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Journal Articles

The Threats of nuclear and radiological terrorism, and their countermeasures

Naoi, Yosuke

Gekkan Chian Foramu, 25(3), p.51 - 59, 2019/03

This reports describes the status quo of the nuclear and radiological terrorism around the world based on the cases that have actually occurred in the past, and summarizes how nuclear terrorism should be prevented, what should be done in order to internationally enhance nuclear security, and what countermeasures are to be actually taken in the international society.

Journal Articles

International challenge to model the long-range transport of radioxenon released from medical isotope production to six Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty monitoring stations

Maurer, C.*; Bar$'e$, J.*; Kusmierczyk-Michulec, J.*; Crawford, A.*; Eslinger, P. W.*; Seibert, P.*; Orr, B.*; Philipp, A.*; Ross, O.*; Generoso, S.*; et al.

Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 192, p.667 - 686, 2018/12

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:59.95(Environmental Sciences)

It is very important to understand the impact for CTBT stations caused by radioxenon emitted from medical isotope production facilities for detection of underground nuclear tests. Predictions of the impact on six CTBT radionuclide stations in the Southern Hemisphere of radioxenon emitted from the medical isotope production facility in Australia were carried out by participants from ten nations using ATM (Atmospheric Transport Modeling) based on the emission data of radioxenon from this facility, as part of study on impact of radioxenon emitted from medical isotope production facilities on CTBT radionuclide stations.

Journal Articles

Summary of questions and answers part of the 2018 Japan Society of International Law (JSIL) Annual Conference's Session 1; The 50th Anniversary of the Adoption of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) and Nuclear Disarmament

Nakanishi, Hiroaki; Nakasone, Suguru*

Kokusaiho Gaiko Zasshi, 117(3), p.642 - 643, 2018/11

Summary of questions and answers part of the 2018 Japan Society of International Law (JSIL) Annual Conference's Session 1: The 50th Anniversary of the Adoption of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) and Nuclear Disarmament

Journal Articles

Security measures at nuclear fuel facilities, 2; Internal threat countermeasure in cyber-security

Kono, Soma; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Goto, Atsushi*; Yamazaki, Katsuyuki; Nakamura, Hironobu; Kitao, Takahiko

Nihon Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai Dai-39-Kai Nenji Taikai Rombunshu (Internet), 2 Pages, 2018/11

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Study on current US views on bilateral civilian nuclear cooperation agreements

Tazaki, Makiko; Tamai, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Ryo; Kimura, Takashi; Kitade, Yuta; Nakanishi, Hiroaki; Suda, Kazunori

Nihon Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai Dai-39-Kai Nenji Taikai Rombunshu (Internet), 7 Pages, 2018/11

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

A Study on the Tendencies on the Member States from which Broader Conclusion (BC) Has Been Drawn and on Those from which BC Has Not Been Drawn Yet by the International Atomic Energy Agency: Extracting Possible Requirements for Drawing the BC

Nakanishi, Hiroaki; Kimura, Takashi; Shimizu, Ryo; Kitade, Yuta; Tazaki, Makiko; Tamai, Hiroshi; Suda, Kazunori

Nihon Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai Dai-39-Kai Nenji Taikai Rombunshu (Internet), 9 Pages, 2018/11

To extract the possible requirements for the Broader Conclusion (BC) drawn by the IAEA in the Member States, this study is to conduct the comparative analysis of the tendencies on the Member States from which the BC has been drawn and those from which the BC has not been drawn yet.

Journal Articles

Summary of research result of State Level Concept (SLC)

Kimura, Takashi; Tazaki, Makiko; Kitade, Yuta; Shimizu, Ryo; Tamai, Hiroshi; Nakanishi, Hiroaki; Suda, Kazunori

Nihon Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai Dai-39-Kai Nenji Taikai Rombunshu (Internet), 5 Pages, 2018/11

This is the summary of research result of State Level Concept (SLC) which has been developed and conducted by the IAEA and a major purpose of the research reported here is to promote the nuclear operator's understandings for the importance of Broder Conclusion drawn continuously by the IAEA under SLC.

