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Journal Articles

Mictomagnetism and suppressed thermal conduction of the prototype high-entropy alloy CrMnFeCoNi

Yang, J.*; Ren, W.*; Zhao, X.*; Kikuchi, Tatsuya*; Miao, P.*; Nakajima, Kenji; Li, B.*; Zhang, Z.*

Journal of Materials Science and Technology, 99, p.55 - 60, 2022/02

High-entropy alloys are characteristic of extensive atomic occupational disorder on high-symmetric lattices, differing from traditional alloys. Here, we investigate magnetic and thermal transport properties of the prototype face-centered-cubic high-entropy alloy CrMnFeCoNi by combining physical properties measurements and neutron scattering. Direct-current (dc) and alternating-current (ac) magnetizations measurements indicate a mictomagnetic behavior with coexisting antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic interactions in the entire temperature region and three anomalies are found at about 80, 50, and 20 K, which are related to the paramagnetic to antiferromagnetic transition, the antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic transition, and the spin freezing, respectively. The electrical and thermal conductivities are significantly reduced compared to Ni and the temperature dependence of lattice thermal conductivity exhibits a glass-like plateau. Inelastic neutron scattering measurements suggest weak anharmonicity so that the thermal transport is expected to be dominated by the defect scattering.

Journal Articles

Temperature-dependent hardening contributions in CrFeCoNi high-entropy alloy

Naeem, M.*; He, H.*; Harjo, S.; Kawasaki, Takuro; Lin, W.*; Kai, J.-J.*; Wu, Z.*; Lan, S.*; Wang, X.-L.*

Acta Materialia, 221, p.117371_1 - 117371_18, 2021/12

Journal Articles

Numerical analysis for FP speciation in VERDON-2 experiment; Chemical re-vaporization of iodine in air ingress condition

Shiotsu, Hiroyuki; Ito, Hiroto*; Sugiyama, Tomoyuki; Maruyama, Yu

Annals of Nuclear Energy, 163, p.108587_1 - 108587_9, 2021/12

 Times Cited Count:0

Journal Articles

Reduction of the source term of an assumed criticality accident in a fuel fabrication facility with solution system

Fukaya, Yuji; Goto, Minoru

Annals of Nuclear Energy, 164, p.108617_1 - 108617_6, 2021/12

A reasonable source term of a hypothetical criticality accident for fuel fabrication facility with solution system has been proposed. The public exposure must not exceed the limitation of 5 mSv during an accident. Then, we proposed the reasonable source term of the first burst peak due to the hydrogen gas generation by radiation decomposition of water. With the criticality control system composed of the Criticality Accident Alarm System (CAAS) and soluble neutron absorber, safety is ensured by the reduced fission number. We confirmed the effect by environmental impact assessment during a criticality accident by using site condition of a fuel fabrication facility in Tokai-mura, Japan. As a result, the public exposure is reduced at a site boundary from 68 mSv to 0.6 mSv under the current regulatory guideline.

Journal Articles

Estimate of economic impact of atmospheric radiation storm associated with solar energetic particle events on aircraft operations

Saito, Susumu*; Wickramasinghe, N. K.*; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Shiota, Daiko*

Earth, Planets and Space (Internet), 73(1), p.57_1 - 57_10, 2021/12

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:74.81(Geosciences, Multidisciplinary)

By using an flight trajectory generation algorithm and the global effective dose rate (EDR) distribution calculated WASAVIES, the economic impacts of SEP events on aircraft operation, namely the flight path length, flight time, and fuel consumption, are estimated. The flight path length, flight time, and fuel consumption for a flight route from New York, US to Tokyo, Japan are estimated with constraints in flight routes to avoid the hazard of radiation and compared with those of the reference case without the SEP effects. Setting more flexible constraints in the flight route and generating optimal flight trajectories with minimal economic impacts by fully utilizing the global EDR distribution is the next step.

Journal Articles

Space weather benchmarks on Japanese society

Ishii, Mamoru*; Shiota, Daiko*; Tao, Chihiro*; Ebihara, Yusuke*; Fujiwara, Hitoshi*; Ishii, Takako*; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi*; Kataoka, Ryuho*; Koga, Kiyokazu*; Kubo, Yuki*; et al.

Earth, Planets and Space (Internet), 73(1), p.108_1 - 108_20, 2021/12

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:74.81(Geosciences, Multidisciplinary)

We surveyed the relationship between the scale of space weather events and their occurrence rate in Japan and we discussed the social impact of these phenomena during the Project for Solar-Terrestrial Environment Prediction (PSTEP). The information was compiled for domestic users of space weather forecasts for appropriate preparedness against space weather disasters. This paper gives a comprehensive summary of the survey, focusing on the fields of electricity, satellite operations, communication and broadcasting, satellite positioning usage, aviation, human space activity, and daily life on the Earth's surface, using the cutting-edge knowledge of space weather. Quantitative estimations of the economic impact of space weather events on electricity and aviation are also given.

