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Journal Articles

Third international challenge to model the medium- to long-range transport of radioxenon to four Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty monitoring stations

Maurer, C.*; Galmarini, S.*; Solazzo, E.*; Ku$'s$mierczyk-Michulec, J.*; Bar$'e$, J.*; Kalinowski, M.*; Schoeppner, M.*; Bourgouin, P.*; Crawford, A.*; Stein, A.*; et al.

Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 255, p.106968_1 - 106968_27, 2022/12

After performing multi-model exercises in 2015 and 2016, a comprehensive Xe-133 atmospheric transport modeling challenge was organized in 2019. For evaluation measured samples for the same time frame were gathered from four International Monitoring System stations located in Europe and North America with overall considerable influence of IRE and/or CNL emissions. As a lesion learnt from the 2nd ATM-Challenge participants were prompted to work with controlled and harmonized model set ups to make runs more comparable, but also to increase diversity. Effects of transport errors, not properly characterized remaining emitters and long IMS sampling times (12 to 24 hours) undoubtedly interfere with the effect of high-quality IRE and CNL stack data. An ensemble based on a few arbitrary submissions is good enough to forecast the Xe-133 background at the stations investigated. The effective ensemble size is below five.

Journal Articles

Rod-shaped pulse shape discrimination plastic scintillation detectors applied for neutron source direction survey

Koizumi, Mitsuo; Mochimaru, Takanori*; Hironaka, Kota; Takahashi, Tone; Yamanishi, Hirokuni*; Wakabayashi, Genichiro*

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 1042, p.167424_1 - 167424_6, 2022/11

no abstracts in English

JAEA Reports

Research on factor analysis and technical process for achieving denuclearization; Denuclearization of Iraq

Tazaki, Makiko; Kimura, Takashi; Shimizu, Ryo; Tamai, Hiroshi; Nakatani, Takayoshi; Suda, Kazunori

JAEA-Review 2022-020, 82 Pages, 2022/09

JAEA-Review-2022-020.pdf:2.14MB

As part of the "Research on Factor Analysis and Technical Processes for Achieving Denuclearization" started in 2018, comprehensive survey of nuclear development and denuclearization of Iraq was conducted, together with analysis of the characteristics and lessons learned from the denuclearization. Iraq's clandestine nuclear weapon related activities were initially focused on plutonium production, but it then switched its focus on producing highly enriched uranium, and built various facilities, including electromagnetic isotope separation (EMIS) and centrifuge uranium enrichment facilities. Denuclearization of Iraq began with the defeat in the 1991 Gulf War, which forced Iraq to accept United Nations Security Council Resolution 687 (1991) that year. The Resolution set out a framework for destruction, removal, or rendering harmless of Iraq's weapons of mass destruction (WMD) programs. Within the framework, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), with the support and cooperation of the newly established United Nations Special Commission (UNSCOM), had verified Iraq's past nuclear activities and denuclearization. Characteristics of Iraq's denuclearization include that 1) Iraq had no choice but to accept denuclearization, 2) IAEA was empowered to implement detectable inspection measures and methods, which later came to fruition as the IAEA Safeguards Agreement Additional Protocol (AP), 3) economic sanctions for the purpose of promoting denuclearization of Iraq were not very successful, and 4) denuclearization of Iraq and subsequent Iraq war, together with collapse of the Hussein regime, has affected the denuclearization of Libya, North Korea and Iraq. Furthermore, the lessons learned from the denuclearization are 1) the need for universalization of AP, and necessities for 2) economic sanctions that are suitable for the original purposes without being abused, 3) the need for diplomatic efforts including denuclearization frameworks and measures with a clear roadmap

Journal Articles

Overview of Ukraine's denuclearization process

Tazaki, Makiko; Kimura, Takashi

Enerugi Rebyu, 42(9), p.62 - 63, 2022/08

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

IAEA's recent activities on nuclear safety and nuclear security in transport of radioactive and nuclear materials

Tamai, Hiroshi

Nihon Genshiryoku Gakkai-Shi ATOMO$$Sigma$$, 64(8), p.465 - 467, 2022/08

Though nuclear safety and nuclear security share the same goal of protecting the public and the environment from the harmful effects of ionizing radiation, their response actions may have differences, especially during transport, where protection could be vulnerable. The interface between them is a major issue. In December 2021, with the aim of complementarily strengthening nuclear safety and nuclear security in the transportation of radioactive materials IAEA published a related technical report and held an international conference. The outline of the technical report and the international conference is introduced.

