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荒木 康史; 三澤 貴宏*; 野村 健太郎*

Physical Review Research (Internet), 2(2), p.023195_1 - 023195_11, 2020/05

We theoretically manifest that the edge of a quantum spin Hall insulator (QSHI), attached to an insulating ferromagnet (FM), can realize a highly efficient spin-to-charge conversion. Based on a one-dimensional QSHI-FM junction, the electron dynamics on the QSHI edge is analyzed, driven by a magnetization dynamics in the FM. Under a large gap opening on the edge from the magnetic exchange coupling, we find that the spin injection into the QSHI edge gets suppressed while the charge current driven on the edge gets maximized, demanded by the band topology of the one-dimensional helical edge states.

塩見 雄毅*; 野村 健太郎*; 梶原 瑛祐*; 江藤 数馬*; Novak, M.*; 瀬川 耕司*; 安藤 陽一*; 齊藤 英治

Physical Review Letters, 113(19), p.196601_1 - 196601_5, 2014/11

被引用回数：177 パーセンタイル：0.88(Physics, Multidisciplinary)We report successful spin injection into the surface states of topological insulators by using a spin pumping technique. By measuring the voltage that shows up across the samples as a result of spin pumping, we demonstrate that a spin-electricity conversion effect takes place in the surface states of bulk-insulating topological insulators BiSbTeSe and Sn-doped BiTeSe. In this process, the injected spins are converted into a charge current along the Hall direction due to the spin-momentum locking on the surface state.

佐野 雄一; 新井 健太郎*; 桜井 孝二*; 柴田 淳広*; 野村 和則*; 青嶋 厚*

JNC-TN8400 2000-032, 98 Pages, 2000/12

再処理プロセスへの晶析工程の導入時に必要となる高濃度U溶液の調製、さらにはその際の有効な手法の一つである粉体化燃料を対称とした溶解に関連し、U濃度が最大800g/Lまでの領域におけるUO2粉末の溶解挙動を明らかとすることを目的として、溶解挙動に及ぼす最終U濃度、溶解温度、初期硝酸濃度、粉末粒径及び燃料形態の影響について評価を行った。また、得られた結果をもとに高濃度溶解時における照射済MOX燃料の溶解挙動について評価を行い、晶析工程への高HM濃度溶液供給の可能性について検討を行った。試験の結果、最終U濃度、粉末粒径の増大及び溶解温度、初期硝酸濃度の減少に伴う溶解性の低下が認められた。さらに、UO2粉末及びUO2ペレットの高濃度溶解時においても、最終U濃度が溶解度に対して十分低い(U濃度/溶解度約0.8)溶解条件下では、fragmentationモデルに基づいた既報の評価式によりその溶解挙動の予測が可能であることを確認した。晶析工程への高HM濃度溶液(500g/L)供給の可能性については、従来の燃料剪断片を用いた溶解では、高HM濃度の溶液を得ることが困難(溶解時間が大幅に増加する)であるが、燃料を粉体化することにより速やかに高HM濃度溶液を得ることができるとの見通しを得た。粉体化した燃料の溶解時に懸念される溶解初期のオフガスの急激な発生は溶解条件を考慮することによりある程度回避できるものと考えられ、今後オスガス処理工程の最大処理能力を踏まえた上で溶解条件の最適化を進めることが重要となる。

荒木 康史; 三澤 貴宏*; 野村 健太郎*

no journal, ,

We present our theoretical work on spin pumping into a two-dimensional (2D) quantum spin Hall inslator (QSHI). Recent theories and experiments have demonstrated the QSHI phase in a monolayer of transition metal dichalcogenide 1T'-WTe2, which can be easily engineered in contrast to traditionally-known HgTe/CdTe and InAs/GaSb quantum wells. While the theory of spin pumping is well established in normal metals by focusing on the spin-dependent electron scattering at the interface, it is unreliable for topologically nontrivial interfaces in such systems. In the present work, we consider a junction of a ferromagnet and a 2D QSHI at its 1D edge, and demonstrate the pumping of angular momentum from the spin-precessing ferromagnet into the QSHI. Using the Floquet theory for the electrons on the helical edge states, we analytically show that the time-periodic precession of the magnetization drives a charge current on the edge, for the whole range of precession frequency. This edge current can be regarded as a consequence of the inverse spin Hall effect intrinsic to the QSHI, which converts the injected spin current into a transverse charge current. By varying the precession frequency of the magnetization and the coupling strength at the junction, we find a clear crossover between two regimes: the adiabatic regime, where the slow magnetization precession drives a quantized pumping, and the resonant regime, where the fast precession leads to a suppressed pumping. We also incorporate the effect of orbital dependence in the exchange coupling at the edge, and show numerically that it shifts the crossover point between the adiabatic and resonant regimes.