Journal Articles

Study on elements of establishing the regional safeguards

Kitade, Yuta; Tamai, Hiroshi; Tazaki, Makiko; Shimizu, Ryo; Kimura, Takashi; Nakanishi, Hiroaki; Suda, Kazunori

Nihon Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai Dai-39-Kai Nenji Taikai Rombunshu (Internet), 9 Pages, 2018/11

Regional Safeguards is considered as one of the measures for strengthening IAEA safeguards and its concept is recognized at NPT Review Conference and also NSG Guidelines amended in 2011. This Study examines the elements for the proper establishment of Regional Safeguards.

Journal Articles

Feasibility study result of advanced solution measurement and monitoring technology for reprocessing facility

Sekine, Megumi; Matsuki, Takuya; Suzuki, Satoshi*; Tsutagi, Koichi; Tomikawa, Hirofumi; Nakamura, Hironobu; LaFleur, A.*; Browne, M.*

Proceeding IAEA Symposium on International Safeguards; Building Future Safeguards Capabilities (Internet), 8 Pages, 2018/11

The IAEA has proposed, in its Research and Development plan (STR-385), the development of technology to enable real-time flow measurement of nuclear material as part of an advanced approach to effective and efficient safeguards for reprocessing facilities. To address this, JAEA and JNFL had previously designed and developed a neutron coincidence based non-destructive assay system to monitor Pu in solution directly after a purification process. To enhance this technology for entire reprocessing facilities, as a feasibility study, JAEA has been tackling development of a new detector to enable monitoring of Pu in solutions with numerous fission products (FPs) as a joint research program with the U.S. DOE. In this study, the High Active Liquid Waste (HALW) Storage Facility in Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP) was used as the test bed. The design information of the HALW storage tank and radiation (type and intensity) were investigated, to develop a Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP) model. Then, dose rate distribution inside the concrete cell where the HALW tank is located was measured, to enable design of new detectors and check the integrity of the MCNP model and its applicability. Using the newly-designed detectors, $$gamma$$-rays and neutrons could be measured continuously at the outside/inside of the concrete cell, to optimize detector position and the radiation characteristics. The applicability as a Pu-monitoring technology was evaluated, based on the simulation results and $$gamma$$-ray/neutron measurement results. We have found that there is a possibility to monitor the change of Pu amount in solution by combination of $$gamma$$-ray and neutron measurements. The results of this study suggest a feasibility study into the applicability and capability of Pu monitoring to enhance the entire reprocessing facility handling Pu with FPs. In this paper, a summary of the project will be presented.

Journal Articles

Nuclear agreement to promote cooperation between Japan and the U.S.

Suda, Kazunori

Enerugi Rebyu, 38(10), p.38 - 41, 2018/09

Journal Articles

Study on the current Trump Administrations policy towards nuclear cooperation agreements with non-nuclear weapon states

Tazaki, Makiko; Suda, Kazunori

Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Jiho, (8), p.5 - 11, 2018/09

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Feasibility study of technology for Pu solution monitoring including FP; Development of gamma spectra detector for high active liquid waste

Sekine, Megumi; Matsuki, Takuya; Tokoro, Hayate; Tsutagi, Koichi; Kitao, Takahiko; Nakamura, Hironobu; Tomikawa, Hirofumi

Proceedings of INMM 59th Annual Meeting (Internet), 10 Pages, 2018/07

In a reprocessing facility, it is necessary to develop a detector which can measure plutonium (Pu) content in the Pu solutions containing fission products (FP) in order to expand the application of Pu monitoring. In order to establish this technology, JAEA has studied a system measure $$gamma$$-rays was utilized since it applicable for Pu monitoring. Ce:GAGG (Ce:Gd$$_{3}$$Al$$_{2}$$Ga$$_{3}$$O$$_{12}$$) scintillator detector can measure a wide energy range in a high-dose environment and has reasonable resolution. $$gamma$$-ray measurements were performed inside of the concrete cell containing the High Active Liquid Waste tank at the Tokai reprocessing plant. In the spectra, the two significant peaks were measured by the GAGG above 800 keV and were considered to be from Eu-154. There $$gamma$$-ray measurements will be combined with previous neutron measurements and both will be compared to MCNP models for future Pu monitoring technology. This presentation will describe the detector selection, the design system, the results of $$gamma$$-ray spectral measurements and the applicability for Pu monitoring. This project has been carried out under the support of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) of the Japanese government.

