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ICRU Committee proposal on operational quantities for external radiation exposure

外部放射線被ばくに対する実用量に関するICRUの提案

Hertel, N. E.*; Bartlett, D. T.*; Dietze, G.*; Bordy, J.-M.*; 遠藤 章; Gualdrini, G.*; Pelliccioni, M.*; Ambrosi, P.*; Siebert, B. R. L.*; Veinot, K.*; Ferrari, P.*; Otto, T.*; Behrens, R.*; Bottollier, J.-F.*

Hertel, N. E.*; Bartlett, D. T.*; Dietze, G.*; Bordy, J.-M.*; Endo, Akira; Gualdrini, G.*; Pelliccioni, M.*; Ambrosi, P.*; Siebert, B. R. L.*; Veinot, K.*; Ferrari, P.*; Otto, T.*; Behrens, R.*; Bottollier, J.-F.*

国際放射線単位測定委員会(ICRU)は、国際放射線防護委員会(ICRP)により勧告された実効線量などの防護量を評価するために、線量測定に用いる実用量を定義している。現在使われている実用量は、約30年前に定義されたものである。ICRUの報告書委員会26は、防護量の定義の変更や防護量を適用する放射線場の多様化を踏まえて、実用量について検討を進めてきた。この検討では、作業者と公衆に被ばくをもたらす放射線の種類とエネルギー範囲が拡張しつつあることも考慮して、現在の実用量と防護量の関係について分析した。その結果、委員会は、現在の実用量を見直し、新たな実用量を提案することにした。エリアモニタリングに対しては、ICRU球のある深さで定義する線量から、粒子フルエンスに基づき実効線量、目の水晶体や皮膚の等価線量と関連付けた量に変更する。本発表では、新たに提案する実用量の定義と、それが放射線測定機器の設計や校正、測定の実務に及ぼす影響について検討した結果を報告する。

The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) defines a set of operational quantities for use in radiation measurements that provides assessment of the protection quantities recommended by International Commission for Radiological Protection (ICRP). The ICRU operational quantities in current use was defined about 30 years ago. ICRU Report Committee 26 has examined the rationale for operational quantities taking into account the changes in the definitions of the protection quantities and the changes in the fields of application of the operational quantities and protection quantities. The considerations have included the range of types and energies of particles contributing to doses to workers and members of the public. The relationship of the existing recommended operational quantities to the protection quantities has been investigated, as has the impact of changes in routine measurement practice, including instrument design and calibration. The committee has proposed a set of operational quantities which differs from the previous quantities. The major change in the proposed set of quantities is the redefinition of the operational quantities for area monitoring from doses computed at a depth in the ICRU sphere to ones based on particle fluence and the relationship to the protection quantities, effective dose, and equivalent dose to the lens of the eye, and local skin.

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