内田 健一*; 大門 俊介*; 井口 亮*; 齊藤 英治
Nature, 558(7708), p.95 - 99, 2018/06
The Peltier effect, discovered in 1834, converts a charge current into a heat current in a conductor, and its performance is described by the Peltier coefficient, which is defined as the ratio of the generated heat current to the applied charge current. To exploit the Peltier effect for thermoelectric cooling or heating, junctions of two conductors with different Peltier coefficients have been believed to be indispensable. Here we challenge this conventional wisdom by demonstrating Peltier cooling and heating in a single material without junctions. This is realized through an anisotropic magneto-Peltier effect in which the Peltier coefficient depends on the angle between the directions of a charge current and magnetization in a ferromagnet. By using active thermography techniques, we observe the temperature change induced by this effect in a plain nickel slab. We find that the thermoelectric properties of the ferromagnet can be redesigned simply by changing the configurations of the charge current and magnetization, for instance, by shaping the ferromagnet so that the current must flow around a curve. Our experimental results demonstrate the suitability of nickel for the anisotropic magneto-Peltier effect and the importance of spin-orbit interaction in its mechanism. The anisotropic magneto-Peltier effect observed here is the missing thermoelectric phenomenon in ferromagnetic materials-the Onsager reciprocal of the anisotropic magneto-Seebeck effect previously observed in ferromagnets and its simplicity might prove useful in developing thermal management technologies for electronic and spintronic devices.
大門 俊介*; 内田 健一*; 井口 亮*; 日置 友智*; 齊藤 英治
Physical Review B, 96(2), p.024424_1 - 024424_12, 2017/07
The spin Peltier effect (SPE), heat-current generation due to spin-current injection, in various metal (Pt, W, and Au single layers and Pt/Cu bilayer)/ferrimagnetic insulator [yttrium-iron-garnet (YIG)] junction systems has been investigated by means of a lock-in thermography (LIT) method. The SPE is excited by a spin current across the metal/YIG interface, which is generated by applying a charge current to the metallic layer via the spin Hall effect. The LIT method enables the thermal imaging of the SPE free from the Joule-heating contribution. Importantly, we observed spin-current-induced temperature modulation not only in the Pt/YIG and W/YIG systems, but also in the Au/YIG and Pt/Cu/YIG systems, excluding the possible contamination by anomalous Ettingshausen effects due to proximity-induced ferromagnetism near the metal/YIG interface. As demonstrated in our previous study, the SPE signals are confined only in the vicinity of the metal/YIG interface; we buttress this conclusion by reducing a spatial blur due to thermal diffusion in an infrared-emission layer on the sample surface used for the LIT measurements. We also found that the YIG-thickness dependence of the SPE is similar to that of the spin Seebeck effect measured in the same Pt/YIG sample, implying the reciprocal relation between them.
日置 友智*; 井口 亮*; Qiu, Z.*; Hou, D.*; 内田 健一*; 齊藤 英治
Applied Physics Express, 10(7), p.073002_1 - 073002_4, 2017/06
We have investigated the magnetic-field-induced suppression of the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect (LSSE) by using a time-resolved measurement technique at room temperature. The result manifested two distinctive time domains: the short-time domain where the observed voltage is insensitive to the magnetic fields, and the long-time domain where the both response time and the magnitude of the observed voltage decreased simultaneously by the magnetic fields. We estimated the magnon propagation length by fitting the transient LSSE response. The propagation length shows a strong dependence on the applied magnetic field, indicating the importance of long-range and low-frequency magnons in the LSSE.
吉川 貴史*; 鈴木 基寛*; 岡林 潤*; 内田 健一*; 菊池 大介*; Qiu, Z.*; 齊藤 英治
Physical Review B, 95(21), p.214416_1 - 214416_7, 2017/06
Magnetic moments in an ultrathin Pt film on a ferrimagnetic insulator YFeO (YIG) have been investigated at high magnetic fields and low temperatures by means of X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). We observed an XMCD signal due to the magnetic moments in a Pt film at the Pt and edges. By means of the element-specific magnetometry, we found that the XMCD signal at the Pt edge gradually increases with increasing the magnetic field even when the field is much greater than the saturation field of YIG. Importantly, the observed XMCD intensity was found to be much greater than the intensity expected from the Pauli paramagnetism of Pt when the Pt film is attached to YIG. These results imply the emergence of induced paramagnetic moments in Pt on YIG and explain the characteristics of the unconventional Hall effect in Pt/YIG systems.