荒木 康史; 三澤 貴宏*; 野村 健太郎*

no journal, ,

The two-dimensional quantum spin Hall insulator (2D QSHI) is the most primitive but quite important realization of topological insulator. It shows the helical edge states protected by time-reversal symmetry, whereas the quantized spin Hall conductivity in the bulk. In the present work, we theoretically investigate the spin pumping from a precessing ferromagnet into a 2D QSHI thoroughly from the adiabatic to nonadiabatic regimes, both analytically and numerically. We analytically treat the dynamics of the edge-state electrons coupled to the precessing ferromagnet by the Floquet theory, and derive the pumped current as a function of the exchange energy and the precession frequency. We find that a heat bath for the edge electrons governs the transition between the adiabatic and nonadiabatic regime: when the edge electrons are coupled with a heat bath, their spin and energy can dissipate into the bath by a certain rate, eventually reaching a periodic steady state. The pumped current on the becomes quantized when the exchange energy exceeds the dissipation rate. We also calculate the edge current numerically on the 2D lattice model, and find that the bulk states in the QSHI effectively serves as the heat bath for the edge electrons.

荒木 康史; 三澤 貴宏*; 野村 健太郎*

no journal, ,

We present our theoretical work on spin pumping into a two-dimensional (2D) quantum spin Hall inslator (QSHI). QSHI is a topological insulator in 2D exhibiting gapless helical edge stats, which are responsible for the quantized spin Hall conductivity. Recent theories and experiments have demonstrated the QSHI phase in a monolayer of transition metal dichalcogenide 1T'-WTe2, which can be easily engineered in contrast to traditionally-known HgTe/CdTe and InAs/GaSb quantum wells. While the theory of spin pumping is well established in normal metals by focusing on the spin-dependent electron scattering at the interface, it is unreliable for topologically nontrivial interfaces in such systems. In the present work, we consider a junction of a ferromagnet and a 2D QSHI at its 1D edge, and demonstrate the pumping of angular momentum from the spin-precessing ferromagnet into the QSHI. Using the Floquet theory for the electrons on the helical edge states, we analytically show that the time-periodic precession of the magnetization drives a charge current on the edge, for the whole range of precession frequency. This edge current can be regarded as a consequence of the inverse spin Hall effect intrinsic to the QSHI, which converts the injected spin current into a transverse charge current. By varying the precession frequency of the magnetization and the coupling strength at the junction, we find a clear crossover between two regimes: the adiabatic regime, where the slow magnetization precession drives a quantized pumping, and the resonant regime, where the fast precession leads to a suppressed pumping. We also incorporate the effect of orbital dependence in the exchange coupling at the edge, and show numerically that it shifts the crossover point between the adiabatic and resonant regimes.

荒木 康史; 三澤 貴宏*; 野村 健太郎*

no journal, ,

We present our theoretical work on dynamical spin-to-charge conversion at the edge of a quantum spin Hall insulator (QSHI), namely a two-dimensional topological insulator with helical edge states. Interconversion between spin- and charge-related quantities has been a key idea in making use of magnetic materials, especially in the context of spintronics. QSHI is a typical system showing a universal charge-to-spin conversion behavior, namely the quantum spin Hall effect, whereas the spin-to-charge conversion therein is still not clearly understood. At a lateral heterojunction of a ferromagnet (FM) and a QSHI, it has been theoretically demonstrated that magnetization dynamics induces a charge current along the edge of QSHI; however, its mechanism from the viewpoint of spin-to-charge conversion still remains to be clarified. In order to understand the spin transfer and the spin-to-charge conversion mechanism in QSHI, we investigate the many-body dynamics of the electrons under the magnetization dynamics at the QSHI-FM junction. We analytically treat the electron dynamics in terms of the Floquet-Keldysh formalism, and compare two physical quantities present on the edge: the spin injection rate from the FM into the QSHI, and the charge current induced along the edge. Whereas the edge current seen in the previous works is reproduced, we find that it is not proportional to the spin injection rate, especially when the exchange interaction at the junction is strong enough. This relation implies that the spin-to-charge conversion in this system cannot be considered as the inverse spin Hall effect, while it can be rather seen as the inverse Edelstein effect, in which an electron spin accumulation at the junction is converted to a charge current. We also focus on the energy transfer at the junction, and interpret this phenomenon in terms of magnon exchange.

荒木 康史; 三澤 貴宏*; 野村 健太郎*

no journal, ,

We present our theoretical work on dynamical spin-to-charge conversion at the edge of a quantum spin Hall insulator (QSHI), namely a two-dimensional topological insulator with helical edge states. Interconversion between spin- and charge-related quantities has been a key idea in making use of magnetic materials, especially in the context of spintronics. QSHI is a typical system showing a universal charge-to-spin conversion behavior, namely the quantum spin Hall effect, whereas the spin-to-charge conversion therein is still not clearly understood. We here investigate the many-body dynamics of the electrons under the magnetization dynamics at the QSHI-ferromagnet (FM) junction. We analytically treat the electron dynamics in terms of the Floquet-Keldysh formalism, and compare the spin injection rate from the FM into the QSHI and the charge current induced along the edge. Whereas the edge current seen in the previous works is reproduced, we find that it is not proportional to the spin injection rate, especially when the exchange interaction at the junction is strong enough. This relation implies that the spin-to-charge conversion in this system cannot be considered as the inverse spin Hall effect, while it can be rather seen as the inverse Edelstein effect.