Okuda, Yukihiko; Nishida, Akemi; Kang, Z.; Tsubota, Haruji; Li, Y.
Journal of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Science, 9(2), p.021801_1 - 021801_12, 2023/04
Most empirical formulas were proposed to evaluate the local damage to reinforced concrete (RC) structures based on impact tests conducted with a rigid projectile at an impact angle normal to the target structure. Only a few impact tests were performed involving a soft projectile. Therefore, in this study, we conducted a series of impact tests to evaluate the local damage to RC panels subjected to normal and oblique impacts by rigid and soft projectiles. This paper presents the test conditions, test equipment, test results, and obtained knowledge on local damage to RC panels subjected to normal and oblique impacts.
Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Asayama, Tai; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Tanaka, Masaaki; Uchibori, Akihiro; Takata, Takashi; Seki, Akiyuki; Enuma, Yasuhiro
Journal of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Science, 9(2), p.025001_1 - 025001_12, 2023/04
This paper describes the outline and development plan for ARKADIA to transform advanced nuclear reactor design to meet expectations of a safe, economic, and sustainable carbon-free energy source. ARKADIA will realize Artificial Intelligence (AI)-aided integrated numerical analysis to offer the best possible solutions for the design and operation of a nuclear plant, including optimization of safety equipment. State-of-the-art numerical simulation technologies and a knowledge base that stores data and insights from past nuclear reactor development projects and R&D are integrated with AI. In the first phase of development, ARKADIA-Design and ARKADIA-Safety will be constructed individually, with the first target of sodium-cooled reactor. In a subsequent phase, everything will be integrated into a single entity applicable not only to advanced rectors with a variety of concepts, coolants, configurations, and output levels but also to existing light-water reactors.
Fukaya, Yuji; Goto, Minoru; Ohashi, Hirofumi
Annals of Nuclear Energy, 181, p.109534_1 - 109534_10, 2023/02
Feasibility of reprocessing of High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) spent fuel by existing Plutonium Uranium Redox EXtraction (PUREX) plant and technology has been investigated. The spent fuel dissolved solution includes approximately 3 times amount of uranium-235 and 1.5 times amount of protonium because of the 3 times higher burnup compared with that of Light Water Reactor (LWR). Then, the heavy metal of the spent fuel is planned to be diluted to 3.1 times by depleted uranium to satisfy the limitation of Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP) plant. In the present study, recoverability of uranium and plutonium with the dilution is confirmed by a simulation with a reprocessing process calculation code. Moreover, the case without the dilution from the economic perspective is investigated. As a result, the feasibility is confirmed without the dilution, and it is expected that the reprocessed amount is reduced to 1/3 compared with a diluted case even though the facility should be optimized from the perspective of mass flow and criticality.
Hong, Z.*; Pellegrini, M.*; Erkan, N.*; Liao, H.*; Yang, H.*; Yamano, Hidemasa; Okamoto, Koji*
Annals of Nuclear Energy, 180, p.109462_1 - 109462_9, 2023/01
A series of experiments were conducted using BC material and SUS304 tubes as a simulant of the real control rods. Reaction rate constant data in the 1450K-1500K range were obtained, and are consistent with the reference values. The reaction layer microstructure observation and the associated chemical composition analysis were also carried onto the experiment samples.
Kawakita, Ryohei; Saito, Akito*; Sakuma, Hiroshi*; Anraku, Sohtaro; Kikuchi, Ryosuke*; Otake, Tsubasa*; Sato, Tsutomu*
Applied Clay Science, 231, p.106722_1 - 106722_7, 2023/01
Zhang, H.*; Wu, S. C.*; Ao, N.*; Zhang, J. W.*; Li, H.*; Zhou, L.*; Xu, P. G.; Su, Y. H.
