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Recent results on hydrogen and hydration in biology studied by neutron macromolecular crystallography

生体物質に見られる水素と水の構造

新村 信雄; 新井 栄揮; 栗原 和男; 茶竹 俊行*; 田中 伊知朗*; Bau, R.*

Niimura, Nobuo; Arai, Shigeki; Kurihara, Kazuo; Chatake, Toshiyuki*; Tanaka, Ichiro*; Bau, R.*

中性子回折は蛋白質やDNAの水素位置を直接的に決定する実験手法である。三つの異なったタイプの生体物質用高分解能中性子回折計が日本,フランス,アメリカに建設され、それらは近年、多くの蛋白質の結晶構造を決定するために頻繁に用いられてきた。本論文では、詳細な水素結合のジオメトリー,蛋白質及び核酸のH/D交換に関する情報,プロトンの正確な位置決定,酵素活性及び熱安定性における水素原子の役割,水和構造の動力学的挙動など、中性子構造解析から引出された成果を取り上げる。その他の重要な技術として開発された、結晶化相図による大型単結晶育成の最適化,完全重水素化蛋白質の調製,中性子蛋白質結晶学におけるクライオ技術の導入,生体水素水和水データベースの設立なども本論文中にて議論する。

Neutron diffraction provides an experimental method of directly locating hydrogen atoms in proteins and DNA oligomers. Three different types of high resolution neutron diffractometers for biological macromolecules have been constructed in Japan, France and the U.S.A., and they have all been actively used in recent years to determine the crystal structures of numerous proteins. Examples include the detailed geometries of hydrogen bonds, information on H/D exchange in proteins, the unambiguous location of protons, the role of key hydrogen atoms in enzymatic activity and thermostability, and the dynamical behavior of hydration structures, all of which have been extracted from these structural results and reviewed in this article. Other important techniques, such as the optimization of growth of large single crystals using phase diagrams, the preparation of fully deuterated proteins, the introduction of cryogenic techniques to neutron protein crystallography, and the establishment of a "hydrogen and hydration in proteins" database, will also be described in this paper.

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パーセンタイル:39.36

分野:Biochemistry & Molecular Biology

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