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論文

Nano-meter size modification of metal surfaces induced by soft X-ray laser single pulse

石野 雅彦; Faenov, A.*; 田中 桃子; Pikuz, T.; 保 智己*; 長谷川 登; 錦野 将元; Starikov, S. V.*; Stegailov, V. V.*; Norman, G.*; et al.

X-Ray Lasers 2012; Springer Proceedings in Physics, Vol.147, p.121 - 124, 2014/00

 パーセンタイル:100

We show experimentally the possibility of the precise nano-meter size surface structuring of metal surfaces induced by ultra low fluencies of pico-second soft X-ray laser single pulse. After irradiation processes, we observed the modified surfaces to understand the interactions between the soft X-ray laser pulses and various materials by a scanning electron microscope. The formations of unique modified structures caused by irradiations of the soft X-ray laser pulses were seen. On Al surface, the formations of conical structures were observed in the shallow features. On Au surface, the ripple-like structures were observed. The atomistic model of ablation is developed that reveals the ultra-low threshold fluency values of this process. Calculated ablation depth as a function of irradiation fluency is in good agreement with the experimental data presented as well as with the existing data on optical ablation. Our results will open new opportunities for nano-meter size processing for metal surfaces.

論文

Nano-meter scale modifications on material surfaces induced by soft X-ray laser pulse irradiations

石野 雅彦; Faenov, A.*; 田中 桃子; 保 智己*; Pikuz, T.; 長谷川 登; 錦野 将元; Inogamov, N.*; Skobelev, I.*; Fortov, V.*; et al.

Proceedings of SPIE, Vol.8849, p.88490F_1 - 88490F_8, 2013/09

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:31.68

To study the interactions between soft X-ray laser (SXRL) beam and material surfaces, we irradiated the SXRL beam pulses having a wavelength of 13.9 nm and duration of 7 ps to Al, Au, Cu, and Si. Irradiated surfaces were observed using SEM and AFM. With single pulse irradiation, the formation of conical structures was observed on Al, and ripple-like structures were formed on Au and Cu. The conical structures on Al surface were destroyed under the multiple SXRL pulse exposures, but it was confirmed that the development of modified structures was observed after multiple pulse exposures on the Au and Cu surfaces. On the Si surface, deep holes that seemed to be melted structures induced by the accumulation of multiple pulses of irradiations were found. It was concluded that SXRL beam irradiation of various material surfaces causes different types of surface modifications, and the changes in the surface behaviors are attributed to the differences in the elemental properties, such as the melting points and the attenuation length of X-ray photons.

論文

X-ray spectroscopy diagnoses of clusters surviving under prepulses of ultra-intense femtosecond laser pulse irradiation

Faenov, A. Ya.*; Skobelev, I. Yu.*; Pikuz, T.; Pikuz, S. A.*; Fortov, V. E.*; 福田 祐仁; 林 由紀雄; Pirozhkov, A. S.; 小瀧 秀行; 下村 拓也; et al.

Laser and Particle Beams, 30(3), p.481 - 488, 2012/09

 被引用回数:7 パーセンタイル:59.31(Physics, Applied)

It is shown that various spectroscopic methods based on measurements of X-ray spectra radiated from cluster targets can be used for estimation of the destruction degree of clusters by laser prepulses. These methods allow answering the important issue of preservation of the dense cluster core at the moment of the arrival of the main laser pulse. In addition, they can be used for quantitative estimation of the size of the undestroyed parts of the clusters and also for measuring the temperature and density of the preplasmas produced by the laser prepulses.

論文

Interaction of soft X-ray laser pulse radiation with aluminum surface; Nano-meter size surface modification

石野 雅彦; Faenov, A.*; 田中 桃子; 長谷川 登; 錦野 将元; 保 智己*; Pikuz, S.*; Inogamov, N. A.*; Zhakhovsky, V. V.*; Skobelev, I.*; et al.

AIP Conference Proceedings 1465, p.236 - 240, 2012/07

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:43.3

軟X線レーザーによるアブレーション過程の理解を目的として、アルミニウム表面に軟X線レーザーを集光照射した。照射痕を走査型電子顕微鏡で観察したところ、アブレーション構造とは異なる表面改質領域が形成されていることがわかった。この表面改質領域には、ナノメートルオーダーの直径を持つ円錐状構造が多数形成されている。また、円錐状構造が形成されている改質領域は、照射した軟X線レーザーの浸入長に一致する深さであるこことも確認した。軟X線レーザーによるアルミニウム表面に形成される改質構造は、新規のナノ構造形成プロセスとしても興味深い。このX線レーザーとアルミニウム表面との相互作用によって形成される改質領域については、理論計算により提唱されている破砕的モデルで説明することができる。

論文

The Spectra of the multicharged argon hollow ions; Observation, modeling and using for diagnostics of the early stage of the heating of clusters by a supper high contrast femtosecond laser pulses

Pikuz, T.; Faenov, A.*; Skobelev, I.*; Fortov, V. E.*; Boldarev, A.*; Gasilov, V.*; Chen, L. M.*; Zhang, L.*; Yan, W.*; Yuan, D.*; et al.