International Journal of Fatigue, 166, p.107296_1 - 107296_11, 2023/01
Kobayashi, Yoshinori*; Sato, Kiminori*; Yamawaki, Masato*; Michishio, Koji*; Oka, Toshitaka; Washio, Masakazu*
Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 202, p.110590_1 - 110590_6, 2023/01
Because of their different charge states, positrons and positronium (Ps) behave quite differently in macromolecules. The behavior of positively charged positrons is strongly influenced by electrostatic interactions. In nonpolar macromolecules such as polyethylene, energetic positrons, if not incorporated into Ps, fall into a delocalized state. These positrons are sensitively trapped by polar groups, if any. On the other hand, charge-neutral Ps is localized in a free volume regardless of the macromolecule's chemical structure. In this study, we discuss the behavior and annihilation characteristics of positrons and Ps in various macromolecules, emphasizing their differences.
Tsuchida, Noriyuki*; Ueji, Rintaro*; Gong, W.; Kawasaki, Takuro; Harjo, S.
Scripta Materialia, 222, p.115002_1 - 115002_6, 2023/01
Matsumoto, Toshinori; Kawabe, Ryuhei*; Iwasawa, Yuzuru; Sugiyama, Tomoyuki; Maruyama, Yu
Annals of Nuclear Energy, 178, p.109348_1 - 109348_13, 2022/12
The Japan Atomic Energy Agency extended the applicability of their fuel-coolant interaction analysis code JASMINE to simulate the relevant phenomena of molten core in a severe accident. In order to evaluate the total coolability, it is necessary to know the mass fraction of particle, agglomerated and cake debris and the final geometry at the cavity bottom. An agglomeration model that considers the fusion of hot particles on the cavity floor was implemented in the JASMINE code. Another improvement is introduction of the melt spreading model based on the shallow water equation with consideration of crust formation at the melt surface. For optimization of adjusting parameters, we referred data from the agglomeration experiment DEFOR-A and the under-water spreading experiment PULiMS conducted by KTH in Sweden. The JASMINE analyses reproduced the most of the experimental results well with the common parameter set, suggesting that the primary phenomena are appropriately modelled.
Yamamoto, Masahiko; Horigome, Kazushi; Kuno, Takehiko
Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 190, p.110460_1 - 110460_7, 2022/12
Gravimetric measurement of U content in UO with ignition in the air has been investigated. The ignition temperature, ignition time and aliquot sample mass are optimized as 900C, 60 minutes, and 1 g, respectively. The method is validated by IDMS with uncertainty estimation. The obtained result by gravimetry is 0.782360.00051 g/g (k=2) and agreed with IDMS value within its uncertainty. It has been found that U in UO can be measured accurately and precisely by gravimetry.
Ogawa, Shuichi*; Tsuda, Yasutaka; Sakamoto, Tetsuya*; Okigawa, Yuki*; Masuzawa, Tomoaki*; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Abukawa, Tadashi*; Yamada, Takatoshi*
Applied Surface Science, 605, p.154748_1 - 154748_6, 2022/12
Immersion of graphene in KOH solution improves its mobility on SiO/Si wafers. This is thought to be due to electron doping by modification with K atoms, but the K atom concentration C in the graphene has not been clarified yet. In this study, the C was determined by XPS analysis using high-brilliance synchrotron radiation. The time evolution of C was determined by real-time observation, and the C before irradiation of synchrotron radiation was estimated to be 0.94%. The C 1s spectrum shifted to the low binding energy side with the desorption of K atoms. This indicates that the electron doping concentration into graphene is decreasing, and it is experimentally confirmed that K atoms inject electrons into graphene.
Sato, Takumi; Nagae, Yuji; Kurata, Masaki; Quaini, A.*; Guneau, C.*
CALPHAD; Computer Coupling of Phase Diagrams and Thermochemistry, 79, p.102481_1 - 102481_11, 2022/12
Wei, D.*; Gong, W.; Tsuru, Tomohito; Lobzenko, I.; Li, X.*; Harjo, S.; Kawasaki, Takuro; Do, H.-S.*; Bae, J. W.*; Wagner, C.*; et al.
International Journal of Plasticity, 159, p.103443_1 - 103443_18, 2022/12
Maurer, C.*; Galmarini, S.*; Solazzo, E.*; Kumierczyk-Michulec, J.*; Bar, J.*; Kalinowski, M.*; Schoeppner, M.*; Bourgouin, P.*; Crawford, A.*; Stein, A.*; et al.
