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論文

Competitive strengthening between dislocation slip and twinning in cast-wrought and additively manufactured CrCoNi medium entropy alloys

Woo, W.*; Kim, Y. S.*; Chae, H. B.*; Lee, S. Y.*; Jeong, J. S.*; Lee, C. M.*; Won, J. W.*; Na, Y. S.*; 川崎 卓郎; Harjo, S.; et al.

Acta Materialia, 246, p.118699_1 - 118699_13, 2023/03

 被引用回数:4 パーセンタイル:96.25(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

In situ neutron diffraction experiments have been performed under loading in cast-wrought (CW) and additively manufactured (AM) equiatomic CoCrNi medium-entropy alloys. The diffraction line profile analysis correlated the faulting-embedded crystal structure to the dislocation density, stacking/twin fault probability, and stacking fault energy as a function of strain. The results showed the initial dislocation density of 1.8$$times$$10$$^{13}$$ m$$^{-2}$$ in CW and 1.3$$times$$10$$^{14}$$ m$$^{-2}$$ in AM. It significantly increased up to 1.3$$times$$10$$^{15}$$ m-$$^{-2}$$ in CW and 1.7$$times$$10$$^{15}$$ m$$^{-2}$$ in AM near fracture. The dislocation density contributed to the flow stress of 470 MPa in CW and 600 MPa in AM, respectively. Meanwhile, the twin fault probability of CW (2.7%) was about two times higher than AM (1.3%) and the stacking fault probability showed the similar tendency. The twinning provided strengthening of 360 MPa in CW and 180 MPa in AM. Such a favorable strengthening via deformation twinning in CW and dislocation slip in AM was attributed to the stacking fault energy. It was estimated as 18.6 mJ/m$$^{2}$$ in CW and 37.5 mJ/m$$^{2}$$ in AM by the strain field of dislocations incorporated model. Dense dislocations, deformation twinning, and atomic-scale stacking structure were examined by using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

論文

Multiple deformation scheme in direct energy deposited CoCrNi medium entropy alloy at 210K

Kim, Y. S.*; Chae, H.*; Woo, W.*; Kim, D.-K.*; Lee, D.-H.*; Harjo, S.; 川崎 卓郎; Lee, S. Y.*

Materials Science & Engineering A, 828, p.142059_1 - 142059_10, 2021/11

 被引用回数:9 パーセンタイル:80.76(Nanoscience & Nanotechnology)

CoCrNi medium entropy alloy (MEA) and stainless steel 316L (SS316L) were manufactured by direct energy deposition of additive manufacturing (DED-AM). Exceptional mechanical properties of DED CoCrNi at 210K were achieved by the activities of a multiple deformation scheme that changed from dislocation slip to twinning-induced plasticity followed by transformation-induced plasticity. While SS316L at room temperature has micro-twins, CoCrNi at 210K exhibited nano-twins, resulting from lower stacking fault energy. Moreover, transformed hexagonal close-packed (HCP) phases were found near the face-centered cubic (FCC) {111} grain boundaries, where remarkable stacking faults and severe lattice distortion were measured.

論文

Effect of the difference in strength of hard and soft components on the synergetic strengthening of layered materials

Kim, J. G.*; Bae, J. W.*; Park, J. M.*; Woo, W.*; Harjo, S.; Lee, S.*; Kim, H. S.*

Metals and Materials International, 27(2), p.376 - 383, 2021/02

 被引用回数:6 パーセンタイル:44.47(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

Heterogeneous structured materials achieve a combination of high strength and extreme ductility due to synergetic strengthening driven by conditions in the interfacial region. Although the origin of synergetic strengthening has been revealed to be strain incompatibility in the interfacial region, the effect of the strength difference between hard and soft phases on strengthening has not been investigated well. In the work reported in the present paper, the effect of the difference in strength of the hard and soft phases on synergetic strengthening was investigated by conducting in situ neutron diffraction tensile tests. As a result, it was determined that the dislocation density in a layered sheet of high Mn (HMn) steel/interstitial free (IF) steel is higher than that in a layered sheet of HMn/low carbon steel. The big difference in mechanical properties between HMn steel and IF steel induces a high stress gradient and results in additional dislocations.

