 were published on the "Expansion Site of Distribution Map of Radiation Dose", and measurement data were stored as CSV format. Radiation monitoring and environmental sample analysis owing to the comprehensive radiation monitoring plan were carried out.
Arakawa, Ryoki; Nosaki, Nobuhisa
JAEA-Technology 2019-018, 157 Pages, 2020/03
The Naraha Center for Remote Control Technology Development has various test facilities for the decommissioning work after the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, and is now promoting external use. In the test facilities, the robot test pool for the underwater robot can be used in different temperature conditions from room temperature to 60C, maximum setting temperature. In order to clarify the temperature behavior in heating condition, a heating test from room temperature to 60C was performed. The data was obtained this way. From the data, a heat transfer model for evaluating the temperature behavior was investigated, and the temperature evaluation method for the robot test pool was developed. By using the developed evaluation method, the influence of various factors such as flow rate and humidity on the temperature behavior was investigated for the condition of temperature heating, holding (test condition) and cooling. From the investigation, the temperature behavior of the robot test pool was analytically clarified, and a reasonable operation method was proposed. This report summarizes the results of analytical study at the temperature heating, holding and cooling condition.
Goto, Akira; Murakami, Masaki*; Sakai, Ryutaro*; Terusawa, Shuji*; Sueoka, Shigeru
JAEA-Review 2020-003, 60 Pages, 2020/03
One of the natural phenomena that may affect the geological disposal system are earthquake and fault activity. Fault displacement due to the earthquake and fault activity will be considered the direct effects. In addition to it, it is necessary to consider the secondary effects include secondary faults formed by the seismic fault activity as well as spring water and mud volcanoes that are generated by fluid movement attributed to the fault activity. This paper introduces previous studies performed focused on the hydraulic effects (spring water and mud volcanoes) and mechanical effects (secondary faults) in order to understand the effects of these secondary phenomena on the geological disposal system. We were able to collect 142 literatures from Japan and overseas by searching for related keywords in Japanese and English. As a result, we compiled case studies of each secondary impact. From the viewpoint of geological disposal, we extracted the following issues for future research and development. As for the sump water induced by earthquakes and faulting, accumulation of information related to its mechanism, affected area, and activity history is required. As for the mud volcanoes, reviewing of the mechanism of anomalous pore water pressure that causing the formation, also development of estimation technique are required. And for the secondary faults, accumulation of the detailed spatial distribution and reviewing of formation mechanism are required.
Takeuchi, Ryuji; Iwatsuki, Teruki; Matsui, Hiroya; Nohara, Tsuyoshi; Onoe, Hironori; Ikeda, Koki; Mikake, Shinichiro; Hama, Katsuhiro; Iyatomi, Yosuke; Sasao, Eiji
JAEA-Review 2020-001, 66 Pages, 2020/03
The Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) Project is being pursued by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) to enhance the reliability of geological disposal technologies through investigations of the deep geological environment in the crystalline rock (granite) at Mizunami City, Gifu Prefecture, central Japan. On the occasion of JAEA reformation in 2014, JAEA identified three remaining important issues on the geoscientific research program based on the synthesized latest results of research and development (R&D): "Development of countermeasure technologies for reducing groundwater inflow", "Development of modeling technologies for mass transport" and "Development of drift backfilling technologies". The R&D on three remaining important issues have been carrying out in the MIU Project. In this report, the current status of R&D and construction activities of the MIU Project in fiscal year 2018 is summarized.