Yano, Yasuhide; Tanno, Takashi; Otsuka, Satoshi; Kaito, Takeji; Ukai, Shigeharu*
Materials Transactions, 62(8), p.1239 - 1246, 2021/08
The FeCrAl-ODS alloy claddings were manufactured and Vickers hardness, ring tensile tests and TEM observations of these claddings were performed to investigate the effects of thermal aging at 450 C for 5,000 and 15,000 h. The age-hardening of all FeCrAl-ODS alloy cladding was found. In addition, the significant increase in tensile strength was accompanied by much larger loss of ductility. It was suggested that this age-hardening behavior was attributed to the (Ti, Al)-enriched phase (' phase) and the ' phase precipitates (content of Al is 7 wt%). In comparison with FeCrAl-ODS alloys with almost same chemical compositions, there was significant age-hardening in both alloys. However, the extrusion bar with no-recrystallized structures was keeping good ductility. It was suggested that this different behavior of reduction ductility was attributed to the effects of grain boundaries, dislocation densities and specimen preparation direction.
Aghamiri, S. M. S.*; Sugawara, Naoya*; Ukai, Shigeharu; Ono, Naoko*; Sakamoto, Kan*; Yamashita, Shinichiro
Materials Characterization, 176, p.111043_1 - 111043_6, 2021/06
Advanced oxidation-resistant FeCrAl ODS alloys were developed via the control of composition-processing conditions for the accident tolerant fuel (ATF) cladding. For the first time, a single-crystal like recrystallized FeCrAl ODS alloy was achieved with a unique crystallographic texture of 110-plane and 211-direction and a high number density of fine nanoscale oxide particles. Evaluation of yield strengths at different temperatures showed higher values in transverse (T) direction than longitudinal (L) direction. The crystal orientation dependence of the yield strength up to 800C was attributed to lower value of Schmid factor in transverse direction. Accordingly, the critical resolved shear stress of this practical class of advanced materials was calculated in various temperatures.
Ukai, Shigeharu*; Yano, Yasuhide; Inoue, Toshihiko; Sowa, Takashi*
Materials Science & Engineering A, 812, p.141076_1 - 141076_11, 2021/04
FeCrAl oxide dispersion strengthened alloys are promising materials for accident tolerant fuels for light water reactors (LWRs). In these alloys, Al and Cr are key elements with important synergistic effects: enhancement of the formation of oxidation-resistant AlO phase by Cr addition and suppression of the formation of the embrittling Cr-rich ' phase by Al addition. The solid-solution strengthening resulting from Al and Cr co-addition was investigated in this study. The solid-solution strengthening resulting from Al and Cr co-addition was investigated in this study. The Al and Cr contents were systematically varied from 9-16 at.% and 10-17 at.%, respectively, and tensile tests were conducted at 298 K, 573 K and 973 K in the as-annealed condition. The solid solution strengthening increased linearly, 20 MPa per 1 at.% Al and 5 MPa per 1 at.% Cr, at the typical LWR operational temperature of 573 K. The conventional Fleischer-Friedel and Labusch theories cannot explain this level of solid-solution strengthening. It was shown that Suzuki's double kink theory for screw dislocations reasonably predicts the solid solution strengthening by Al and Cr as well as the inverse dependency on the absolute temperature and linear dependency on the Al and Cr content.
Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science; Hokkaido University*
JAEA-Review 2020-054, 72 Pages, 2021/01
The Collaborative Laboratories for Advanced Decommissioning Science (CLADS), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), had been conducting the Nuclear Energy Science & Technology and Human Resource Development Project (hereafter referred to "the Project") in FY2019. The Project aims to contribute to solving problems in the nuclear energy field represented by the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. (TEPCO). For this purpose, intelligence was collected from all over the world, and basic research and human resource development were promoted by closely integrating/collaborating knowledge and experiences in various fields beyond the barrier of conventional organizations and research fields. The sponsor of the Project was moved from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology to JAEA since the newly adopted proposals in FY2018. On this occasion, JAEA constructed a new research system where JAEA-academia collaboration is reinforced and medium-to-long term research/development and human resource development contributing to the decommissioning are stably and consecutively implemented. Among the adopted proposals in FY2019, this report summarizes the research results of the "Safe, efficient cementation of challenging radioactive wastes using alkali activated materials with high-flowability and high-anion retention capacity". The purpose of this study is to find safe, efficient cementation of challenging radioactive wastes using alkali activated materials with high-flowability and high-anion retention capacity, and to propose the concept of a manufacturing apparatus that is established as an actual plant. As a result of study in this year, it was revealed that the K-based alkali activated material has high-flowability and quick curing, and that high-iodine retention capacity is achieved by incorporating silver ions during manufacturing of solidified waste.