論文

Comparison of dislocation density, twin fault probability, and stacking fault energy between CrCoNi and CrCoNiFe medium entropy alloys deformed at 293 and 140K

Woo, W.*; Naeem, M.*; Jeong, J.-S.*; Lee, C.-M.*; Harjo, S.; 川崎 卓郎; He, H.*; Wang, X.-L.*

Materials Science & Engineering A, 781, p.139224_1 - 139224_7, 2020/04

 被引用回数:32 パーセンタイル:93.93(Nanoscience & Nanotechnology)

To elucidate deformation behavior behind the exceptional mechanical properties of CrCoNi based medium entropy alloys, the deformation related microstructural parameters were determined by using in situ neutron diffraction and peaks profile analysis methods. Superior tensile strength and elongation of the CrCoNi alloy is relevant to higher twin fault probability ($$P_{tw}$$, up to 3.8%) and dislocation density ($$rho$$, up to 9.7 $$times$$ 10$$^{15}$$ m$$^{-2}$$) compared to those (1.3% and 3.4 $$times$$ 10$$^{15}$$ m$$^{-2}$$, respectively) of the CrCoNiFe at 293K. Meanwhile, at 140K, the $$P_{tw}$$ of the CrCoNiFe significantly increased up to 4.4% with the stable $$rho$$ of $$sim$$5.0 $$times$$ 10$$^{15}$$ m$$^{-2}$$ and its mechanical properties overwhelm those of the CrCoNi at 273K. Such twinning dominant deformation mechanism at low temperature is also assured by lower stacking fault energy (SFE) of the CrCoNiFe at 140K compared to those of the CrCoNi and CrCoNiFe alloys at 293K.

論文

On the phase transformation and dynamic stress-strain partitioning of ferrous medium-entropy alloy using experimentation and finite element method

Bae, J. W.*; Jung, J.*; Kim, J. G.*; Park, J. M.*; Harjo, S.; 川崎 卓郎; Woo, W.*; Kim, H. S.*

Materialia, 9, p.100619_1 - 100619_15, 2020/03

In the present study, an integrated experimental-numerical analysis on ferrous medium-entropy alloy (FMEA) was conducted to understand the micromechanical response of the constituent phases in the FMEA at -137$$^{circ}$$C. The initial face-centered cubic (FCC) single phase microstructure of the FMEA was transformed to body-centered cubic (BCC) martensite during tensile deformation at -137$$^{circ}$$C, resulting in improved low-temperature mechanical properties. The microstructure evolution due to deformation-induced phase transformation mechanism and strain partitioning behavior was analyzed using ${it ex situ}$ electron backscatter diffraction. The mechanical responses related to the stress partitioning between constituent phases and deformation-induced transformation rate were measured using ${it in situ}$ neutron diffraction in combination with the nanoindentation analysis.

論文

Stacking fault energy analyses of additively manufactured stainless steel 316L and CrCoNi medium entropy alloy using in situ neutron diffraction

Woo, W.*; Jeong, J.-S.*; Kim, D.-K.*; Lee, C. M.*; Choi, S.-H.*; Suh, J.-Y.*; Lee, S. Y.*; Harjo, S.; 川崎 卓郎

Scientific Reports (Internet), 10(1), p.1350_1 - 1350_15, 2020/01

 被引用回数:54 パーセンタイル:94.7(Multidisciplinary Sciences)

Stacking fault energies (SFE) were determined in additively manufactured (AM) stainless steel (SS 316 L) and equiatomic CrCoNi medium-entropy alloys. In situ neutron diffraction was performed to obtain a number of faulting-embedded diffraction peaks simultaneously from a set of (hkl) grains during deformation. The peak profiles diffracted from imperfect crystal structures were analyzed to correlate stacking fault probabilities and mean-square lattice strains to the SFE. The result shows that averaged SFEs are 32.8 mJ/m$$^2$$ for the AM SS 316 L and 15.1 mJ/m$$^2$$ for the AM CrCoNi alloys. Meanwhile, during deformation, the SFE varies from 46 to 21 mJ/m$$^2$$ (AM SS 316 L) and 24 to 11 mJ/m$$^2$$ (AM CrCoNi) from initial to stabilized stages, respectively. The transient SFEs are attributed to the deformation activity changes from dislocation slip to twinning as straining.