Ramos, R.*; 吉川 貴史*; Anadn, A.*; Lucas, I.*; 内田 健一*; Algarabel, P. A.*; Morelln, L.*; Aguirre, M. H.*; 齊藤 英治; Ibarra, M. R.*
AIP Advances (Internet), 7(5), p.055915_1 - 055915_7, 2017/05
We report temperature dependent measurements of the spin Seebeck effect (SSE) in multilayers formed by repeated growth of a FeO/Pt bilayer junction. The magnitude of the observed enhancement of the SSE, relative to the SSE in the single bilayer, shows a monotonic increase with decreasing the temperature. This result can be understood by an increase of the characteristic length for spin current transport in the system, in qualitative agreement with the recently observed increase in the magnon diffusion length in FeO at lower temperatures. Our result suggests that the thermoelectric performance of the SSE in multilayer structures can be further improved by careful choice of materials with suitable spin transport properties.
井口 亮*; 内田 健一*; 大門 俊介*; 齊藤 英治
Physical Review B, 95(17), p.174401_1 - 174401_7, 2017/05
We report a simultaneous measurement of a longitudinal spin Seebeck effect (LSSE) and thermal conductivity in a Pt/YFeO (YIG)/Pt system in a temperature range from 10 to 300 K. By directly monitoring the temperature difference in the system, we excluded thermal artifacts in the LSSE measurements. It is found that both the LSSE signal and the thermal conductivity of YIG exhibit sharp peaks at the same temperature, different from previous reports. The maximum LSSE coefficient is found to be V/K, one-order-of magnitude greater than the previously reported values. The concomitant enhancement of the LSSE and thermal conductivity of YIG suggests the strong correlation between magnon and phonon transport in the LSSE.
廣部 大地*; 佐藤 正寛*; 川股 隆行*; 塩見 雄毅*; 内田 健一*; 井口 亮*; 小池 洋二*; 前川 禎通; 齊藤 英治
Nature Physics, 13(1), p.30 - 34, 2017/01
Quantum spin fluctuation in a low-dimensional or frustrated magnet breaks magnetic ordering while keeping spin correlation. Such fluctuation has been a central topic in magnetism because of its relevance to high-Tc superconductivity and topological states. However, utilizing such spin states has been quite difficult. In a one-dimensional spin-1/2 chain, a particle-like excitation called a spinon is known to be responsible for spin fluctuation in a paramagnetic state. Spinons behave as a Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid at low energy, and the spin system is often called a quantum spin chain. Here we show that a quantum spin chain generates and carries spin current, which is attributed to spinon spin current. This is demonstrated by observing an anisotropic negative spin Seebeck effect along the spin chains in SrCuO. The results show that spin current can flow even in an atomic channel owing to long-range spin fluctuation.
Yagmur, A.*; 内田 健一*; 井原 和紀*; 井岡 郁夫; 吉川 貴史*; 小野 円佳*; 遠藤 純一*; 柏木 王明*; 中島 哲也*; 桐原 明宏*; et al.
Applied Physics Letters, 109(24), p.243902_1 - 243902_4, 2016/12
大門 俊介*; 井口 亮*; 日置 友智*; 齊藤 英治; 内田 健一*
Nature Communications (Internet), 7, p.13754_1 - 13754_7, 2016/12
The Peltier effect modulates the temperature of a junction comprising two different conductors in response to charge currents across the junction, which is used in solid-state heat pumps and temperature controllers in electronics. Recently, in spintronics, a spin counterpart of the Peltier effect was observed. The "spin Peltier effect" modulates the temperature of a magnetic junction in response to spin currents. Here we report thermal imaging of the spin Peltier effect; using active thermography technique, we visualize the temperature modulation induced by spin currents injected into a magnetic insulator from an adjacent metal. The thermal images reveal characteristic distribution of spin-current-induced heat sources, resulting in the temperature change confined only in the vicinity of themetal/insulator interface. This finding allows us to estimate the actual magnitude of the temperature modulation induced by the spin Peltier effect, which is more than one order of magnitude greater than previously believed.
