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Journal Articles

The FM(C)T; When and how to realize it?

Kumekawa, Hirokazu; Tsuboi, Hiroshi*; Unesaki, Hironobu*

Proceedings of INMM & ESARDA Joint Annual Meeting (Internet), 10 Pages, 2021/08

Since FM(C)T was proposed, nearly three decades have passed. Although numerous proposals have been made by many governments, institutions and experts, there has been no sign of convergence of opinions toward the realization of the treaty. In the meantime, the TPNW entered into force in January 2021, which accentuates the gap between the global desire for the ultimate elimination of nuclear weapons and the hard reality. Realization of the FM(C)T is even more expected as a practical step for narrowing the gap. Although various proposals for the realization of FM(C)T were well summarized in the report by the high-level fissile material cut-off treaty expert preparatory group in 2018, it clearly indicates that further effort is needed in formulating proposals to bridge the existing gaps among various proposals based on the analysis of diverse opinions. Thus it could be concluded that, for the realization of the FM(C)T, what is missing is a strategy or logical steps to converge the diverse opinions into a consolidated proposal that should serve as a springboard for discussion. As the opinions are so diverse, it is impossible to satisfy all the relevant parties completely. There must be some level of compromises that each State has to make in order to bring the FM(C)T into reality. The questions should be how to prepare an optimal and realistic proposal that maximizes the chance to be agreed among key member states. The NPT has established a norm for nuclear non-proliferation together with comprehensive safeguards agreements and the norm is being further strengthened through the universalization of additional protocols. Compared with the effort for enhancing nuclear non-proliferation, advancement of nuclear disarmament has stagnated. Although the idea for TPNW was proposed after that for an FM(C)T, the TPNW has been realized. Compared with the TPNW, FM(C)T should be much more achievable target. From the historical perspective, the leadership of leading nations is now test

Journal Articles

Analysis on essential factors for successful denuclearization

Tazaki, Makiko; Shimizu, Ryo; Kimura, Takashi; Tamai, Hiroshi; Nakatani, Takayoshi; Suda, Kazunori

Proceedings of INMM & ESARDA Joint Annual Meeting (Internet), 10 Pages, 2021/08

Journal Articles

Good practices of the online training on physical protection of nuclear materials and facility

Noro, Naoko; Scharmer, C.*; Kawakubo, Yoko; Sekine, Megumi; Okuda, Masahiro; Inoue, Naoko

Proceedings of INMM & ESARDA Joint Annual Meeting (Internet), 10 Pages, 2021/08

In the amid of COVID-19 pandemic, Integrated Support Center for Nuclear Nonproliferation and Nuclear Security (ISCN) of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) developed and conducted regional training course on physical protection of nuclear materials and facility (PP RTC) for Asian countries in October 19-30, 2020 as an online course. Maintaining the quality of in-person two-week training through online platforms was a big challenge. For effective learning, ISCN combined e-learning (self-study) and interactive learning (virtual classroom) for its online PP RTC, and engaged participants through group exercise via Zoom meeting. The paper will describe efforts of ISCN and SNL to develop the online curriculum of PP RTC and share lessons learned and good practices for course development and course implementation. The paper will also explore future application of online contents in nuclear security capacity building even after the pandemic.

Journal Articles

Conducting an online workshop on the supply chain risk in nuclear security; A Case study of designing an online event using recorded theater scene and integrating its findings for professional development

Okuda, Masahiro; Van Dassen, L.*; Lock, B.*; Inoue, Naoko; Noro, Naoko; Kawakubo, Yoko; Sekine, Megumi

Proceedings of INMM & ESARDA Joint Annual Meeting (Internet), 9 Pages, 2021/08

Journal Articles

Development and implementation of online trainings at ISCN/JAEA

Inoue, Naoko; Noro, Naoko; Kawakubo, Yoko; Sekine, Megumi; Okuda, Masahiro; Hasegawa, Nobuhiko*; Naoi, Yosuke