AIP Conference Proceedings 1465, p.181 - 201, 2012/07

 パーセンタイル:100

A study is made of the ultra-short laser pulse irradiation of Ar cluster targets. Experiments have been performed with large cluster sizes and using very high laser contrasts, which have allowed clear and unambiguous observation of exotic inner-shell transitions in near-neutral Ar ions. The interaction of the main laser pulse with the unperturbed target is a necessary requirement for observing these lines. Our measurements are supported by kinetics calculations in which a very detailed atomic model is used. X-ray spectral methods have been proposed to determine the parameters of the appearing plasma at the early stages of its evolution. It has been shown that the spectra of hollow ions are the most informative in the first moments of the heating of a cluster, whereas the diagnostics of the late stages can be performed using the conventional lines of multicharged ions.

論文

Nanomodification of gold surface by picosecond soft X-ray laser pulse

Norman, G.*; Starikov, S.*; Stegailov, V.*; Fortov, V.*; Skobelev, I.*; Pikuz, T.; Faenov, A.*; 保 智己*; 加藤 義章*; 石野 雅彦; et al.

Journal of Applied Physics, 112(1), p.013104_1 - 013104_8, 2012/07

 被引用回数:32 パーセンタイル:14.2(Physics, Applied)

It was shown experimentally the possibility of nanostructuring (about 20 nm) of gold surface by picosecond soft X-ray single pulse with low fluence of 20 mJ/cm$$^{2}$$. The nanometer-scale changes of the surface structure are due to the splash of molten gold under fluence gradient of the laser beam. In addition, the ablation process occurs at slightly higher fluence of 50 mJ/cm$$^{2}$$. The atomistic model of ablation is developed that reveals that the low threshold fluence of this process is due to the build-up of the high electron pressure and the comparatively low electron-ion energy relaxation rate in gold.

論文

Ablation of insulators under the action of short pulses of X-ray plasma lasers and free-electron lasers

Inogamov, N. A.*; Anisimov, S. I.*; Petrov, Y. V.*; Khokhlov, V. A.*; Zhakhovskii, V. V.*; Faenov, A. Ya.*; Pikuz, T.; Fortov, V. E.*; Skobelev, I. Y.*; 加藤 義章*; et al.

Journal of Optical Technology, 78(8), p.473 - 480, 2011/08

 被引用回数:3 パーセンタイル:76.06(Optics)

An experimental and theoretical study has been carried out of the ablation of a solid insulator with a wide band gap (LiF) under the action of ultrashort laser pulses of the UV range, obtained in a free-electron laser, and the soft X-ray region, obtained in a silver-plasma laser. A comparison is made of the results obtained on the two laser systems. It is shown that the ablation threshold is about the same for both lasers. A theory is presented that explains the weak growth of the ablation mass with increasing surface energy density of the laser radiation (the fluence) in the case of X-ray lasers as a result of the transition from spallation close to the ablation threshold to evaporative ablation at high fluence values.

論文

Two-temperature warm dense matter produced by ultrashort Extreme Vacuum Ultraviolet-Free Electron Laser (EUV-FEL) pulse

Inogamov, N. A.*; Faenov, A. Ya.*; Zhakhovsky, V. V.*; Pikuz, T. A.*; Skobelev, I. Yu.*; Petrov, Y. V.*; Khokhlov, V. A.*; Shepelev, V. V.*; Anisimov, S. I.*; Fortov, V. E.*; et al.

Contributions to Plasma Physics, 51(5), p.419 - 426, 2011/06

 被引用回数:17 パーセンタイル:28.8(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

極短パルス,極端紫外自由電子レーザー(EUV-FEL)パルス(波長:50nm,パルス幅:100fs)をフッ化リチウム(LiF)のような誘電体に照射することで、結晶状態にあるLiFの破砕現象を初めて観測した。低フルーエンスの場合ではLiFの破砕現象が起こり、これがLiFの低いアブレーション閾値の原因となっていることを明らかにした。同様の現象は、ピコ秒パルスの関西光科学研究所X線レーザー装置を用いた実験でも観測されている。この破砕現象は、ナノ秒パルスのX線レーザー装置では観測されておらず、フェムト$$sim$$ピコ秒パルス特有の現象であることをモデル計算から明らかにした。

論文

Laser ablation of gold; Experiment and atomistic simulation

Starikov, S. V.*; Stegailov, V. V.*; Norman, G. E.*; Fortov, V. E.*; 石野 雅彦; 田中 桃子; 長谷川 登; 錦野 将元; 大場 俊幸*; 海堀 岳史; et al.

