Sakai, Toshihiro; Hayano, Akira
JAEA-Data/Code 2021-010, 243 Pages, 2021/10
The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) Project is being pursued by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) to enhance the reliability of relevant disposal technologies through investigations of the deep geological environment within the host sedimentary formations at Horonobe, northern Hokkaido. The project consists of two major research areas, "Geoscientific Research" and "R&D on Geological Disposal", and proceeds in three overlapping phases, "Phase I: Surface-based investigation", "Phase II: Construction" and "Phase III: Operation". The geological survey has been carried out at the shafts and the galleries in the Phase II. The geological survey was carried out during the excavation cycle, and the data were obtained for each an excavation cross section. This report shows the data which the individual geological data were integrated for the geological survey at the shafts and the galleries from the surface to a depth of 380m.
Sakai, Toshihiro; Ishii, Eiichi
JAEA-Data/Code 2021-009, 13 Pages, 2021/08
Japan Atomic Energy Agency is performing the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project, which includes a scientific study of the deep geological environment as a basis of research and development for the geological disposal of high level radioactive wastes, in order to establish comprehensive techniques for the investigation, analysis and assessment of the deep geological environment in the sedimentary rock. The numerical data of 3D geological model in regional-scale was compiled in 2019 as JAEA-Data/Code 2019-007, and then this report updates a part of the numerical data of 3D geological model around the underground facilities.
Onoe, Hironori; Ishibashi, Masayuki*; Ozaki, Yusuke; Iwatsuki, Teruki
International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 144, p.104737_1 - 104737_14, 2021/08
In this study, we investigated the methodology of modeling for fractured granite around the drift at a depth of 500 m in the Mizunami Underground Laboratory, Japan as a case study. As a result, we developed the fracture modeling method to estimate not only geological parameters of fractures but also hydraulic parameters based on the reproducibility of trace length distribution of fractures. By applying this modeling method, it was possible to construct a Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) model that can accurately reproduce the statistical characteristics of fractures.
JAEA-Review 2021-009, 54 Pages, 2021/07
The Horonobe URL Project is being pursued by the JAEA to enhance the reliability of relevant disposal technologies for geological disposal of High-level Radioactive Waste through investigations of the deep geological environment within the host sedimentary rock at Horonobe Town in Hokkaido, north Japan. In 2021 fiscal year (2021/2022), JAEA continue to conduct research on "Demonstration of EBS in geological environment", "Demonstration of disposal concept", and "Validation of buffer capacity of the sedimentary rock to tectonism", which are the important issues shown in the Horonobe underground research plan after 2020 fiscal year. The main studies to be conducted in 2021 fiscal year are as follows. As "Demonstration of EBS in geological environment", we will shift to the test under the condition that the influence of heating is eliminated in the full scale EBS experiment. As "Demonstration of disposal concept", as a demonstration of the closure techniques, it details the conditions under which long-term transitions in the tunnel and surrounding bedrock have a significant impact on safety assessments. And we will continue engineering scale experiment to confirm the workability and performance of plugs and laboratory tests to examine the interaction between backfilling materials and buffer materials. As "Validation of buffer capacity of the sedimentary rock to tectonism", we will analyze the results of the hydraulic disturbance test and continue to study the hydraulic disconnection of faults/fissures in the Wakkanai Formation. As an advancement of technology for investigating and evaluating areas where the flow of groundwater is extremely slow, a boring exploration will be conducted to confirm the three-dimensional distribution of the fossil seawater area.
JAEA-Data/Code 2021-003, 25 Pages, 2021/05
Development of technologies to investigate properties of deep geological environment and model development of geological environment have been pursued in "Geoscientific Research" in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (HURL) project. In the fiscal year 2020, to proceed remaining important issues which were deduced from the conclusion of the investigations during the fiscal year 2015-2019, basic data such as groundwater chemistry need to be successively acquired. In the fiscal year 2020, groundwater was sampled from boreholes drilled in the 140 m, 250 m, 350 m gallery in the HURL, and water rings settled in three each vertical shaft, and groundwater chemistries of 41 samples were analyzed. Here, analytical results of groundwater chemistry such as physicochemical parameters, dissolved ions, oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios, and tritium content, which were obtained in the fiscal year 2020, were reported along with a detailed description of analytical methods.