Proceedings of INMM & ESARDA Joint Annual Meeting (Internet), 10 Pages, 2021/08

Integrated Support Center for Nuclear Nonproliferation and Nuclear Security (ISCN) of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) celebrated its 10th anniversary in December 2020. One of its pillars is capacity building support mainly to Asian countries. 183 trainings were implemented with more than 4,600 participants since its establishment, however, the COVID-19 pandemic impacted in the implementation of the trainings. ISCN/JAEA has started to develop the online trainings since April 2020, and implemented two regional trainings, Physical Protection and State System of Accounting for and Control (SSAC) for IAEA Safeguards in October and November 2020, respectively. The efforts continue in further development of trainings/workshops, including the regional training on Additional Protocol for IAEA Safeguards Agreement Commodity Identification Training, and other two national workshops with foreign instructors. Online training can provide not only training opportunities for those who have difficulty in traveling for security and safety reasons including under the travel restriction by COVID-19 pandemic, but also could serve in making them more effective and efficient, especially by the combination with in-person trainings. The pandemic, as a result, accelerate ISCN/JAEA to develop and implement the online trainings, which key is the international collaboration with the partners including IAEA, DOE/NNSA and Sandia National Laboratories and International Nuclear Nonproliferation and Security Academy (INSA) of the Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control (KINAC). This paper will provide the efforts of ISCN/JAEA how to address the online training development and implementation, current status, lesson learned, and future plan.

Journal Articles

ISCN/JAEA-IAEA online SSAC training development

Kawakubo, Yoko; Stevens, R.*; Pickett, S.*; Sekine, Megumi; Noro, Naoko; Inoue, Naoko

Proceedings of INMM & ESARDA Joint Annual Meeting (Internet), 10 Pages, 2021/08

Journal Articles

Application of virtual tour for online training safeguards exercises

Sekine, Megumi; Sukegawa, Hidetoshi; Ishikuro, Yasuhiro; Oyama, Koji; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Inoue, Naoko

Proceedings of INMM & ESARDA Joint Annual Meeting (Internet), 10 Pages, 2021/08

The Integrated Support Center for Nuclear Nonproliferation and Nuclear Security (ISCN) of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) developed the virtual tour of a reference nuclear facility. The developed virtual tour was applied to the Design Information Questionnaire (DIQ) workshop exercise for the online SSAC course held in November 2020 in connection with the IAEA safeguards-related regional training course. Also, it was applied to the Complementary Access (CA) exercise for the online workshop of the Nuclear Security and Safeguards Project under the Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia (FNCA), held in February 2021. The workshop exercises have been implemented for in-person format however due to COVID-19 pandemic, a virtual tour was applied. The virtual tour was found to be a strong tool not only for online training as an alternative for a facility tour, but also considered to be more advantageous even for the in-person training. The developed virtual tour of a reference nuclear facility, going to shut down, can find potentially varied applications. The paper describes how to create a virtual tour of a reference research reactor facility for the DIQ and CA exercises respectively which have different learning objectives. It emphasizes how the features of the reference facility were captured and the challenges encountered to convey to the training participants the importance of providing the required design information while not being physically present at the facility. It also show the advantage of using the same virtual tour to describe the safeguards-related verification activities of a complementary access. Virtual tours can be applied to a variety of training.

Journal Articles

The Nuclear security measures; From the view point of cyber security

Fukui, Yasuhito

CISTEC Janaru, (190), p.208 - 219, 2020/11

AA2020-0515.pdf:0.57MB

This article argues especially the inter-relation between the nuclear security and cyber security. First, this article explains the issues related to the nuclear security such as nuclear security related international treaties and IAEA nuclear security series documents which is essential to support this treaty regime. Second, as for cyber security, international treaty such as Convention on Cybercrime and international conference on cyber issues held in five times at high level, and UN activities held in the form of the Group of governmental experts and Open-ended working group etc. Based on the fundamental assessment on these multi-faceted aspects, this article tries to propose the guidance in view of the Review Conference of 2005 Amendment to the 1979 Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials, which will be held in the next year 2021.