JETP Letters, 93(11), p.642 - 647, 2011/04

 被引用回数:22 パーセンタイル:20.85(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

The interaction of radiation of a picosecond X-ray laser (wavelength $$lambda$$ = 13.9 nm) with targets made of a thick gold film has been studied theoretically and experimentally. It has been shown experimentally that the action of individual X-ray laser pulses with a fluence of $$F$$ $${approx}$$ 21 mJ/cm$$^{2}$$ initiates the nanostructuring of the gold surface. Explicitly taking into account the electron subsystem, we have proposed an atomistic model of ablation that makes it possible to adequately described the experimental results. The atomistic simulation involves the ion-ion potential depending on the electron temperature $$T$$$$_{e}$$. The use of such a potential makes it possible to take into account an increase in the pressure in the system with increasing $$T$$$$_{e}$$ and to reveal two laser ablation mechanisms.

論文

Nanoscale surface modifications and formation of conical structures at aluminum surface induced by single shot exposure of soft X-ray laser pulse

石野 雅彦; Faenov, A. Ya.*; 田中 桃子; 長谷川 登; 錦野 将元; 保 智己*; Pikuz, T. A.*; Inogamov, N. A.*; Zhakhovskii, V. V.*; Skobelev, I. Yu.*; et al.

Journal of Applied Physics, 109(1), p.013504_1 - 013504_6, 2011/01

 被引用回数:30 パーセンタイル:17.1(Physics, Applied)

軟X線レーザーによるアブレーション過程の理解を目的として、アルミニウム表面に軟X線レーザーを照射した。照射痕を走査型電子顕微鏡で観察したところ、アブレーション構造とは異なる微細構造(改質領域)が形成されていることを確認した。この領域には70-150nmの直径を持つ円錐状の構造物が多数確認できる。また、円錐構造は平均深さ約40nmの改質領域中に形成されていることもわかった。しかし、軟X線レーザーを複数回照射した領域の円錐構造は、成長することなく破壊されていることがわかった。今回得られた結果は、軟X線レーザーによるアブレーション過程の理解だけでなく、軟X線レーザーの微細加工への応用にも重要な知見を与えると考えられる。

論文

Spallative ablation of dielectrics by X-ray laser

Inogamov, N. A.*; Zhakhovsky, V. V.*; Faenov, A. Ya.*; Khokhlov, V. A.*; Shepelev, V. V.*; Skobelev, I. Y.*; 加藤 義章*; 田中 桃子; Pikuz, T. A.*; 岸本 牧; et al.

Applied Physics A, 101(1), p.87 - 96, 2010/10

 被引用回数:26 パーセンタイル:22.49(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

A short laser pulse in wide range of wavelengths, from infrared to X-ray, disturbs electron-ion equilibrium and increases pressure in a heated layer. The case where the pulse duration $$tau$$$$_{L}$$ is shorter than acoustic relaxation time $$t$$$$_{s}$$ is considered. It is shown that this short pulse may cause thermomechanical phenomena such as spallative ablation regardless of wavelength. While the physics of electron-ion relaxation strongly depends on wavelength and various electron spectra of substances. There are spectra with an energy gap in semiconductors and dielectrics opposed to gapless continuous spectra in metals. The paper describes entire sequence of thermomechanical processes from expansion, nucleation, foaming, and nanostructuring to spallation with particular attention to spallation by X-ray pulse.

論文

Interaction of short laser pulses in wavelength range from infrared to X-ray with metals, semiconductors, and dielectrics

Inogamov, N. A.*; Faenov, A. Ya.*; Zhakhovskii, V. V.*; Skobelev, I. Y.*; Khokhlov, V. A.*; 加藤 義章*; 田中 桃子; Pikuz, T. A.*; 岸本 牧; 石野 雅彦; et al.