Journal Articles

The Highest potential transmissivities of fractures in fault zones; Reference values based on laboratory and in situ hydro-mechanical experimental data

Ishii, Eiichi

Engineering Geology, 294, p.106369_1 - 106369_12, 2021/12

 Times Cited Count:0

The transmissivities (T) of fractures can be related to the fracture roughness ($$JRC_{rm 0}$$), initial aperture ($$E_{rm 0}$$), effective normal stress ($$sigma$$'$$_{rm n}$$), and the tensile strength ($$sigma$$'$$_{rm t}$$) of the intact rock, based on the Barton-Bandis model and their data, and the T (or $$E_{rm 0}$$) can increase by shear-induced dilation. Previous studies revealed that the T of fractures in fault zones, detected as flow anomalies by borehole investigations at six sites, uniformly decreases with the increasing effective mean stress normalized to the $$sigma$$'$$_{rm t}$$. If this uniform change in T can be explained by $$sigma$$'$$_{rm n}$$-dependent fracture-normal-displacement following the Baron-Bandis model, the T represents the highest potential T of fractures in fault zones which can increase by shear-induced dilation. To verify this possibility, this study estimated the $$E_{rm 0}$$ of the fractures using the T, $$sigma$$'$$_{rm t}$$, and possible $$JRC$$ and $$sigma$$'$$_{rm n}$$. Then, using this estimated $$E_{rm 0}$$, the changes in T were simulated, varying $$sigma$$'$$_{rm n}$$. The results well reproduced the observed uniform change in T.

Journal Articles

The Role of silicon on solute clustering and embrittlement in highly neutron-irradiated pressurized water reactor surveillance test specimens

Takamizawa, Hisashi; Hata, Kuniki; Nishiyama, Yutaka; Toyama, Takeshi*; Nagai, Yasuyoshi*

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 556, p.153203_1 - 153203_10, 2021/12

Solute clusters (SCs) formed in pressurized water reactor surveillance test specimens neutron-irradiated to a fluence of 1 $$times$$ 10$$^{20}$$ n/cm$$^{2}$$ were analyzed via atom probe tomography to understand the effect of silicon on solute clustering and irradiation embrittlement of reactor pressure vessel steels. In high-Cu bearing materials, Cu atoms were aggregated at the center of cluster surrounded by the Ni, Mn, and Si atoms like a core-shell structure. In low-Cu bearing materials, Ni, Mn, and Si atoms formed cluster and these solutes were not comprised core-shell structure in SCs. While the number of Cu atoms in clusters was decreased with decreasing nominal Cu content, the number of Si atoms had clearly increased. The cluster radius ($$r$$) and number density ($$N_{d}$$) decreased and increased, respectively, with increasing nominal Si content. The shift in the reference temperature for nil-ductility transition ($$Delta$$RT$$_{NDT}$$) showed a good correlation with the square root of volume fraction ($$V_{f}$$) multiplied by r ($$sqrt{V_{f}times {r}}$$). This suggested that the dislocation cutting through the particles mechanism dominates the precipitation hardening responsible for irradiation embrittlement. The negative relation between the nominal Si content and $$Delta$$RT$$_{NDT}$$ indicated that increasing of nominal Si content reduces the degree of embrittlement.

Journal Articles

High temperature reaction of multiple eutectic-component system; The Case of solid metallic Zr and molten stainless steel-B$$_{4}$$C

Sumita, Takehiro; Kobata, Masaaki; Takano, Masahide; Ikeda, Atsushi

Materialia, 20, p.101197_1 - 101197_11, 2021/12

Journal Articles

Development and validation of fuel stub motion model for the disrupted core of a sodium-cooled fast reactor

Kawada, Kenichi; Suzuki, Toru*

Nuclear Engineering and Technology, 53(12), p.3930 - 3943, 2021/12

To improve the capability of the SAS4A code, which simulates the initiating phase of core disruptive accidents for MOX-fueled Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors (SFRs), the authors have investigated in detail the physical phenomena under unprotected loss-of-flow (ULOF) conditions in a previous paper. As the conclusion of the last article, fuel stub motion, in which the residual fuel pellets would move toward the core central region after fuel pin disruption, was identified as one of the key phenomena to be appropriately simulated for the initiating phase of ULOF. In the present paper, a simple model describing fuel stub motion, which was not modeled in the previous SAS4A code, was newly proposed. The applicability of the proposed model was validated through a series of analyses for the CABRI experiments, by which the stub motion would be represented with reasonable conservativeness for the reactivity evaluation of disrupted core.