吉川 貴史*; Shen, K.*; Flebus, B.*; Duine, R. A.*; 内田 健一*; Qiu, Z.*; Bauer, G. E. W.*; 齊藤 英治
Physical Review Letters, 117(20), p.207203_1 - 207203_6, 2016/11
Sharp structures in the magnetic field-dependent spin Seebeck effect (SSE) voltages of Pt/YFeO at low temperatures are attributed to the magnon-phonon interaction. Experimental results are well reproduced by a Boltzmann theory that includes magnetoelastic coupling. The SSE anomalies coincide with magnetic fields tuned to the threshold of magnon-polaron formation. The effect gives insight into the relative quality of the lattice and magnetization dynamics.
内田 健一*; 安立 裕人; 吉川 貴史*; 桐原 明宏*; 石田 真彦*; 萬 伸一*; 前川 禎通; 齊藤 英治*
Proceedings of the IEEE, 104(10), p.1946 - 1973, 2016/10
The spin Seebeck effect (SSE) refers to the generation of a spin current as a result of a temperature gradient in magnetic materials including insulators. The SSE is applicable to thermoelectric generation because the thermally generated spin current can be converted into a charge current via spin-orbit interaction in conductive materials adjacent to the magnets. The insulator-based SSE device exhibits unconventional characteristics potentially useful for thermoelectric applications, such as simple structure, device-design exibility, and convenient scaling capability. In this article, we review recent studies on the SSE from the viewpoint of thermoelectric applications.
Qiu, Z.*; Li, J.*; Hou, D.*; Arenholz, E.*; N'Diaye, A. T.*; Tan, A.*; 内田 健一*; 佐藤 浩司*; 岡本 聡*; Tserkovnyak, Y.*; et al.
Nature Communications (Internet), 7, p.12670_1 - 12670_6, 2016/08
Spin fluctuation and transition have always been one of the central topics of magnetism and condensed matter science. Experimentally, the spin fluctuation is found transcribed onto scattering intensity in the neutron-scattering process, which is represented by dynamical magnetic susceptibility and maximized at phase transitions. Importantly, a neutron carries spin without electric charge, and therefore it can bring spin into a sample without being disturbed by electric energy. However, large facilities such as a nuclear reactor are necessary. Here we show that spin pumping, frequently used in nanoscale spintronic devices, provides a desktop microprobe for spin transition; spin current is a flux of spin without an electric charge and its transport reflects spin excitation. We demonstrate detection of antiferromagnetic transition in ultra-thin CoO films via frequency-dependent spin-current transmission measurements, which provides a versatile probe for phase transition in an electric manner in minute devices.
Hou, D.*; Qiu, Z.*; 井口 亮*; 佐藤 浩司*; Vehstedt, E. K.*; 内田 健一*; Bauer, G. E. W.*; 齊藤 英治
Nature Communications (Internet), 7, p.12265_1 - 12265_6, 2016/07
Applying magnetic fields has been the method of choice to magnetize non-magnetic materials, but they are difficult to focus. The magneto-electric effect and voltage-induced magnetization generate magnetization by applied electric fields, but only in special compounds or heterostructures. Here we demonstrate that a simple metal such as gold can be magnetized by a temperature gradient or magnetic resonance when in contact with a magnetic insulator by observing an anomalous Hall-like effect, which directly proves the breakdown of time-reversal symmetry. Such Hall measurements give experimental access to the spectral spin Hall conductance of the host metal, which is closely related to other spin caloritronics phenomena such as the spin Nernst effect and serves as a reference for theoretical calculation.
Yagmur, A.*; 軽部 修太郎*; 内田 健一*; 近藤 浩太*; 井口 亮*; 吉川 貴史*; 大谷 義近*; 齊藤 英治
Applied Physics Letters, 108(24), p.242409_1 - 242409_4, 2016/06
The longitudinal spin Seebeck effect (SSE) in Bi O/Cu/yttrium-iron-garnet (YIG) devices has been investigated. When an out-of-plane temperature gradient is applied to the BiO/Cu/YIG device, a spin current is generated across the Cu/YIG interface via the SSE and then converted into electric voltage due to the spinO/Cu interface. The sign of the SSE voltage in the BiO/Cu/YIG devices is opposite to that induced by the conventional inverse spin Hall effect in Pt/YIG devices. The SSE voltage in the BiO/Cu/YIG devices disappears in the absence of the BiOlayer and its thermoelectric conversion efficiency is independent of the Cu thickness, indicating the important role of the BiO/Cu interface. This result demonstrates that not only the bulk inverse spin Hall effect but also the spin-orbit coupling near the interface can be used for SSE-based thermoelectric generation.