Contributions to Plasma Physics, 51(4), p.361 - 366, 2010/05

 被引用回数:15 パーセンタイル:32.91(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

Laser-matter interaction is defined by an electric band structure of condensed matter and frequency of electromagnetic radiation. The thermalization processes are different for optical as compared with X-ray quanta and for metals relative to semiconductors and dielectrics, since the light absorption and electron-electron, electron-ion dynamics are sensitive to the electron population in a conduction band and the width of a forbidden gap. Although the thermalization processes are different, the final state is simply a heated matter. Laser heating creates powerful stresses in a target if duration of laser pulse $$tau$$$$_{L}$$ is short in acoustic time scale. Nucleation and material removal take place under such stresses. Such way of removal is called here the spallative ablation. Thus the spallative ablation is an ablation mechanism universally important for qualitatively different materials and quanta.

口頭

Low-threshold ablation of dielectrics irradiated by picosecond soft X-ray laser pulses; Observation and modeling

Faenov, A. Y.; Pikuz, T. A.*; Inogamov, N. A.*; Zhakhovski, V.*; Khokhlov, V.*; Anisimov, S. I.*; Fortov, V. E.*; 加藤 義章*; 福田 祐仁; 田中 桃子; et al.

no journal, , 

The results of theoretical and experimental studies of ablation of LiF crystal by X-ray beam having photons with 89.3 eV and very short duration of pulse 7 ps are presented. It is found that the crater is formed for fluencies above the threshold 10 mJ/cm$$^{2}$$. Such a small threshold is one order of magnitude less than the one obtained for X-ray ablation by longer (nanoseconds) pulses. The theory explains this dramatic difference as a change-over from more energy consuming evaporative ablation to spallative ablation, when the pulse duration decreases from ns to ps time ranges.

口頭

Observation and modeling ablation threshold features of dielectrics irradiated by ultrashort pulses of soft X-ray transient collisional and free electron lasers

Inogamov, N. A.*; Faenov, A. Y.; Pikuz, T.*; Zhakhovski, V.*; Skobelev, I.*; Khokhlov, V.*; Anisimov, S. I.*; Fortov, V. E.*; 福田 祐仁; 加藤 義章*; et al.

no journal, , 

The results of theoretical and experimental studies of ablation of LiF crystal by X-ray laser and FEL beams having photons with 89.3 eV and 20 eV with very short duration of pulse 7 ps and 300 fs are presented. It is found that the crater is formed for fluencies above the threshold Fabl about 10 mJ/cm$$^{2}$$: Such a small threshold is one order of magnitude less than the one obtained for X-ray ablation by longer (nanoseconds) pulses. The theory explains this dramatic difference as a change-over from more energy consuming evaporative ablation to spallative ablation, when the pulse duration decreases from ns to ps time ranges. We demonstrate that tensile stress created in dielectrics by short X-ray pulse can produce spallative ablation of target even for drastically small X-ray fluencies, which open new opportunities for material nano processing.

口頭

Low-threshold ablation of dielectrics irradiated by ultrashort pulses of soft X-ray transient collisional and free electron lasers; Observation and modeling

Faenov, A. Y.; Pikuz, T.*; Inogamov, N. A.*; Zhakhovski, V.*; Skobelev, I.*; Khokhlov, V.*; Anisimov, S. I.*; Fortov, V. E.*; 福田 祐仁; 加藤 義章*; et al.

no journal, , 

Theoretical and experimental studies of ablation of LiF crystal by X-ray laser and FEL beams were provided. It was found a very low ablation threshold for both types of irradiation. Such a small threshold is one order of magnitude less than the one obtained for X-ray ablation by longer (nanoseconds) pulses or 2 orders smaller than arradiated by fs visible pulses. The theory explains this dramatic difference as a change-over from more energy consuming evaporative ablation to spallative ablation, when the pulse duration decreases from ns to ps time ranges.

口頭

軟X線レーザーを集光照射した金属表面の観察

石野 雅彦; Faenov, A.*; 田中 桃子; 長谷川 登; 錦野 将元; 保 智己*; Pikuz, T. A.*; Inogamov, N. A.*; Zhakhovsky, V. V.*; Skobelev, I. Y.*; et al.

no journal, , 

軟X線レーザーによるアブレーションの理解を目的として、アルミニウム表面に軟X線レーザーを照射した。その照射痕を走査型電子顕微鏡で観察したところ、アブレーションとは異なる微細構造を持つ改質領域が形成されていることを確認した。この領域にはナノメートルオーダーの直径を持つ円錐状の構造物が多数確認できる。そして、この改質領域は軟X線レーザー波長の侵入長さと等しい深さを持つことも確認した。今回得られた結果は、軟X線レーザーによるアブレーション過程の理解だけでなく、軟X線レーザーの微細加工への応用にも重要な知見を与えるものと考えている。発表では、アルミニウムだけでなく、他物質を用いた観察結果も示す予定である。