Miyakawa, Kazuya; Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Akaki, Toshifumi*; Yamamoto, Hajime*
JAEA-Data/Code 2021-002, 26 Pages, 2021/05
Investigations employing numerical simulation have been conducted to study the mechanisms of desaturation and oxygen infusion into sedimentary formations. By mimicking the conditions of the Horonobe underground research laboratory, numerical simulations aided geoscientific investigation of the effects of dissolved gas content and rock permeability on the desaturation (Miyakawa et al., 2019) and mechanisms of oxygen intrusion into the host rock (Miyakawa et al., 2021). These simulations calculated multi-phase flow, including flows of groundwater and exsolved gas, and conducted sensitivity analysis changing the dissolved gas content, rock permeability, and humidity at the gallery wall. Only the most important results from these simulations have been reported previously, because of publishers' space limitations. Hence, in order to provide basic data for understanding the mechanisms of desaturation and oxygen infusion into rock, all data for 27 output parameters (e.g., advective fluxes of heat, gas, and water, diffusive fluxes of water, CH, CO, O, and N, saturation degree, water pressure, and mass fraction of each component) over a modeling period of 100 years are presented here.
Yuguchi, Takashi*; Izumino, Yuya*; Sasao, Eiji
PLOS ONE (Internet), 16(5), p.e0251198_1 - e0251198_17, 2021/05
This study analyzes the relationships among alteration indicators, areal microvoid fractions in chloritized biotite, and macroscopic fracture frequencies in the Toki granite, central Japan, to establish the genesis and development processes of fractures in granite. Petrographic alteration indicators using biotite chloritization as innovative methods are proposed to evaluate the extent of hydrothermal alteration and fracture frequency within granites. Samples with high macroscopic fracture frequencies correspond to a high number of areal microvoid fractions and large alteration indicators. The alteration indicators contribute to the characterization of present and future distributions of macroscopic fracture frequencies.
Yuguchi, Takashi*; Yagi, Koshi*; Sasao, Eiji; Nishiyama, Tadao*
Heliyon (Internet), 7(4), p.e06750_1 - e06750_9, 2021/04
Our methodology and interpretations provide new insight for K-Ar geochronology in hydrothermal microcline within altered plagioclase in a granitic pluton. Our methodology employs a two-step separation process consisting of (1) plagioclase extraction from the rock sample and (2) separation of the hydrothermal microcline from the plagioclase, giving precise determination of microcline powders in K-Ar geochronology. This tighter constraint should provide the ability to better unravel thermal and age histories in granite subject to multi-step alteration processes and complex thermal histories.
Safety and Facility Management Section, Tono Geoscience Center
JAEA-Review 2020-052, 116 Pages, 2021/03
This progress report presents an outline compilation of construction activities, primary tasks performed, construction progress and safety patrol report at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory Construction Work Part VIII. The outline of construction activities is a summary based on the scope of work planned the main activities are based on the Tono Geoscience Center weekly reports; and the construction progress is based on the planned and actual schedules. The actual performance of the construction work of MIU part VIII carried out from April 1, 2018 until May 15, 2020 is described in this report.
Aoki, Katsunori; Yamanaka, Hiroki*; Watanabe, Kazuhiko*; Sugihara, Kozo
JAEA-Data/Code 2020-018, 45 Pages, 2021/02
Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) Project is pursued by Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) in the crystalline host rock (granite) as a part of geoscientific study of JAEA, and underground facilities of MIU are constructed down to 500m blow the ground surface. As small amount of Uranium is normally contained in granite, high concentration of radon is sometimes detected in the air of the underground facilities constructed in granitic rocks depending on their ventilation conditions. Radon concentrations in underground facilities of MIU have been measured according to the excavation progress of underground facilities or the change of ventilation system. It is recognized that the data obtained by the actual measurement of radon concentration in such underground facilities are rare and valuable. This repot summarizes the measured data from fiscal 2010 to fiscal 2020, together with the information of ventilation conditions and air temperature which affect radon concentrations in underground facilities. The variation of the equilibrium factors of radon is also examined with the actually measured data. As a result, it has been found that radon concentration in the drift is high in summer and low in winter according to the natural ventilation caused by the seasonal temperature difference between in and out of the underground facilities. Furthermore, the temporary increase in the equilibrium factor of radon in the drift at the start of ventilation is supposed to be due to the aerosol increase by the ventilation flow, such as the dust blown up.