Watanabe, So; Ogi, Hiromichi*; Arai, Yoichi; Aihara, Haruka; Takahatake, Yoko; Shibata, Atsuhiro; Nomura, Kazunori; Kamiya, Yuichi*; Asanuma, Noriko*; Matsuura, Haruaki*; et al.
Progress in Nuclear Energy, 117, p.103090_1 - 103090_8, 2019/11
Sekio, Yoshihiro; Sakaguchi, Norihito*
Materials Transactions, 60(5), p.678 - 687, 2019/05
The quantitative evaluation of vacancy migration energies in high nickel model alloy was conducted by analyzing the void denuded zone (VDZ) width formed near grain boundaries under neutron and electron irradiation. The microstructures of Fe-15Cr-xNi (x=15, 20, 25, 30 mass%) alloys that were neutron irradiated at 749 K and electron irradiated at 576 K-824 K were examined. The VDZ widths increased with increasing Ni content in both irradiation experiments, which implies an increase of the vacancy mobility. The vacancy migration energies were estimated from the temperature dependence of the VDZ widths, and the energies were 1.09, 0.97, 0.90, and 0.77 eV for the alloys containing 15, 20, 25, and 30 mass% Ni, respectively. From the obtained energies, the effective vacancy diffusivity and excess vacancy concentration were estimated using the analytical equation of the VDZ width, which quantitatively confirmed the increase of the vacancy mobility with increasing Ni content.
Suzuki, Eriko; Takase, Gaku; Nakajima, Kunihisa; Nishioka, Shunichiro; Hashimoto, Naoyuki*; Isobe, Shigehito*; Osaka, Masahiko
Proceedings of International Topical Workshop on Fukushima Decommissioning Research (FDR 2019) (Internet), 4 Pages, 2019/05
In order to acquire the knowledge of the Cs chemisorption behaviour in the lower temperature region, the Cs chemisorbed compounds and the surface reaction rates were investigated by conducting the Cs chemisorption tests onto stainless steel at 873 and 973 K. As a result, The cesium ferrate compounds were revealed to be formed at this temperatures. It was seen that the dependences of surface reaction rate constant on this temperature were different from that at the higher temperature region. This behaviour leads to the conclusion that the Cs chemisorption model in the low temperature region should be newly constructed.
Matsuda, Asahi*; Takahashi, Satoru*; Kawabata, Kuniaki; Oda, Shoji*; Kaneko, Shunichi*
Denki Gakkai Rombunshi, D, 139(4), p.424 - 432, 2019/04
Yano, Yasuhide; Sekio, Yoshihiro; Tanno, Takashi; Kato, Shoichi; Inoue, Toshihiko; Oka, Hiroshi; Otsuka, Satoshi; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Uwaba, Tomoyuki; Kaito, Takeji; et al.
Journal of Nuclear Materials, 516, p.347 - 353, 2019/04
9Cr-ODS steel claddings consisting of tempered martensitic matrix, showed prominent creep rupture strength at 1000 C, which surpassed that of heat-resistant austenitic steels although creep rupture strength of tempered martensitic steels is generally lower than that of austenitic steels at high temperatures. The measured creep rupture strength of 9Cr-ODS steel claddings at 1000 C was higher than that from extrapolated creep rupture trend curves formulated using data at temperatures from 650 to 850 C. This superior strength seemed to be owing to transformation of the matrix from the -phase to the -phase. The transient burst strengths for 9Cr-ODS steel were much higher than those for 11Cr-ferritic/martensitic steel (PNC-FMS). Cumulative damage fraction analyses suggested that the life fraction rule can be used for the rupture life prediction of 9Cr-ODS steel and PNC-FMS claddings in the transient and accidental events with a certain accuracy.