口頭

Soft X-ray laser single picosecond pulse nanomodification of metal surfaces

Pikuz, T.; Faenov, A.*; 石野 雅彦; Starikov, S. V.*; Stegailov, V. V.*; Norman, G.*; Fortov, V.*; Skobelev, I.*; 保 智己*; 加藤 義章*; et al.

no journal, , 

We show experimentally the possibility of the precise nanostructuring of aluminum and gold surfaces by ultra low fluencies of single picosecond soft X-ray laser pulse. The atomistic model of ablation is developed that reveals the ultra-low threshold fluency values of this process to be an effect of the high electronic pressure build-up and the comparatively low electron-ion energy relaxation rates. Our modeling show that relatively slow electron-ionic relaxation in such metals results in maintaining of the high electron pressure in the near surface region for several picoseconds, that is sufficiently long for the development of the hydrodynamic response that causes the negative pressure region formation and the nanostructuring of a thin surface layer. Calculated ablation depth as a function of irradiation fluency is in good agreement with the experimental data presented as well as with the existing data on optical ablation.

口頭

High-resolution X-ray spectroscopy diagnostics of early heating stage of clusters by high contrast femtosecond laser pulse

Faenov, A.*; Pikuz, T.; Skobelev, I.*; Fortov, V.*; Colgan, J.*; Abdallah, J. Jr.*; 福田 祐仁; 林 由紀雄; Pirozhkov, A. S.; 川瀬 啓悟*; et al.

no journal, , 

A study is made of the ultra-short laser pulse irradiation of Ar and CO$$_{2}$$ cluster targets. Experiments have been performed with large cluster sizes and using a variety of laser pulse durations and laser contrasts. Using very high laser contrasts of the J-KAREN laser facility allowed carrying out clear and unambiguous observation of exotic hollow ions of Ar and inner-shell transitions in near-neutral Ar ions and used them for diagnostics of early heating stage. Observation of asymmetric shapes of spectral lines of Oxygen ions also allowed to do diagnstics of early heating stage of custers irradiated by high contrast ultra-intense fs laser pulses.

口頭

プラズマX線レーザーの発生と物質アブレーション

錦野 将元; 石野 雅彦; Faenov, A.*; 田中 桃子; Pikuz, T.; Starikov, S. V.*; Vladimir, V.*; Norman, G.*; Fortov, V.*; Skobelev, I.*; et al.

no journal, , 

近年、軟X線から硬X線領域における加速器ベースのX線自由電子レーザー開発が国内外で急速に進展している。プラズマ軟X線レーザーでは通常のレーザーと同様に特定の準位間で反転分布を生成することでコヒーレント光を発生する。このようなコヒーレントX線源開発研究において時間的にも空間的にも高コヒーレンスで繰り返し発生が可能な軟X線レーザーが開発され、応用研究が開始されている。軟X線は可視光よりも高密度プラズマに対する透過力が高いことから、プラズマ研究用のプローブ光源としての利用が主な用途であったが、近年では、可視光よりも波長が短く、かつ硬X線よりも物質に対する浸入深さが小さいという特徴を活かして、物質表面の精密計測の光源として利用されるようになり、また軟X線レーザーによる微細加工に関して、アルミニウムや金等の金属表面に軟X線レーザーを照射し、X線レーザーアブレーションによって生成される表面微細構造研究を展開している。軟X線レーザーアブレーション生成や生成されたナノメートルスケールの微細構造について講演を行う。また、同様に軟X線レーザーを生物細胞に照射したときに生じる放射線生物影響についても述べる。

口頭

Splash-melting nano-meter size modification of metal surfaces induced by soft X-ray laser single pulse

石野 雅彦; Faenov, A. Ya.*; 田中 桃子; Pikuz, T.; 保 智己*; 長谷川 登; 錦野 将元; Starikov, S. V.*; Stegailov, V. V.*; Norman, G. E.*; et al.

no journal, , 

Laser ablation has many technological applications in material micro-meter size processing and fabrication of nano-structures. We show experimentally the possibility of the precise nano-meter size surface structuring of metal aluminum (Al) and gold (Au) surfaces induced by ultra low fluencies of pico-second soft X-ray laser (SXRL) single pulse. The spatially coherent SXRL beam was generated from the silver (Ag) plasma mediums using oscillator-amplifier configuration with Ag double targets. The generated SXRL pulse had the wavelength of 13.9 nm and the duration of 7 ps. On Al surface, the formations of conical structures were observed in the shallow features. On Au surface, the ripple-like structures were observed. The atomistic model of surface modifications is developed that reveals the ultra-low threshold fluency values of this process and suggests it as a splash-melting regime. Our results will open new opportunities for nano-meter size processing for metal surfaces.

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