Nakayama, Masashi; Saiga, Atsushi
JAEA-Review 2020-042, 116 Pages, 2021/01
The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project will be conducted in three phases, namely "Phase 1: Surface-based investigations", "Phase 2: Construction Phase" (investigations during construction of the underground facilities) and "Phase 3: Operation phase" (research in the underground facilities). This report summarizes the results of the investigations for the 2019 fiscal year (2019/2020). The investigations, which are composed of "Geoscientific research" and "R and D on geological disposal technology", were carried out according to "Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project Investigation Program for the 2019 fiscal year". The results of these investigations, along with the results which were obtained in other departments of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), are properly offered to the implementations and the safety regulations. For the sake of this, JAEA has proceeded with the project in collaboration with experts from domestic and overseas research organizations.
Miyakawa, Kazuya; Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Akaki, Toshifumi*; Yamamoto, Hajime*
Dai-15-Kai Iwa No Rikigaku Kokunai Shimpojiumu Koen Rombunshu (Internet), p.609 - 614, 2021/01
Desaturation is expected due to excavation of an underground repository, especially in the newly created fractures zone (EDZ). During the construction and operation of facilities, the air in the gallery infuses into the rock around the gallery though the excavation affected area and causes oxidation of host rock and groundwater, which increase nuclide mobilities. In the Horonobe underground research laboratory (HURL), which is excavated in the Neogene sedimentary formations, no pyrite dissolution or precipitation of calcium sulfates was found from the cores drilled in the rock around the gallery. The reason for no oxidation is estimated that the release of dissolved gases from groundwater due to pressure decrease flows against the air infusion. In this research, the mechanism of O intrusion into the rock was investigated by numerical multiphase flow simulation considering advection and diffusion of groundwater and gases. In the simulation, only Darcy's and Henry's laws were considered, that is, chemical reaction related to oxidation was not handled. The effects of dissolved gas and rock permeability on O infusion into the rock were almost identical. Decreasing humidity with relatively low permeability leads to extensive accumulation of O into the EDZ even though with a relatively large amount of dissolved gas. In the HURL, the shotcrete attenuates O concentration and keeps 100% humidity at the boundary of the gallery wall, which inhibits O infusion. Without the shotcrete, humidity at the gallery wall decreases according to seasonal changes and ventilation, which promotes O intrusion into the EDZ but the chemical reaction related to O buffering such as pyrite oxidation consumes O.
Mishima, Seiki*; Ogata, Sho*; Inui, Toru*; Yasuhara, Hideaki*; Kishida, Kiyoshi*; Aoyagi, Kazuhei
Dai-15-Kai Iwa No Rikigaku Kokunai Shimpojiumu Koen Rombunshu (Internet), p.215 - 220, 2021/01
When the durability of the geological repository of high-level radioactive waste is evaluated, understanding the cracking behavior within the crystalline/sedimentary rocks during excavation of waste disposal cavities is important. In this study, we performed a numerical analysis that expressed the tunnel excavation carried out 350 m underground at the Horonobe Underground Research Center of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency. Simulated results are agreement with actual trends of fracture propagation, and the measured horizontal convergence of the tunnel was reproduced by the numerical analysis relatively well.
Nakayama, Masashi; Saiga, Atsushi
JAEA-Review 2020-022, 34 Pages, 2020/11
The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) Project is being pursued by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) to enhance the reliability of relevant disposal technologies for geological disposal of High-level Radioactive Waste through investigations of the deep geological environment within the host sedimentary rock at Horonobe Town in Hokkaido, north Japan. The investigations will be conducted in three phases, namely "Phase 1: Surface-based investigations", "Phase 2: Construction phase" (investigations during construction of the underground facilities) and "Phase 3: Operation phase" (research in the underground facilities). According to the research plan described in the 3rd Mid- and Long- term Plan of JAEA, "Demonstration of EBS in geological environment", "Demonstration of disposal concept", and "Validation of buffer capacity of the sedimentary rock to tectonism" are important issues of the Horonobe URL Project, and schedule of future research and backfill plans of the URL will be decided by the end of 2019 Fiscal Year. JAEA summarizes the research and development activities of the important issues carried out during the 3rd Mid- and Long-term Plan, and set out three important issues after 2020 fiscal year. After consultation with Hokkaido and Horonobe town, JAEA formulated the Horonobe underground research plan after 2020 fiscal year within the 3rd and 4th Mid- and Long-term Plan. This report summarizes the investigation program for the 2020 fiscal year (2020/2021).