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 255, p.106968_1 - 106968_27, 2022/12
After performing multi-model exercises in 2015 and 2016, a comprehensive Xe-133 atmospheric transport modeling challenge was organized in 2019. For evaluation measured samples for the same time frame were gathered from four International Monitoring System stations located in Europe and North America with overall considerable influence of IRE and/or CNL emissions. As a lesion learnt from the 2nd ATM-Challenge participants were prompted to work with controlled and harmonized model set ups to make runs more comparable, but also to increase diversity. Effects of transport errors, not properly characterized remaining emitters and long IMS sampling times (12 to 24 hours) undoubtedly interfere with the effect of high-quality IRE and CNL stack data. An ensemble based on a few arbitrary submissions is good enough to forecast the Xe-133 background at the stations investigated. The effective ensemble size is below five.
Saito, Tatsuo; Yamazawa, Hiromi*; Mochizuki, Akihito
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 255, p.107035_1 - 107035_14, 2022/12
The seasonal variation of dissolved U (DU) in Lake Biwa was reproduced by the following model and parameter research. The introduced models are the water-DU mass balance, and the ion exchange between UO and H on the lakeshore soil. The optimized parameters were the CEC of the lakeshore, TU as the sum of DU and AU (soil adsorbed U), kads and kdes as the first order reaction rate coefficients during rapid soil adsorption and desorption of U, respectively. Tabulated by the chemical equilibria constituting DU and analyzed the contribution of each chemical species, it is shown that the seasonal variation of DU is caused by the seasonal variation of pH. A correction to the ion-exchange equilibrium to shift to first order rate reaction only when the daily AU ratio increased above kads or decreased below kdes, improved the reproducibility of DU measurements and reproduced the delay of the DU peak from the pH peak.
Wei, D.*; Gong, W.; Wang, L.*; Tang, B.*; Kawasaki, Takuro; Harjo, S.; Kato, Hidemi*
Journal of Materials Science & Technology, 129, p.251 - 260, 2022/12
Tomita, Kana*; Kishi, Tetsuo*; Matsumura, Daiju; Yano, Tetsuji*
Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, 597, p.121891_1 - 121891_10, 2022/12
Oka, Hiroshi*; Tanno, Takashi; Yano, Yasuhide; Otsuka, Satoshi; Kaito, Takeji; Hashimoto, Naoyuki*
Journal of Nuclear Materials, 572, p.154032_1 - 154032_8, 2022/12
9Cr oxide dispersion strengthened steels with slightly different nitrogen concentrations (0.0034 - 0.029 wt%) were prepared and their creep property at 973 K was investigated with microstructural characterization before and after the creep test. The creep strength decreased significantly as the nitrogen concentration increased. Microstructural observation revealed that, in the higher nitrogen concentration specimen, coarse Y-rich inclusions were found along the boundary between transformed ferrite region and residual ferrite region. The solubility difference of nitrogen in and phase would induce the localized increment of nitrogen concentration in the boundary region during the austenitizing process, resulting in the thermodynamic destabilization and subsequent coarsening of the dispersed oxide particles. The rows of creep voids were found near the rupture part of the crept specimen, suggesting that the coarse inclusions were the starting point of creep void formation and the subsequent premature fracture.
Hasegawa, Kunio; Strnadel, B.*; Li, Y.; Lacroix, V.*
Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, 144(6), p.061202_1 - 061202_6, 2022/12
When pipe walls are thin, part-through flaws are easily develop into through-wall flaws, and the likelihood of coolant leakage is high. The ASEM Code Section XI provides final allowable flaw angles of through-wall flaw for thin-wall pipes. The final allowable angles are applied to pipes in order to maintain structural integrity if the part-through flaws become through-wall flaws. To ensure that this stability is compromised, plastic collapse stresses for through-wall flaws are combined with allowable stresses. However, the final allowable angles of through-wall flaws are not identified for thin-walled pipes. This paper compares plastic collapse stresses of through-wall flaws and allowable stresses of part-through flaws for pipes. The comparison of these stresses is used to derive the final allowable angles of through-wall flaws. The angles can be expressed either in the form of exact solutions or as conventional options that are appropriate for various service level conditions.
Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, 91(12), p.124707_1 - 124707_7, 2022/12