Journal Articles

Development of a neutron scintillator for a compact NRTA system, 2

Lee, J.; Hironaka, Kota; Ito, Fumiaki*; Takahashi, Tone; Koizumi, Mitsuo; Hori, Junichi*; Terada, Kazushi*

KURNS Progress Report 2021, P. 97, 2022/07

no abstracts in English

JAEA Reports

Research on factor analysis and technical process for achieving denuclearization; Case study and factor analysis of denuclearization

Tazaki, Makiko; Shimizu, Ryo; Kimura, Takashi; Tamai, Hiroshi; Nakatani, Takayoshi; Suda, Kazunori

JAEA-Review 2021-076, 108 Pages, 2022/03

JAEA-Review-2021-076.pdf:3.89MB

In order to find ways to lead the denuclearization successfully, effectively, and efficiently in the future, "Research on factor analysis and technical process for achieving denuclearization" has been conducted since 2018. This report covers the first half of the research, namely "Factor analysis for denuclearization", summarizing the results of the case study and factor analysis of denuclearization. First, South Africa, Iraq, Libya, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Belarus, North Korea, Iran and Syria were selected as the initial research target countries, and the history of nuclear development as well as characteristics of denuclearization in each country were investigated and analyzed. Next, in order to consider the measures for the international community to lead the denuclearization of the target countries, eight main denuclearization factors ((1) Motivation for nuclear development, (2) Internal and external situation at the time of the denuclearization, (3) Progress of nuclear development, (4) Effects of sanctions, (5) International framework for denuclearization, (6) Incentives for denuclearization, (7) Denuclearization method, (8) Verification method/verifier) were found out. Finally, the contents of each denuclearization factor from (1) to (8)) in above target countries except Syria were analyzed, together with whether each factor was effective for denuclearization or not. In addition, in order to lead denuclearization effectively and efficiently, what should be done in relation to the eight factors were considered. These results are expected to serve as a basis for research on the technological process of denuclearization, and to help considering the way to accomplish denuclearization.

JAEA Reports

Research on factor analysis and technical process for achieving denuclearisation; Investigation on Libya's case

Tamai, Hiroshi; Tazaki, Makiko; Shimizu, Ryo; Kimura, Takashi; Nakatani, Takayoshi; Suda, Kazunori

JAEA-Review 2021-073, 19 Pages, 2022/03

JAEA-Review-2021-073.pdf:1.51MB

As a part of "Research on Factor Analysis and Technical Process for Achieving Denuclearisation", investigation on Libya's cases of nuclear development and denuclearisation, and analysis of its characteristics have been conducted. Libya had been suspected that dictator Qadaffi had an interest in the acquisition of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) since early 1970s after his revolution. US and UK intelligence were focusing on Libya's situation; however, actual status was not revealed for a long time. In 1980s, Libya faced to economic exhaustion due to sanctions from the international community against Libya's supporting terrorism. Libya decided to abandon WMD development and its denuclearisation in early 2000s. Several factors to prompt Libya's decisions can be highlighted; economic sanctions; witnessing regime collapse of President Hussein due to Iraq War who aimed at WMD; revealing secret procurement of centrifuge equipment through the inspection of German-flagged ships by US. Libya's denuclearisation was rapidly implemented to prevent Libya from reverting to nuclear development through well-coordinated roles among main players, quick decisions by Libyan side, and warning effect of Iraqi case. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) played a central role in the verification of all related facilities and activities in Libya. Through safeguards activities beyond those permitted by Additional Protocol (AP), IAEA evaluated the whole Libya's nuclear programme. The denuclearisation was successfully completed by removal of nuclear materials and related equipment from Libya. It was also revealed that Libya's technological capabilities had not well developed to utilize procured materials and equipment. Libya's case is regarded in the international community as a good practice of denuclearisation. On the other hand, Qadaffi administration was overthrown by the democratisation movement that occurred after denuclearisation. It might be understood as a miserable end

Journal Articles

Trend of nuclear security; Toward the conference of the parties to the amendment to the convention on the physical protection of nuclear material 2022

Fukui, Yasuhito

CISTEC Janaru, (197), p.320 - 330, 2022/01

AA2021-0599.pdf:0.52MB

This article explains briefly the history of amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material. Further this article examines the Nuclear Security resolution adopted in the IAEA General Conference held in 2021 in order to overview the current situation in the field of Nuclear Security. Then this article examines the Nuclear Security plan 2022-2025 so as to grasp what the IAEA would like to realize in the mid-term in this field. As the cyber-attack happens these days so often and the IAEA recently published the revised version of Technical Guidance on Computer Security at Nuclear Facilities (IAEA Nuclear Security Series No. 17-T) etc., this article also explains briefly what is written. Based on these analyses, the author proposes the three important issues to tackle in the field of nuclear security.

