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Performance tests of catalysts for the safe conversion of hydrogen inside the nuclear waste containers in Fukushima Daiichi

福島第一原子力発電所の放射性廃棄物保管容器内の安全な水素変換のための触媒評価試験

Reinecke, E.-A.*; 竹中 啓恭*; 大野 瞳*; 喜多 知輝*; 谷口 昌司*; 西畑 保雄; 日野 竜太郎; 田中 裕久*

Reinecke, E.-A.*; Takenaka, Keisuke*; Ono, Hitomi*; Kita, Tomoaki*; Taniguchi, Masashi*; Nishihata, Yasuo; Hino, Ryutaro; Tanaka, Hirohisa*

安全な廃炉は福島第一原子力発電所の事故による放射性物質の除染同様に今後の大きな課題である。現在、廃棄物長期保管容器の研究開発は日本の国際協力における緊急の課題となっている。容器中の放射線分解による大量の水素と酸素は、海水を含んでいるために問題となっている。放射線分解による可燃性ガスの発生は容器の内圧を上昇させ、引火による設備の健全性喪失のリスクとなる。日本の文部科学省のプロジェクト「廃棄物長期保管容器内に発生する可燃性ガスの濃度低減技術に関する研究開発」では、保管容器内における水素再結合触媒装置の適用可能性について調べた。ここで適用したのは、インテリジェント触媒と呼ばれており、自動車排ガス浄化用の大量生産のために開発されたもので、Pd, Pt, Rhの貴金属がペロブスカイト酸化物中に固溶しており、自己再生機能を有している。水素再結合触媒評価装置REKO-4によって、触媒の基本的な特性を評価した。

The safe decommissioning as well as decontamination of the radioactive waste resulting from the nuclear accident in Fukushima Daiichi represents a huge task for the next decade. At present, research and development on long-term safe storage containers has become an urgent task with international cooperation in Japan. One challenge is the generation of hydrogen and oxygen in significant amounts by means of radiolysis inside the containers, as the nuclear waste contains a large portion of sea water. The generation of radiolysis gases may lead to a significant pressure build-up inside the containers and to the formation of flammable gases with the risk of ignition and the loss of integrity. In the framework of the project "R&D on technology for reducing concentration of flammable gases generated in long-term waste storage containers" funded by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan (MEXT), the potential application of catalytic recombiner devices inside the storage containers is investigated. In this context, a suitable catalyst based on the so-called intelligent automotive catalyst for use in a recombiner is under consideration. The catalyst is originally developed and mass-produced for automotive exhaust gas purification, and is characterized by having a self-healing function of precious metals (Pd, Pt and Rh) dissolved as a solid solution in the perovskite type oxides. The basic features of this catalyst have been tested in an experimental program. The test series in the REKO-4 facility has revealed the basic characteristics of the catalyst required for designing the recombiner system.

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パーセンタイル:24.78

分野:Chemistry, Physical

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