Journal Articles

Promoting nuclear fuel cycle and ensuring nuclear non-proliferation/nuclear security

Tamai, Hiroshi; Mochiji, Toshiro; Senzaki, Masao*; Iwamoto, Tomonori*; Ishiguro, Yuzuru*; Kitade, Yuta; Sato, Heigo*; Suehiro, Rie*; Taniguchi, Tomihiro*; Fukasawa, Tetsuo*; et al.

Dai-41-Kai Nihon Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai Nenji Taikai Kaigi Rombunshu (Internet), 4 Pages, 2020/11

In light of recent delay of plutonium use in Japan and the increasing criticism of nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear security in the nuclear fuel cycle, the validity of these criticisms will be examined for the sustainable development of the nuclear fuel cycle policy. Issues on the view point of nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear security are examined.

Journal Articles

Research on factor analysis for achieving denuclearization, 9; DPRK's denuclearization

Shimizu, Ryo; Kimura, Takashi; Tazaki, Makiko; Nakatani, Takayoshi; Tamai, Hiroshi; Suda, Kazunori

Dai-41-Kai Nihon Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai Nenji Taikai Kaigi Rombunshu (Internet), 3 Pages, 2020/11

Efforts to denuclearize North Korea have been made by neighboring countries and related countries, but they have not abandoned North Korea's nuclear development. In this report, we will analyze the North Korean denuclearization negotiations that have been carried out so far, and report on the elements necessary for the realization of North Korea's denuclearization obtained from the past history.

Journal Articles

Research on factor analysis for achieving denuclearization, 6; Denuclearization of former republics of the Soviet Union

Kimura, Takashi; Tazaki, Makiko; Nakatani, Takayoshi; Shimizu, Ryo; Tamai, Hiroshi; Suda, Kazunori

Dai-41-Kai Nihon Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai Nenji Taikai Kaigi Rombunshu (Internet), 3 Pages, 2020/11

Following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and Belarus (the former three Soviet Union countries) unintentionally deployed nuclear weapons within their territory. The former three Soviet Union countries achieved denuclearization by transferring the deployed warheads and the delivery system of the nuclear weapons to Russia for disposal. This report gives our analysis of the success factors for achieving denuclearization by investigating the efforts towards denuclearization of such countries, the relevant frameworks such as the Treaty on the Reduction of Strategic Arms, etc.

Journal Articles

Research on factor analysis for achieving denuclearization, 8; International frameworks for denuclearization and roles of the US, 1; Denuclearization of Iraq, Libya and Iran

Tazaki, Makiko; Shimizu, Ryo; Kimura, Takashi; Tamai, Hiroshi; Nakatani, Takayoshi; Suda, Kazunori

Dai-41-Kai Nihon Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai Nenji Taikai Kaigi Rombunshu (Internet), 4 Pages, 2020/11

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Research on factor analysis for achieving denuclearization, 7; Framework on the non-proliferation of weapons scientists and engineers

Suda, Kazunori; Kimura, Takashi; Nakatani, Takayoshi; Shimizu, Ryo; Tazaki, Makiko; Tamai, Hiroshi

Dai-41-Kai Nihon Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai Nenji Taikai Kaigi Rombunshu (Internet), 3 Pages, 2020/11

The disintegration of central control in the former Soviet Union (FSU) prompted concerns among western countries that weapons scientists and engineers would flee to countries to acquire know-hows of weapons of mass destruction. To reduce this threat, the International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) was established at Moscow aimed at engaging weapons scientists and engineers from the FSU in peaceful use of nuclear technologies. In order to contribute the denuclearization study, it was discussed on contributions and good practice of the ISTC including non-proliferation measures of weapons scientists and engineers, deploying research results.

Journal Articles

A Prospect of development and use of the virtual tour of the physical protection exercise field

Nakagawa, Yosuke; Sukegawa, Hidetoshi; Naoi, Yosuke; Inoue, Naoko; Noro, Naoko; Okuda, Masahiro

Dai-41-Kai Nihon Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai Nenji Taikai Kaigi Rombunshu (Internet), 4 Pages, 2020/11

The physical protection exercise field, a facility equipped with various types of equipment such as sensors, cameras and fences that are used at nuclear facilities, is an effective tool for training on nuclear security at ISCN/JAEA, if it is carried out in-person. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the virtual tour of the facility is developed for the online training courses so that they could be more effective. The article explains the initial development of the virtual tour with some improvement inspired by using it on some occasions as well as a prospect of effective use of the virtual tour based on its characteristics.