吉川 貴史*; 内田 健一*; 大門 俊介*; 齊藤 英治
Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, 85(6), p.065003_1 - 065003_2, 2016/06
The spin Seebeck effect (SSE) in a Pt-film/YFeO (YIG)-slab junction system has been investigated at low temperatures and under various magnetic fields in the longitudinal configuration. We found that, by increasing applied magnetic fields, the SSE signal gradually decreases and converges to zero without showing sign reversal. The complete field-induced suppression of the SSE is interpreted in terms of the effect of the Zeeman gap in magnon excitation.
桐原 明宏*; 近藤 幸一*; 石田 真彦*; 井原 和紀*; 岩崎 悠真*; 染谷 浩子*; 松葉 明日華*; 内田 健一*; 齊藤 英治; 山本 直治*; et al.
Scientific Reports (Internet), 6, p.23114_1 - 23114_7, 2016/03
Ramos, R.*; 吉川 貴史*; Aguirre, M.*; Lucas, I.*; Anadn, A.*; 小宅 教文*; 内田 健一*; 安立 裕人; 塩見 淳一郎*; Algarabel, P. A.*; et al.
Physical Review B, 92(22), p.220407_1 - 220407_5, 2015/12
Spin Seebeck effects have been investigated in highly crystalline magnetic multilayer films. Voltage as well as power generated by the spin Seebeck effect were found to be significantly enhanced with increasing the number of layers, . This voltage enhancement defies the simple understanding of the spin Seebeck effect and suggests that spin current flowing between the magnetic layers in the thickness direction plays an important role in the multilayer SSE systems and the observed voltage enhancement.
内田 健一*; 吉川 貴史*; 関 剛斎*; 小宅 教文*; 塩見 淳一郎*; Qiu, Z.*; 高梨 弘毅*; 齊藤 英治
Physical Review B, 92(9), p.094414_1 - 094414_6, 2015/09
The anomalous Nernst effect (ANE) has been investigated in alternately stacked multilayer films comprising paramagnetic and ferromagnetic metals. We found that the ANE is enhanced by increasing the number of the paramagnet/ferromagnet interfaces and keeping the total thickness of the films constant, and that the enhancement appears even in the absence of magnetic proximity effects; similar behavior was observed not only in Pt/Fe multilayers but also in Au/Fe and Cu/Fe multilayers free from proximity ferromagnetism. This universal enhancement of the ANE in metallic multilayers suggests the presence of unconventional interface-induced thermoelectric conversion in the Fe films attached to the paramagnets.
Qiu, Z.*; Hou, D.*; 吉川 貴史*; 内田 健一*; 齊藤 英治
Applied Physics Express, 8(8), p.083001_1 - 083001_3, 2015/08
We report the observation of longitudinal spin Seebeck effects (LSSEs) in an all-oxide bilayer system comprising an IrO film and an YFeO film. Spin currents, which are generated by a temperature gradient across the IrO/YFeO interface, were detected as a voltage via the inverse spin Hall effect in the conductive IrO layer. This voltage is proportional to the magnitude of the temperature gradient; its magnetic field dependence is consistent with the characteristics of LSSEs. This demonstration may lead to the realization of low-cost, stable, transparent spin-current-driven thermoelectric devices.
関 剛斎*; 内田 健一*; 吉川 貴史*; Qiu, Z.*; 齊藤 英治; 高梨 弘毅*
Applied Physics Letters, 107(9), p.092401_1 - 092401_4, 2015/08
We experimentally observed the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) of ferromagnetic FePt alloys. Spin Seebeck effect due to the temperature gradient generated the spin current () in the FePtYFeO (YIG) structure, and was injected from YIG to FePt and converted to the charge current through ISHE of FePt. The significant difference in magnetization switching fields for FePt and YIG led to the clear separation of the voltage of ISHE from that of anomalous Nernst effect in FePt. We also investigated the effect of ordering of FePt crystal structure on the magnitude of ISHE voltage in FePt.