Journal Articles

Security by facility design for sabotage protection

Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Demachi, Kazuyuki*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 55(5), p.559 - 567, 2018/05

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:38.14(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Facility design of nuclear power plant for a sabotage protection is investigated and an effect of the design change for damage control on reduction of sabotage risk is shown using the vital area identification methodology. The loss of offsite power leading to the station blackout is assumed to be a typical example for further evaluation. In this study, the vulnerability of target set is defined as the multiplication of the accessibility, the distribution of target and the degree of adversary's interference. The built-in measures for damage control are of vital importance in case of the existence of adversary's interference until neutralization. It is confirmed that not only the physical protection system but also the facility design play an important role in the effective and efficient sabotage protection. It is very important to introduce a security by design approach in an initial stage of the NPP construction while considering the interface between safety and security.

Journal Articles

Analysis of the trends on minimization of proliferation risk

Suda, Kazunori; Shimizu, Ryo; Tazaki, Makiko; Tamai, Hiroshi; Kitade, Yuta

Nihon Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai Dai-38-Kai Nenji Taikai Rombunshu (Internet), 9 Pages, 2018/04

Since India's nuclear explosion in 1974, there has been continued discussion on nuclear non-proliferation. At first, to prevent proliferation of nuclear weapons, the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation (INFCE) was established to discuss reprocessing, plutonium handling, and so on. After that, to respond to the threat of proliferation posed by DPRK, the international community desired to further enhance nuclear non-proliferation by strengthening the IAEA safeguards system. In recent years, some researchers at universities and national laboratories are studying proliferation resistance from the standpoint of nuclear materials that may be inherently self-protecting. This paper discusses minimization of proliferation risk and future prospects based on alternative measures for reprocessing, plutonium handling, and recycling described in INFCE-WG4.

Journal Articles

Study on nuclear nonproliferation conditions required by the US Atomic Energy Act in connection with nuclear cooperation agreements with the US

Tazaki, Makiko; Suda, Kazunori; Shimizu, Ryo; Tamai, Hiroshi; Kitade, Yuta

Nihon Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai Dai-38-Kai Nenji Taikai Rombunshu (Internet), 9 Pages, 2018/04

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Feasibility study of technology for Pu solution monitoring including FP; Design of GAGG detector and gamma spectrum measurement

Sekine, Megumi; Matsuki, Takuya; Tokoro, Hayate; Tsutagi, Koichi; Tomikawa, Hirofumi; Nakamura, Hironobu

Nihon Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai Dai-38-Kai Nenji Taikai Rombunshu (Internet), 9 Pages, 2018/04

In a reprocessing facility, it is necessary to develop a detector which is measurable plutonium (Pu) amount in the Pu solution containing the Fission Product (FP) in order to expand the application of Pu monitoring. To investigate $$gamma$$ rays which is applicable for Pu monitoring, Ce:GAGG (Ce: Gd$$_{3}$$Al$$_{2}$$Ga$$_{3}$$O$$_{12}$$) scintillator which can measure a wide range of energy at high dose and has high resolution (Target: High Active Liquid Waste (HALW)) was newly designed and developed in deal with aim for Pu quantitativeness. $$gamma$$ ray measurement was performed to the HALW in the concrete cell using the detector, and it was confirmed that high energy $$gamma$$ rays (9.5 MeV) could be measured and high energy $$gamma$$ rays spectra over 3 MeV without deriving from FP at the first time. In this presentation, detector design, results of $$gamma$$ ray spectra measurement, applicability evaluation to Pu monitoring and the future plan are presented. This project has been carried out under the support of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) of the Japanese government.

