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Journal Articles

Is it possible to deter armed attack against nuclear power plants by International law; Its limit and future perspective

Fukui, Yasuhito

Nihon Genshiryoku Gakkai-Shi ATOMO$$Sigma$$, 65(9), p.564 - 567, 2023/09

This article explains that how the international law prevents armed attacks to nuclear power plant based on the lex lata basis. Four points are raised, in other words, first, how the current international law prohibit armed attacks to the nuclear power plant. Second, the current international law can prevent the armed attacks effectively. Third, if the law lacks the effectiveness, what kind of framework or response are necessary. Fourth, if these legal frameworks are applied to the nuclear power plants in Japan, how these will be accommodated are explained.

Journal Articles

Neutron resonance fission neutron analysis for nondestructive fissile material assay

Hironaka, Kota; Lee, J.; Koizumi, Mitsuo; Ito, Fumiaki*; Hori, Junichi*; Terada, Kazushi*; Sano, Tadafumi*

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 1054, p.168467_1 - 168467_5, 2023/09

Journal Articles

Radioisotope identification algorithm using deep artificial neural network for supporting nuclear detection and first response on nuclear security incidents

Kimura, Yoshiki; Tsuchiya, Kenichi*

Radioisotopes, 72(2), p.121 - 139, 2023/07

Rapid and precise radioisotope identification in the scene of nuclear detection and nuclear security incidents is one of the challenging issues for the prompt response on the detection alarm or the incidents. A radioisotope identification algorithm using a deep artificial neural network model applicable to handheld gamma-ray detectors has been proposed in the present paper. The proposed algorithm automatically identifies gamma-emitting radioisotopes based on the count contribution ratio (CCR) from each of them estimated by the deep artificial neural network model trained by simulated gamma-ray spectra. The automated radioisotope identification algorithm can support first responders of nuclear detection and nuclear security incidents without sufficient experience and knowledge in radiation measurement. The authors tested the performance of the proposed algorithm using two different types of deep artificial neural network models in application to handheld detectors having high or low energy resolution. The proposed algorithm showed high performance in identifying artificial radioisotopes for actually measured gamma-ray spectra. It was also confirmed that the algorithm is applicable to identifying $$^{235}$$U and automated uranium categorization by analyzing estimated CCRs by the deep artificial neural network models. The authors also com-pared the performance of the proposed algorithm with a conventional radioisotope identification method and discussed promising ways to improve the performance of the algorithm using the deep artificial neural network.

Journal Articles

Development of training course on non-destructive assay of nuclear material for Asian region, 2; Development of lectures and exercises on gamma-ray measurement

Yamamoto, Masahiko; Kono, Soma; Saegusa, Yu; Kuno, Takehiko; Sekine, Megumi; Inoue, Naoko; Noro, Naoko; Rodriguez, D.; Yamaguchi, Tomoki; Stinett, J.*

Proceedings of INMM & ESARDA Joint Annual Meeting 2023 (Internet), 10 Pages, 2023/05

The gamma-ray measurement part of the Non-Destructive Assay (NDA) course of safeguards and nuclear material accountancy was developed to focus on gamma-ray measurement allotting two days out of five days. The lectures on the basic characteristics and detection methods and mechanism of gamma-ray detectors were provided as e-learnings which were developed. The part for hands-on exercises were implemented in JAEA facility. Participants have set up each gamma-ray detector, and performed measurements of uranium and the other gamma-ray emitting nuclides. Also, uranium-235 enrichment measurements have been performed. In addition, the participants trained with a handheld gamma-ray spectrometer, HM-5, that is popular for IAEA safeguards as the preparation in the measurement exercise of fresh fuel assemblies in JRR-3, a research reactor facility of JAEA. This paper reports on the development, implementation, and feedback from participants on gamma-ray measurement part of the NDA course.

Journal Articles

Optimization of training effectiveness of physical protection course for Asian region; Best mix of in-person and virtual methodologies

Noro, Naoko; Sekine, Megumi; Inoue, Naoko; Scharmer, C.*; Orr, A.*

Proceedings of INMM & ESARDA Joint Annual Meeting 2023 (Internet), 9 Pages, 2023/05

During the COVID-19 pandemics, ISCN has developed several online training courses on nuclear security for the regional participants to minimize the impact of global travel restriction. ISCN resumed its regional training as in-person in summer 2022. By combining in-person and virtual methodologies, ISCN and successfully designed the regional training to optimize its curriculum to optimize the effectiveness of the course. This paper reports on the development, implementation of the course to share ISCN's experience, and contribute to further enhancing effectiveness of capacity building in nuclear security.