Journal Articles

Tree cutting approach for domain partitioning on forest-of-octrees-based block-structured static adaptive mesh refinement with lattice Boltzmann method

Hasegawa, Yuta; Aoki, Takayuki*; Kobayashi, Hiromichi*; Idomura, Yasuhiro; Onodera, Naoyuki

Parallel Computing, 108, p.102851_1 - 102851_12, 2021/12

The aerodynamics simulation code based on the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) using forest-of-octrees-based block-structured local mesh refinement (LMR) was implemented, and its performance was evaluated on GPU-based supercomputers. We found that the conventional Space-Filling-Curve-based (SFC) domain partitioning algorithm results in costly halo communication in our aerodynamics simulations. Our new tree cutting approach improved the locality and the topology of the partitioned sub-domains and reduced the communication cost to one-third or one-fourth of the original SFC approach. In the strong scaling test, the code achieved maximum $$times1.82$$ speedup at the performance of 2207 MLUPS (mega- lattice update per second) on 128 GPUs. In the weak scaling test, the code achieved 9620 MLUPS at 128 GPUs with 4.473 billion grid points, while the parallel efficiency was 93.4% from 8 to 128 GPUs.

Journal Articles

Effective extraction of Pt(IV) as [PtCl$$_{6}$$]$$^{2-}$$ from hydrochloric acid using a simple urea extractant

Ueda, Yuki; Morisada, Shintaro*; Kawakita, Hidetaka*; Wenzel, M.*; Weigand, J. J.*; Oto, Keisuke*

Separation and Purification Technology, 277, p.119456_1 - 119456_8, 2021/12

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Comparisons between passive RCCSS on degree of passive safety features against accidental conditions and methodology to determine structural thickness of scaled-down heat removal test facilities

Takamatsu, Kuniyoshi; Matsumoto, Tatsuya*; Liu, W.*; Morita, Koji*

Annals of Nuclear Energy, 162, p.108512_1 - 108512_10, 2021/11

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.02(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The objectives of this study are as follows: to understand the characteristics, degree of passive safety features for heat removal were compared for RCCSs based on atmospheric radiation and based on atmospheric natural circulation under the same conditions. Next, simulations on accidental conditions, such as increasing average heat-transfer coefficient via natural convection due to natural disasters, were performed with STAR-CCM+, and methodology to control the amount of heat removal was discussed. As a result, a new RCCS based on atmospheric radiation is recommended because of the excellent degree of passive safety features/conditions, and the amount of heat removal by heat transfer surfaces which can be controlled. Finally, methodology to determine structural thickness of scaled-down heat removal test facilities for reproducing natural convection and radiation was developed, and experimental methods by using pressurized and decompressed chambers was also proposed.

Journal Articles

An Investigation on the control rod homogenization method for next-generation fast reactor cores

Takino, Kazuo; Sugino, Kazuteru; Oki, Shigeo

Annals of Nuclear Energy, 162, p.108454_1 - 108454_7, 2021/11

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.02(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Journal Articles

Synthesis and characterisation of a new graphitic C-S compound obtained by high pressure decomposition of CS$$_2$$

Klotz, S.*; Baptiste, B.*; Hattori, Takanori; Feng, S. M.*; Jin, Ch.*; B$'e$neut, K.*; Guigner, J. M.*; Est$`e$ve, I.*

Carbon, 185, p.491 - 500, 2021/11

Carbon disulphide (CS$$_2$$) is one of the simplest molecular systems made of double covalent bonds. Under high pressure, the molecular structure is expected to break up to form extended crystalline or polymeric solids. Here we show that by compression at 300 K to approximately $$sim$$10 GPa using large-volume high pressure techniques, an instantaneous reaction leads to a mixture of pure sulphur and a well-defined compound with stoichiometry close to C$$_2$$S which can be recovered to ambient pressure. We present neutron and X-ray diffraction as well as Raman data which show that this material consists of sulphur bonded to sp$$^2$$ graphite layers of nanometric dimensions. The compound is a semiconductor with a gap of 45 meV, as revealed by temperature dependent resistivity measurements, and annealing at temperatures above 200$$^{circ}$$C allow to reduce its sulphur content up to C$$_{10}$$S. Its structural and electronic properties are fundamentally different to "Bridgman black" reported from previous high pressure experiments on CS$$_2$$.