Journal Articles

Neutron detector development for nuclear security

Koizumi, Mitsuo; Takahashi, Tone; Hironaka, Kota; Mochimaru, Takanori*; Yamanishi, Hirokuni*; Wakabayashi, Genichiro*

Annual Report of Cooperative Researches at Kindai University Reactor, 2020, p.76 - 80, 2021/12

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Study of rational safeguards for the treatment of radioactive waste containing nuclear materials

Nakatani, Takayoshi; Shimizu, Ryo; Tazaki, Makiko; Kimura, Takashi; Tamai, Hiroshi; Suda, Kazunori

Dai-42-Kai Nihon Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai Nenji Taikai Kaigi Rombunshu (Internet), 4 Pages, 2021/11

Currently, JAEA is in the advancing of decommissioning own nuclear facilities, and some facilities have been handling nuclear materials. In decommissioning, it is necessary to consider rational methods while keeping nuclear non-proliferation and transparency, including treatment of radioactive waste generated from these facilities and methods for terminating safeguards. In this study, we considered the above issues regarding waste treatment with reference to the guidance of Safeguards by Design (SBD) published by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).

Journal Articles

Investigation and consideration of the requirements and issues from the viewpoint of the IAEA safeguards for the decommissioning of nuclear facilities

Kimura, Takashi; Fukui, Yasuhito; Tazaki, Makiko; Nakatani, Takayoshi; Shimizu, Ryo; Suda, Kazunori

Dai-42-Kai Nihon Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai Nenji Taikai Kaigi Rombunshu (Internet), 4 Pages, 2021/11

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Research on factor analysis for achieving denuclearization, 10; Summary of research; Analysis of denuclearization factors of target countries and lessons learned from the analysis

Tazaki, Makiko; Shimizu, Ryo; Kimura, Takashi; Nakatani, Takayoshi; Tamai, Hiroshi; Suda, Kazunori

Dai-42-Kai Nihon Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai Nenji Taikai Kaigi Rombunshu (Internet), 4 Pages, 2021/11

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Research on factor analysis for achieving denuclearization, 11; Concept of the disabling nuclear facilities in denuclearization

Shimizu, Ryo; Tazaki, Makiko; Kimura, Takashi; Nakatani, Takayoshi; Suda, Kazunori

Dai-42-Kai Nihon Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai Nenji Taikai Kaigi Rombunshu (Internet), 3 Pages, 2021/11

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Monitoring technique for detection of nuclear and radioactive materials on major public events

Mochimaru, Takanori*; Koizumi, Mitsuo; Takahashi, Tone; Hironaka, Kota; Kimura, Yoshiki; Sato, Yuki; Terasaka, Yuta; Yamanishi, Hirokuni*; Wakabayashi, Genichiro*

Dai-42-Kai Nihon Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai Nenji Taikai Kaigi Rombunshu (Internet), 4 Pages, 2021/11

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Demonstration of a neutron resonance transmission analysis system using a laser-driven neutron source

Hironaka, Kota; Ito, Fumiaki*; Lee, J.; Koizumi, Mitsuo; Takahashi, Tone; Suzuki, Satoshi*; Yogo, Akifumi*; Arikawa, Yasunobu*; Abe, Yuki*

Dai-42-Kai Nihon Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai Nenji Taikai Kaigi Rombunshu (Internet), 4 Pages, 2021/11

Neutron resonance transmission analysis (NRTA) is a method for non-destructive measurement of nuclear material by using a time-of-flight (TOF) technique with a pulsed neutron source. For NRTA system to carry out the short-distance TOF measurements with high resolutions, a short-pulsed neutron source is required. Laser-driven neutron sources (LDNSs) is very suitable as such a neutron source because of its short pulse width. Moreover, the compactness of the laser system is also expected due to the remarkable development of laser technology in recent years. In the present study, we have developed a technology for applying LDNS to the NRTA system and conducted the demonstration experiment using the LFEX laser at Osaka University to investigate the feasibility of the system. In this experiment, we successfully observed the neutron resonance peaks of indium and silver samples.