Journal Articles

Denuclearization study on possible future options for dismantlement and verification of Uranium Enrichment Facility

Hori, Masato; Tazaki, Makiko; Shimizu, Ryo; Kimura, Takashi; Nakatani, Takayoshi

Proceedings of INMM & ESARDA Joint Annual Meeting 2023 (Internet), 8 Pages, 2023/05

To improve preparedness of future denuclearization, series of study to achieve effective and efficient denuclearization have been performed in JAEA. As part of this study, this paper focus on dismantlement and verification of potential uranium enrichment facility and potential nuclear material in the uranium enrichment facility, considering (a) peaceful use operation, (b) freeze, (c) disablement, (d) dismantlement, (e) removal from the state as potential options.

Journal Articles

Case study activities for nuclear security culture development in JAEA

Amano, Tsukasa; Shibata, Ryodai; Sato, Yoshiharu; Yamazaki, Katsuyuki; Shiromo, Hideo; Nakamura, Hironobu

Proceedings of INMM & ESARDA Joint Annual Meeting 2023 (Internet), 6 Pages, 2023/05

In Japan, about 10 years have passed since the law obligated nuclear operators to develop and maintain a nuclear security culture. During this period, the global nuclear situation has changed significantly, and it is becoming important to maintain a stance that emphasizes compliance with regulations and nuclear security culture. In JAEA, the policy of legal compliance and developing nuclear security culture is determined by the president of JAEA. For legal compliance and developing nuclear security culture, many activities are carried out based on that policy. Finally, these activities are evaluated and improved it every year. Case study is the one of activities that can obtain skills for legal compliance and developing nuclear security culture, such as sensitivity of nuclear security risks, correct understanding of the laws. The procedure for the case study was created with reference to a method called KY-Training which is often applied to safety training program in Japan. KY-Training is a training that participants (groups) can reach the conclusion how to respond to cases through four questions. Firstly, participants are given illustrations and descriptions which has potential of nuclear security risks. Then, participants make discussion according to four questions. Consequently, participants can effectively become aware of nuclear security risks. In the 2022 case study, we prepared 23 cases so that they can select choose freely according to role of participants such as in charge of nuclear security, guards, general employees. Finally, participants are asked to fill a questionnaire to evaluate effectiveness of case study. The result of questionnaires indicated that the case study was able to lead to improvement sensitivity of nuclear security risks and correct understanding of the laws. Overall, case study results suggested that JAEA's efforts were implying sufficiently to develop and maintain a nuclear security culture.

Journal Articles

Efforts for appropriate responses to safeguards activities, 1; Overview

Aoki, Rie; Shirafuji, Masaya; Nozaki, Teo; Akutsu, Narumi*; Miyaji, Noriko; Nakamura, Hironobu

Proceedings of INMM & ESARDA Joint Annual Meeting 2023 (Internet), 7 Pages, 2023/05

JAEA Reports

Research on factor analysis and technical process for achieving denuclearization; Denuclearization of South Africa

Tazaki, Makiko; Kimura, Takashi; Shimizu, Ryo; Tamai, Hiroshi; Nakatani, Takayoshi; Suda, Kazunori

JAEA-Review 2022-056, 54 Pages, 2023/01


As part of the "Research on Factor Analysis and Technical Processes for Achieving Denuclearization" South Africa's nuclear development and denuclearization cases were investigated then analyzed from seven denuclearization factors namely (1) motivation for nuclear development, (2) internal and external situations at the time of denuclearization decision, (3) progress of nuclear development, (4) effects of sanctions, (5) incentives for denuclearization, (6) international framework for denuclearization, (7) denuclearization and verification methods. At the same time, characteristics of its denuclearization and lessons learned from the denuclearization were also analyzed. South Africa shifted its nuclear activities from research and development of "peaceful nuclear detonation" in the 1970s to developing "limited nuclear deterrence" and finally to manufacturing "transportable nuclear weapons" in the late 1980s. By then, it had completed producing six nuclear explosive devices using highly enriched uranium. However, in 1989, along with the abolition of the apartheid policy, South Africa decided denuclearization and dismantled its nuclear explosive devices and related facilities. Upon completion of dismantlement, it joined the Treaty on the Non- Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons and concluded a Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement (CSA) with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The South Africa has remained one of the rare countries that has continued to the peaceful use nuclear energy, and its voluntary denuclearization is considered as a good example of denuclearization in the future.

Journal Articles

Legal implication of armed attack to nuclear facilities in Ukraine

Fukui, Yasuhito

CISTEC Janaru, (203), p.273 - 285, 2023/01


At the time of Russian invasion to Ukraine, attacks to nuclear facility were also happened. And the typical nuclear security event which are not deemed to be covered by A/CCPNM also happed. The affected facility varies widely from nuclear power plants to the research institute. This presentation tried to protect these facilities applying international law such as international humanitarian law etc. i.e. we would like to verify whether there is legal lacunae in these cases. Furthermore, if this kind of event happens in Japan, besides international law, Japanese municipal law system can resolve the kind of armed attacks to nuclear facilities.

Journal Articles

Laser-driven neutron generation realizing single-shot resonance spectroscopy

Yogo, Akifumi*; Lan, Z.*; Arikawa, Yasunobu*; Abe, Yuki*; Mirfayzi, S. R.*; Wei, T.*; Mori, Takato*; Golovin, D.*; Hayakawa, Takehito*; Iwata, Natsumi*; et al.