Yasuda, Satoshi; Uchibori, Yosuke*; Wakeshima, Makoto*; Hinatsu, Yukio*; Ogawa, Hiroaki; Yano, Masahiro; Asaoka, Hidehito
RSC Advances (Internet), 8(66), p.37600 - 37605, 2018/11
We present a quantitative study on the effect of a newly obtained thermal history on the formation of Fe-N-C catalytic sites. A short and repeated heating process is employed as the new thermal history, where short heating (1 min) followed by quenching is applied to a sample with arbitrary repetition. Through electrochemical quantitative analysis, it is found that the new process effectively increases the Fe-N-C mass-based site density (MSD) to almost twice that achieved using a conventional continuous heating process, while the turn-over frequency (TOF) is independent of the process. Elemental analysis shows that the new process effectively suppresses the thermal desorption of Fe and N atoms during the initial formation stage and consequently contributes to an increase in the Fe-N-C site density. The resultant catalytic activity (gravimetric kinetic current density (0.8 V vs. RHE)) is 1.8 times higher than that achieved with the continuous heating process.
Koarashi, Jun; Nishimura, Shusaku; Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko; Matsunaga, Takeshi*; Sato, Tsutomu*; Nagao, Seiya*
Chemosphere, 205, p.147 - 155, 2018/08
There is little understanding of how soil aggregation can affect the mobility and bioavailability of Cs in soils. To explore this, soil samples were collected at seven sites under different land-use conditions in Fukushima and were separated into four aggregate-size fractions. The fractions were then analyzed for Cs content and extractability and mineral composition. In forest soils, aggregate formation was significant, and Cs was largely associated with large-sized aggregates. In contrast, there was less aggregation in agricultural field soils, and most of Cs was in the clay- and silt-sized fractions. Across all sites, the Cs extractability was higher in the large-sized aggregate fractions than in the clay-sized fractions. The results demonstrate that large-sized aggregates are a significant reservoir of potentially mobile and bioavailable Cs in organic-rich (forest and orchard) soils.
Kai, Tetsuya; Kamiyama, Takashi*; Hiraga, Fujio*; Oi, Motoki; Hirota, Katsuya*; Kiyanagi, Yoshiaki*
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 55(3), p.283 - 289, 2018/03
Khim, B.-K.*; Otosaka, Shigeyoshi; Park, K.-A.*; Noriki, Shinichiro*
Ocean Science Journal, 53(1), p.17 - 29, 2018/03
Distribution of carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (C, N) in sinking particles collected in four stations in the Japan Sea was summarized. The C and N values in the sinking particles showed a clear seasonal variation, which agreed well with the variation in the chlorophyll a concentration in the surface seawater and in the sinking flux of biogenic particles. In particular, during the highly productive season of phytoplankton, a remarkable isotopic fractionation of N was found in the sinking particles, and it was inferred that the fractionation indicates the degree of nitrogen uptake by diatoms in the surface layer. These results are helpful information for linking the phenomenon in the ocean surface and the isotopic information recorded in the seafloor.
Iida, Kazuki*; Ishikado, Motoyuki*; Nagai, Yuki; Yoshida, Hiroyuki*; Christianson, A. D.*; Murai, Naoki; Kawashima, Kenji*; Yoshida, Yoshiyuki*; Eisaki, Hiroshi*; Iyo, Akira*
Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, 86(9), p.093703_1 - 093703_4, 2017/09
Nago, Makito*; Motoshima, Takayuki*; Miyakawa, Kazuya; Kanie, Shunji*; Sanoki, Satoru*
Proceedings of ITA-AITES World Tunnel Congress 2017 (WTC 2017) (USB Flash Drive), 10 Pages, 2017/06
This study presents a new approach to increase construction safety under methane inflow conditions by providing the three-dimensional concentration distribution of methane in underground structures. The study was conducted at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory, which is located in Neogene sedimentary rock where groundwater contains dissolved methane. As conventional gas sensors are confined to measurement at a single point in time and space, a new system was developed combining a laser methane detector and a laser range finder to effectively obtain the spatial concentration distribution of methane. This system was tested in tunnel galleries located at a depth of 350 m. The results show that this system is effective for identifying unpredicted methane emissions as well as predicted emission hotspots and for examining the validity of the ventilation scheme, which ensures construction safety.