Hata, Koji*; Niunoya, Sumio*; Uyama, Masao*; Nakaoka, Kenichi*; Fukaya, Masaaki*; Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Sakurai, Akitaka; Tanai, Kenji
JAEA-Research 2020-010, 142 Pages, 2020/11
In the geological disposal study of high-level radioactive waste, it is suggested that the excavation damaged zone (EDZ) which is created around a tunnel by the excavation will be possible to be one of the critical path of radionuclides. Especially, the progress of cracks in and around the EDZ with time affects the safety assessment of geological disposal and it is important to understand the hydraulic change due to the progress of cracks in and around EDZ. In this collaborative research, monitoring tools made by Obayashi Corporation were installed at a total of 9 locations in the three boreholes near the depth of 370 m of East Shaft at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory constructed in the Neogene sedimentary rock. The monitoring tool consists of one set of "optical AE sensor" for measuring of the mechanical rock mass behavior and "optical pore water pressure sensor and optical temperature sensor" for measuring of groundwater behavior. This tool was made for the purpose of selecting and analyzing of AE signal waveforms due to rock fracture during and after excavation of the target deep shaft. As a result of analyzing various measurement data including AE signal waveforms, it is able to understand the information on short-term or long-term progress of cracks in and around EDZ during and after excavation in the deep shaft. In the future, it will be possible to carry out a study that contributes to the long-term stability evaluation of EDZ in sedimentary rocks in the deep part of the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory by evaluation based on these analytical data.
JAEA-Data/Code 2020-016, 15 Pages, 2020/11
Japan Atomic Energy Agency has been conducting Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) Project, which is a broad scientific study of the deep geological environment as a basis of research and development for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, targeting in crystalline rock. This report summarized the digital data of local scale and site scale geological model and hydrogeological model constructed in the MIU project and the Regional hydraulic study.
Onoe, Hironori; Takeuchi, Ryuji
JAEA-Data/Code 2020-015, 22 Pages, 2020/11
Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been conducting Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) Project, which is a broad scientific study of the deep geological environment as a basis of research and development for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, targeting in crystalline rock. The main goals of the MIU Project from Phase I to Phase III are: to establish techniques for investigation, analysis and assessment of the deep geological environment, and to develop a base of engineering for deep underground application. The groundwater inflow monitoring into shafts and research galleries, has been conducted to achieve the Phase II goals. Furthermore, these monitoring were ceased at the end of FY2019 due to the completion of the MIU project. This report describes the results of the groundwater inflow monitoring from April 2019 to March 2020.
Ozaki, Yusuke; Ishii, Eiichi; Sugawara, Kentaro*
Extanded abstract of International Conference on Coupled Processes in Fractured Geological Media; Observation, Modeling, and Application (CouFrac 2020) (Internet), 4 Pages, 2020/11
We perform the numerical simulation of the response of hydraulic head observed in HDB-6 during the excavation of the Horonobe URL to verify the existence of low effective permeable domain in the subsurface. The low permeable domain as an intact rock due to the low hydraulic fracture connectivity is estimated to exist in the deep domain while the permeability of the shallow domain is relatively high due to the hydraulic fracture connectivity there. Our simulation shows that the observed hydraulic head is affected by the Mandel-Cryer effect due to the hydrogeological structure and the effect for the duration of over years requires the low permeability as an intact rock in the deep domain. These results verify the existence of the low effective permeable domain in the deep subsurface estimated by the previous study.
Fukuda, Kenji; Watanabe, Yusuke; Murakami, Hiroaki; Amano, Yuki; Aosai, Daisuke*; Hara, Naohiro*
JAEA-Data/Code 2020-012, 80 Pages, 2020/10
Japan Atomic Energy Agency has been investigating groundwater chemistry to understand the influence of excavation and maintenance of underground facilities as part of the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) Project in Mizunami, Gifu, Japan. In this report, we compiled data of groundwater chemistry and microbiology obtained at the MIU in the fiscal year 2019. In terms of ensuring traceability of data, basic information (e.g. sampling location, sampling time, sampling method and analytical method) and methodology for quality control are described.
Onoe, Hironori; Takeuchi, Ryuji
JAEA-Data/Code 2020-010, 112 Pages, 2020/10
The Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) Project has three overlapping phases: Surface-based Investigation phase (Phase I), Construction phase (Phase II), and Operation phase (Phase III), the project is being carried out under the Phase III. The main goals of the MIU Project from Phase I to Phase III are: to establish techniques for investigation, analysis and assessment of the deep geological environment, and to develop a base of engineering for deep underground application. One of the Phase III goals is to construct geological environment models and grasp deep geological changes when expanding the research gallery by research and investigations using research galleries. The long term hydro-pressure monitoring has been continued to achieve the Phase III goals. Furthermore, these monitoring were ceased at the end of FY2019 due to the completion of the MIU project. This report describes the results of the long term hydro-pressure monitoring from April 2017 to March 2020.