Physical Review X, 13(1), p.011011_1 - 011011_12, 2023/01

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:81.67(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

Journal Articles

Development of neutron resonance transmission analysis using a laser accelerator driven neutron source

Ito, Fumiaki*; Lee, J.; Hironaka, Kota; Koizumi, Mitsuo; Yogo, Akifumi*

Proceedings of 19th Annual Meeting of Particle Accelerator Society of Japan (Internet), p.137 - 140, 2023/01

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Relationship between neutron moderator and time-dependent background for neutron time-of-flight measurement

Lee, J.; Hironaka, Kota; Ito, Fumiaki*; Koizumi, Mitsuo; Hori, Junichi*; Sano, Tadafumi*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 8 Pages, 2023/00

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.02(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Journal Articles

Third international challenge to model the medium- to long-range transport of radioxenon to four Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty monitoring stations

Maurer, C.*; Galmarini, S.*; Solazzo, E.*; Ku$'s$mierczyk-Michulec, J.*; Bar$'e$, J.*; Kalinowski, M.*; Schoeppner, M.*; Bourgouin, P.*; Crawford, A.*; Stein, A.*; et al.

Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 255, p.106968_1 - 106968_27, 2022/12

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0(Environmental Sciences)

After performing multi-model exercises in 2015 and 2016, a comprehensive Xe-133 atmospheric transport modeling challenge was organized in 2019. For evaluation measured samples for the same time frame were gathered from four International Monitoring System stations located in Europe and North America with overall considerable influence of IRE and/or CNL emissions. As a lesion learnt from the 2nd ATM-Challenge participants were prompted to work with controlled and harmonized model set ups to make runs more comparable, but also to increase diversity. Effects of transport errors, not properly characterized remaining emitters and long IMS sampling times (12 to 24 hours) undoubtedly interfere with the effect of high-quality IRE and CNL stack data. An ensemble based on a few arbitrary submissions is good enough to forecast the Xe-133 background at the stations investigated. The effective ensemble size is below five.

Journal Articles

Designs and neutronic characteristics of an epithermal neutron moderator at ambient temperature for neutron time-of-flight measurements

Lee, J.; Ito, Fumiaki*; Hironaka, Kota; Takahashi, Tone; Suzuki, Satoshi*; Koizumi, Mitsuo

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 59(12), p.1546 - 1557, 2022/12

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:84.2(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Journal Articles

Research on technical process for achieving denuclearization, 1; Denuclearization processes and technical measures

Tazaki, Makiko; Nakatani, Takayoshi; Shimizu, Ryo; Kimura, Takashi; Hori, Masato

Dai-43-Kai Nihon Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai Nenji Taikai Kaigi Rombunshu (Internet), 4 Pages, 2022/11

Denuclearization consists of (1) verification of nuclear activities prior to denuclearization, (2) freeze, disablement and decommissioning of nuclear weapons, nuclear materials such as HEU and Pu, their production facilities, including facilities and equipment, and their verification. In this study, as a premise for the denuclearization of nuclear materials and nuclear facilities, and with reference to the results of previous denuclearization case surveys and related literature, the denuclearization process and its options for technical measures are discussed and considered.

Journal Articles

Research on factor analysis and technical process for achieving denuclearization, 3; Dismantlement and verification of nuclear reactor

Nakatani, Takayoshi; Shimizu, Ryo; Tazaki, Makiko; Kimura, Takashi; Hori, Masato

Dai-43-Kai Nihon Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai Nenji Taikai Kaigi Rombunshu (Internet), 4 Pages, 2022/11

Denuclearization is the verification of nuclear development and the freezing, disabling, decommissioning, and verification of nuclear weapons, nuclear materials that can be used for nuclear weapons, and their manufacturing facilities, equipment, equipment, and materials. In this study, the technical process of measures and verification methods to effectively and efficiently achieve denuclearization at nuclear installations is examined and considered from a technical point of view.

Journal Articles

Research on technical process for achieving denuclearization, 4; Dismantlement and verification of reprocessing facilities

Shimizu, Ryo; Nakatani, Takayoshi; Tazaki, Makiko; Kimura, Takashi; Hori, Masato

Dai-43-Kai Nihon Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai Nenji Taikai Kaigi Rombunshu (Internet), 3 Pages, 2022/11

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Research on technical process for achieving denuclearization, 5; Comparative evaluation for dismantlement and verification of Uranium Enrichment Facility, Nuclear Reactor and Reprocessing Facility

Kimura, Takashi; Nakatani, Takayoshi; Shimizu, Ryo; Tazaki, Makiko; Hori, Masato

Dai-43-Kai Nihon Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai Nenji Taikai Kaigi Rombunshu (Internet), 4 Pages, 2022/11

no abstracts in English

651 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)