Journal Articles

Consideration on UK Withdrawal from EURATOM

Tamai, Hiroshi; Tazaki, Makiko; Kitade, Yuta; Shimizu, Ryo; Suda, Kazunori

Nihon Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai Dai-38-Kai Nenji Taikai Rombunshu (Internet), 6 Pages, 2018/04

The United Kingdom, UK, in March 2017, notified the withdrawal from the European Union, EU. Since EURATOM is managed by the same organisation of EU, the withdrawal from EURATOM is considered to be unavoidable. UK has to define the regulation for the measures covered by EURATOM which include the implementing safeguards in the civil UK nuclear facilities and the nuclear cooperation agreements between EURATOM and third nations. UK experts recognise that such re-arrangements within 2-years are very tough hurdle, so that some alternative measures are proposed by industry side. For peaceful nuclear use in Japan, hindrances on the smooth transfers of nuclear materials and equipment between UK are concerned. This paper will discuss the UK withdrawal from EURATOM focused on the UK's correspondence and the potential influence on cooperation with Japan in view of nuclear non-proliferation.

Journal Articles

Recent statistical topics of nuclear material inventory verification

Kikuchi, Masahiro*; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi

Wiley StatsRef; Statistics Reference Online (Internet), 7 Pages, 2018/03

A near-real-time accountancy (NRTA) as a timely statistical test method for nuclear material inventory verification in international safeguards has a unique feature and development history, and it has been maintained and updated in large nuclear facilities in Japan. A recent discussion on approaches of measurement uncertainty may have impacted on the decision criteria of NRTA because its development origin dates back to the 1970's and derived from the conventional random and systematic error model. In this article, we will show the overview associated with this issue.

Journal Articles

Overall approaches and experiences of first-time participants in the Nuclear Forensics International Technical Working Group's Fourth Collaborative Material Exercise (CMX-4)

Ho, D. M. L.*; Nelwamondo, A. N.*; Okubo, Ayako; Rameb$"a$ck, H.*; Song, K.*; Han, S.-H.*; Hancke, J. J.*; Holmgren, S.*; Jonsson. S.*; Kataoka, Osamu; et al.

Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 315(2), p.353 - 363, 2018/02

 Percentile:100(Chemistry, Analytical)

The Fourth Collaborative Material Exercise (CMX-4) of the Nuclear Forensics International Technical Working Group (ITWG) registered the largest participation for this exercise in nuclear forensics, with seven of the 17 laboratories participating for the first time. In this paper, participants from five of the first-time laboratories shared their individual experience in this exercise, from preparation to analysis of samples. The exercise proved to be highly useful for testing procedures, repurposing established methods, exercising skills, and improving the understanding of nuclear forensic signatures and their interpretation trough the post-exercise review meeting.

Journal Articles

The Application of radiochronometry during the 4th collaborative materials exercise of the nuclear forensics international technical working group (ITWG)

Kristo, M. J.*; Williams, R.*; Gaffney, A. M.*; Kayzar-Boggs, T. M.*; Schorzman, K. C.*; Lagerkvist, P.*; Vesterlund, A.*; Rameb$"a$ck, H.*; Nelwamondo, A. N.*; Kotze, D.*; et al.

Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 315(2), p.425 - 434, 2018/02

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:38.14(Chemistry, Analytical)

In a recent international exercise, 10 international nuclear forensics laboratories successfully performed radiochronometry on three low enriched uranium oxide samples, providing 12 analytical results using three different parent-daughter pairs serving as independent chronometers. The vast majority of the results were consistent with one another and consistent with the known processing history of the materials. In general, for these particular samples, mass spectrometry gave more accurate and more precise analytical results than decay counting measurements. In addition, the concordance of the $$^{235}$$U-$$^{231}$$Pa and $$^{234}$$U-$$^{230}$$Th chronometers confirmed the validity of the age dating assumptions, increasing confidence in the resulting conclusions.

472 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)