Sekio, Yoshihiro; Yamagata, Ichiro; Akasaka, Naoaki; Sakaguchi, Norihito*
Proceedings of International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles; Next Generation Nuclear Systems for Sustainable Development (FR-17) (USB Flash Drive), 8 Pages, 2017/06
The widths of void denuded zones (VDZs) which were formed near random grain boundaries by neutron irradiation were analyzed in order to perform quantitative evaluations for the irradiation-induced point defect behavior in the modified 316 stainless steel (PNC316) having been developed by JAEA. Namely, the temperature dependence of VDZ width was investigated and vacancy migration energy of the PNC316 steel was estimated from the VDZ width analysis for the neutron-irradiated specimens. The obtained value of vacancy migration energy was estimated as 1.46 eV, which was consistent with that from the exiting method using electron in-situ examination. This indicates that VDZ analysis could be effective method to evaluate especially vacancy migration energy during irradiation, and this would be realized from not in-situ observation but post-irradiation examination in the case of neutron irradiation.
Yano, Yasuhide; Tanno, Takashi; Oka, Hiroshi; Otsuka, Satoshi; Inoue, Toshihiko; Kato, Shoichi; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Uwaba, Tomoyuki; Kaito, Takeji; Ukai, Shigeharu*; et al.
Journal of Nuclear Materials, 487, p.229 - 237, 2017/04
Ultra-high temperature ring tensile tests were carried out to investigate the tensile behavior of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel claddings and wrapper materials under severe accident conditions; temperatures ranged from room temperature to 1400C which is near the melting point of core materials. The experimental results showed that tensile strength of 9Cr-ODS steel claddings was highest in the core materials at the ultra-high temperatures between 900 and 1200C, but that there was significant degradation in tensile strength of 9Cr-ODS steel claddings above 1200C. This degradation was attributed to grain boundary sliding deformation with / transformation, which was associated with reduced ductility. On the other hand, tensile strength of recrystallized 12Cr-ODS and FeCrAl-ODS steel claddings retained its high value above 1200 C unlike the other tested materials. Present study includes the result of "R&D of ODS ferritic steel fuel cladding for maintaining fuel integrity at the high temperature accident condition" entrusted to Hokkaido University by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan (MEXT).
Uwaba, Tomoyuki; Yano, Yasuhide; Otsuka, Satoshi; Naganuma, Masayuki; Tanno, Takashi; Oka, Hiroshi; Kato, Shoichi; Kaito, Takeji; Ukai, Shigeharu*; Kimura, Akihiko*; et al.
Proceedings of 2017 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP 2017) (CD-ROM), 7 Pages, 2017/04
Tolerance of fast rector fuel elements to failure in the typical accident conditions was evaluated for the oxide-dispersion-strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel claddings that are candidate of the cladding material for advanced fast reactors. The evaluation was based on the cladding creep damage, which was quantified by the cumulative damage fractions (CDFs). It was shown that the CDFs of the ODS ferritic steel cladding were substantially lower than the breach limit of 1.0 in the loss of flow and transient over power conditions until a passive reactor shutdown system operates.
Matsunaga, Takeshi; Nakanishi, Takahiro; Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko; Takeuchi, Erina; Muto, Kotomi; Tsuzuki, Katsunori; Nishimura, Shusaku; Koarashi, Jun; Otosaka, Shigeyoshi; Sato, Tsutomu*; et al.
Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 310(2), p.679 - 693, 2016/11
Particulate Cs in stream water was collected continuously for two years in order to assess the long-term trend of the Cs discharge from the forest environment. Sampling was conducted from December 2011 to December 2013 in a mountainous stream, which received the Cs from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. A seasonal increase in fluvial transport load of particulate Cs associated with suspended solids (SS) was observed in August and September when rainfall was abundant. The particulate Cs concentration decreased at a faster rate than the rate due to radioactive decay. This decrease might be resulted from redistribution of the easily eroded and polluted soil surface due to heavy rain events such as typhoons. These findings indicate that the particulate Cs load was subject to the inter-annual variations in rainfalls, and decreased gradually over a long period of time due to a decrease in Cs concentration in SS.
Yamaji, Keiko*; Nagata, Satoshi*; Haruma, Toshikatsu*; Onuki, Toshihiko; Kozaki, Tamotsu*; Watanabe, Naoko*; Namba, Kenji*
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 153, p.112 - 119, 2016/03
Of the 463 strains that we isolated, 107 (23.1%) produced the siderophores. We found Cs and Mn desorption concomitant with Al and Fe desorption. These results suggest that root endophytes of Cs accumulator plant produce siderophores, resulting in the desorption of Cs from the contaminated soil collected at Fukushima, Japan.