Journal Articles

Nuclear safety and nuclear security interface

Tamai, Hiroshi

Nihon Genshiryoku Gakkai-Shi ATOMO$$Sigma$$, 63(9), p.677 - 678, 2021/09

The International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA, has issued a technical report on national approaches to the interface between nuclear safety and nuclear security, which is essential for strengthening through mutual complementation. The report aims to provide Member States with insights on good practices, each of which is important in coordinating the interface. Those are states' experiences in (i) legal and regulatory framework, (ii) nuclear installations, (iii) radioactive sources and associated facilities and activities, (iv) management systems and nuclear safety and nuclear security culture, (v) emergency preparedness and response, and common issues in cross-cutting field.

Journal Articles

Development of a neutron sintillator for a compact NRTA system

Ito, Fumiaki*; Lee, J.; Hironaka, Kota; Takahashi, Tone; Suzuki, Satoshi*; Hori, Junichi*; Terada, Kazushi*; Koizumi, Mitsuo

KURNS Progress Report 2020, P. 98, 2021/08

A compact Nuclear Resonance Transmission Analysis (NRTA) system using a Laser Driven Neutron Source (LDNS) has been developed as a part of the development of nuclear non-proliferation technology supported by the MEXT. In NRTA, the neutron energy emitted from a pulsed neutron source is measured using the time-of-flight (TOF) method. LDNS is of interest because of its short pulse width, which is necessary for accurate TOF measurements over short flight distances. In the short-distance TOF measurement, there will be a large gamma-ray background event due to the coincidence of the timing of the arrival of 2.2 MeV gamma-rays due to neutron capture on hydrogen in the moderator and the timing of the arrival of neutrons around the resonance energy. Since the LDNS is still under development, the neutron flux is not sufficient and it is desirable to use a detector with high detection efficiency. For these reasons, we have developed a detector with low efficiency to gamma-rays and high efficiency to neutrons (multilayer neutron detector). As one of the results of this year's experiments, we confirmed that the multilayer neutron detector have low sensitivity to gamma-rays.

Journal Articles

Current activities and future challenges of Nuclear Security and Safeguards Project in Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia (FNCA) and ISCN engagement

Naoi, Yosuke

Proceedings of INMM & ESARDA Joint Virtual Annual Meeting (Internet), 8 Pages, 2021/08

The author will report on the action plan starting in 2020 of FNCA Nuclear Security and Safeguards Project as well as the past achievements. He also illustrates how ISCN has been involved in supporting this project.

Journal Articles

The FM(C)T; When and how to realize it?

Kumekawa, Hirokazu; Tsuboi, Hiroshi*; Unesaki, Hironobu*

Proceedings of INMM & ESARDA Joint Virtual Annual Meeting (Internet), 10 Pages, 2021/08

Since FM(C)T was proposed, nearly three decades have passed. Although numerous proposals have been made by many governments, institutions and experts, there has been no sign of convergence of opinions toward its realization. In the meantime, the TPNW entered into force in January 2021, which accentuates the gap between the global desire for the ultimate elimination of nuclear weapons and the hard reality. Realization of the FM(C)T is even more expected as a practical step for narrowing the gap. Although various proposals for the realization of FM(C)T were well summarized in the report by the high-level fissile material cut-off treaty expert preparatory group in 2018, it clearly indicates that further effort is needed in formulating proposals to bridge the existing gaps among various proposals based on the analysis of diverse opinions. Thus it could be concluded that, for the realization of the FM(C)T, what is missing is a strategy or logical steps to converge the diverse opinions into a consolidated proposal that should serve as a springboard for discussion. As the opinions are so diverse, it is impossible to satisfy all the relevant parties completely. There must be some level of compromises that each State has to make in order to bring the FM(C)T into reality. The questions should be how to prepare an optimal and realistic proposal that maximizes the chance to be agreed among key member states. The NPT has established a norm for nuclear non-proliferation together with comprehensive safeguards agreements and the norm is being further strengthened through the universalization of additional protocols. Compared with the effort for enhancing nuclear non-proliferation, advancement of nuclear disarmament has stagnated. Although the idea for TPNW was proposed after that for an FM(C)T, the TPNW has been realized. Compared with the TPNW, FM(C)T should be much more achievable target. From the historical perspective, the leadership of leading nations is now tested.

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