Journal Articles

IO BIO; AMANO, Yukiya

Fukui, Yasuhito

Biographical Dictionary of Secretaries-General of International Organizations (Internet), 5 Pages, 2020/09

Mr. Yukiya Amano, former director general of IAEA died in July 2019. In order to register in the dictionary of the heads of the international organisations, the author wrote his biography starting from his childhood, university days, the days of the director general of IAEA.

Journal Articles

Nuclear fuel cycle, nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear security in Japan, 3; Challenges on technologies for nuclear non-proliferation/nuclear security and progressing credibility

Mochiji, Toshiro; Senzaki, Masao*; Tamai, Hiroshi; Iwamoto, Tomonori*; Ishiguro, Yuzuru*; Kitade, Yuta; Sato, Heigo*; Suehiro, Rie*; Taniguchi, Tomihiro*; Fukasawa, Tetsuo*; et al.

Enerugi Rebyu, 40(8), p.56 - 57, 2020/07

Strict application of IAEA safeguards and nuclear security should be implemented for Japan's full-scale nuclear fuel cycle. Based on the knowledge and experience of research and development in the nuclear fuel cycle, nuclear material management, the effective and efficient promotion of new technologies should be promoted with scientific and demonstrative measures to strengthen the world's nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear security. Development or sophistication of new technologies, human resource development, and reinforcement of the international framework are future challenge in the international community.

Journal Articles

Good practices on HRD support activities of ISCN

Naoi, Yosuke; Hori, Masato; Noro, Naoko

Proceedings of INMM 61st Annual Meeting (Internet), 9 Pages, 2020/07

As a COE of HRD on nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear security in the Asian region, good practices during the nine years since its establishment in 2010 will be presented.

Journal Articles

Nuclear fuel cycle, nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear security in Japan, 2; Significance of sustainable progress in plutonium-thermal policy and R&D of fast reactor

Mochiji, Toshiro; Senzaki, Masao*; Tamai, Hiroshi; Iwamoto, Tomonori*; Ishiguro, Yuzuru*; Kitade, Yuta; Sato, Heigo*; Suehiro, Rie*; Taniguchi, Tomihiro*; Fukasawa, Tetsuo*; et al.

Enerugi Rebyu, 40(7), p.58 - 59, 2020/06

Japan have promoted the peaceful use of plutonium with the nuclear non-proliferation commitment based on IAEA safeguards agreement and Japan-US nuclear cooperation agreement, as well as ensuring transparency of the policy that Japan has no plutonium without purpose of use. In promoting the nuclear fuel cycle, adherence to those measures and maintaining plutonium utilization by means of plutonium-thermal, and a fast reactor cycle to achieve large-scale and long-term energy supply and environmental improvement, therefore, further research and development is essential.

Journal Articles

Chapter 2, Peaceful use of nuclear energy and international relations, 2.3 Multi-national approach of nuclear material management / Chapter 5, Peaceful use of Plutonium and Nuclear Non-Proliferation, 5.1 Japan's policy on plutonium usage

Tamai, Hiroshi

Genshiryoku Heiwa Riyo To Kakufukakusan, Kakusekyuritei; NSA/Commentaries, No.25, p.62 - 68, 2020/06

On the viewpoint of strengthening nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear security, historical background and future issues in multi-national approach of nuclear material management are described.

Journal Articles

Chapter 8, Human resource development in nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear security; Education at the University of Tokyo

Tamai, Hiroshi; Demachi, Kazuyuki*

Genshiryoku Heiwa Riyo To Kakufukakusan, Kakusekyuritei; NSA/Commentaries, No.25, p.199 - 202, 2020/06

Education on nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear security in the University of Tokyo is provided at the Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management for master's course graduate students and at the Nuclear Professional School for career experts. In this paper, both the courses are introduced and their education contents on nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear security are briefly described.

558 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)