Journal Articles

Nanoscale structural analysis of Bi$$_{0.5}$$Na$$_{0.5}$$TiO$$_3$$ in high-temperature phases

Yoneda, Yasuhiro; Noguchi, Yuji*

Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 60(SF), p.SFFA08_1 - SFFA08_10, 2021/11

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0(Physics, Applied)

Bi$$_{0.5}$$Na$$_{0.5}$$TiO$$_3$$ (abbreviated as BNT) is a lead-free material but exhibits relatively large piezoelectric properties, a lot of researches have been conducted. We performed local structural analysis using high-quality BNT with a stoichiometrically correct composition, and found a chemical order structure of Bi/Na in locally. BNT undergoes a phase transition to a cubic phase at 400$$^{circ}$$C. We estimated that a new disorder structure will appear in the high-temperature phase. In the high temperature phase, pair distribution function (PDF) analysis using synchrotron radiation high-energy X-rays was performed. As a result, we found that Bi shifts from 200$$^{circ}$$C, and this shift becomes an order parameter for the phase transition.

Journal Articles

Dynamics of radiocaesium within forests in Fukushima; Results and analysis of a model inter-comparison

Hashimoto, Shoji*; Tanaka, Taku*; Komatsu, Masabumi*; Gonze, M.-A.*; Sakashita, Wataru*; Kurikami, Hiroshi; Nishina, Kazuya*; Ota, Masakazu; Ohashi, Shinta*; Calmon, P.*; et al.

Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 238-239, p.106721_1 - 106721_10, 2021/11

 Times Cited Count:0

This study was aimed at analysing performance of models for radiocesium migration mainly in evergreen coniferous forest in Fukushima, by inter-comparison between models of several research teams. The exercise included two scenarios of countermeasures against the contamination, namely removal of soil surface litter and forest renewal, and a specific konara oak forest scenario in addition to the evergreen forest scenario. All the models reproduced trend of time evolution of radiocesium inventories and concentrations in each of the components in forest such as leaf and organic soil layer. However, the variations between models enlarged in long-term predictions over 50 years after the fallout, meaning continuous field monitoring and model verification/validation is necessary.

Journal Articles

A Modeling study on the oceanic dispersion and sedimentation of radionuclides off the coast of Fukushima

Kamidaira, Yuki; Uchiyama, Yusuke*; Kawamura, Hideyuki; Kobayashi, Takuya; Otosaka, Shigeyoshi*

Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 238-239, p.106724_1 - 106724_16, 2021/11

 Times Cited Count:0

A three-dimensional oceanic dispersion model considering the migration of radionuclides between seawater and sediments was developed. The migration mechanism of dissolved Cs-137 originating from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident to sediments was investigated. The comparison between the model and the observed data showed that the model can adequately reproduce the ocean structure and the concentration of Cs-137 in seawater and sediments. Cs-137 distribution in the sediment off the Fukushima coast was formed mainly owing to adsorption from the dissolved phase by June 2011, when the impact of the direct oceanic Cs-137 release from FNPP1 was remarkable.

Journal Articles

Experimental analysis on dynamics of liquid molecules adjacent to particles in nanofluids

Hashimoto, Shunsuke*; Nakajima, Kenji; Kikuchi, Tatsuya*; Kamazawa, Kazuya*; Shibata, Kaoru; Yamada, Takeshi*

Journal of Molecular Liquids, 342, p.117580_1 - 117580_8, 2021/11

Quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) and pulsed-field-gradient nuclear magnetic resonance (PFGNMR) analyses of a nanofluid composed of silicon dioxide (SiO$$_{2}$$) nanoparticles and a base fluid of ethylene glycol aqueous solution were performed. The aim was to elucidate the mechanism increase in the thermal conductivity of the nanofluid above its theoretical value. The obtained experimental results indicate that SiO$$_{2}$$ particles may decrease the self-diffusion coefficient of the liquid molecules in the ethylene glycol aqueous solution because of their highly restricted motion around these nanoparticles. At a constant temperature, the thermal conductivity increases as the self-diffusion coefficient of the liquid molecules decreases in the SiO$$_{2}$$ nanofluids.

Journal Articles

Tensile properties on dissimilar welds between 11Cr-ferritic/martensitic steel and 316 stainless steel after thermal aging

Yano, Yasuhide; Tanno, Takashi; Oka, Hiroshi; Otsuka, Satoshi; Kaito, Takeji

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 555, p.153105_1 - 153105_8, 2021/11

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.02(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the tensile properties and microstructures of dissimilar welds between 11Cr-ferritic/martensitic steel and 316 stainless steel after thermal aging at temperatures between 400 and 600$$^{circ}$$C up to 30,000 h. Characterization of microstructure was carried out by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Microstructural analysis showed that the microstructure in the weld metals consisted of lath martensite containing a small amount of residual austenite. Thermal aging hardening of WMs occurred at 400 and 450$$^{circ}$$C due to the effects of both a-a' phase separation and G-phase precipitation. However, there was no significant change in the total elongation, and fracture surfaces indicated that very fine dimpled rupture was predominant rather than the cleavage rupture. It was suggested that lath martensite phases enhanced the tensile strength due to phase separation, while residual austenite played a role in keeping elongation as a soft phase.

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