論文

Plastic anisotropy and deformation-induced phase transformation of additive manufactured stainless steel

Chae, H.*; Huang, E.-W.*; Jain, J.*; Wang, H.*; Woo, W.*; Chen, S.-W.*; Harjo, S.; 川崎 卓郎; Lee, S. Y.*

Materials Science & Engineering A, 762, p.138065_1 - 138065_10, 2019/08

 被引用回数:37 パーセンタイル:92.27(Nanoscience & Nanotechnology)

Plastic anisotropy and deformation-induced phase transformation of additively manufactured (AM) stainless steels were investigated via in-situ neutron diffraction, electron backscatter diffraction, metallography, and fractography. Two types of tensile specimens were manufactured: (1) One sample was vertically fabricated with its tensile axis parallel to the z-direction (AM-V), (2) The other sample was horizontally fabricated with its tensile axis perpendicular to the z-direction (AM-H). A commercial 15-5PH stainless steel (CA) was used for comparison. AM steel revealed enhanced yield strength, tensile strength, and uniform elongation over CA, which was mainly due to grain refinement and transformation induced plasticity (TRIP). Different onsets of strain nonlinearity between AM-V and AM-H were closely related to martensitic phase transformation.

論文

Synergetic strengthening of layered steel sheet investigated using an ${it in situ}$ neutron diffraction tensile test

Kim, J. G.*; Bae, J. W.*; Park, J. M.*; Woo, W.*; Harjo, S.; Chin, K.-G.*; Lee, S.*; Kim, H. S.*

Scientific Reports (Internet), 9, p.6829_1 - 6829_7, 2019/05

 被引用回数:10 パーセンタイル:46.84(Multidisciplinary Sciences)

Synergetic strengthening induced by plastic strain incompatibility at the interface, and the resulting extra geometrically necessary dislocations (GNDs) generated during plastic deformation, were investigated to understand the origin of extra strength in heterogeneous structured (Hs) materials. The mechanism of extra GND generation in twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP)-interstitial free (IF) steel layered sheet was quantitatively analyzed by conducting ${it in situ}$ neutron scattering tensile test. The extra GNDs can be correlated with the back-stress evolution of the HS materials, which contributes to the strength of layered materials. Because of the back-stress evolution caused by load partitioning, the strength of TWIP-IF layered steel is higher than the strength estimated by the rule-of-mixtures.

論文

${it In situ}$ neutron diffraction study of phase stress evolution in a ferrous medium-entropy alloy under low-temperature tensile loading

Bae, J. W.*; Kim, J. G.*; Park, J. M.*; Woo, W.*; Harjo, S.; Kim, H. S.*

Scripta Materialia, 165, p.60 - 63, 2019/05

 被引用回数:20 パーセンタイル:79.39(Nanoscience & Nanotechnology)

Phase stress evolution of face-centered cubic (FCC) and deformation-induced body-centered cubic (BCC) phases was measured in recently developed ferrous medium-entropy alloy. This was done during tensile deformation at -137$$^{circ}$$C using ${it in situ}$ neutron diffraction measurement for the quantitative interpretation of the role of martensitic transformation on the improved low-temperature tensile properties. The strain-hardening rate curve exhibits two-stage hardening behavior, and the phase stress and stress contribution from the BCC phase increases significantly while that from FCC phase decreases during plastic deformation. This is a direct demonstration that BCC phase contributes significantly to the increase in strength and strain hardening.

論文

Residual stresses in steel rod with collar formed by partial diameter-enlarging technique

福田 晃二郎*; 友田 陽*; Harjo, S.; Gong, W.*; Woo, W.*; Seong, B. S.*; 桑原 義孝*; 生田 文昭*

Materials Science and Technology, 33(2), p.172 - 180, 2017/01

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

Residual stress distribution in a carbon steel component with collar manufactured by partial diameter-enlarging (PDE) process was evaluated using the angular dispersion and time-of-flight neutron diffraction methods in the interior and X-ray diffraction method at the surface of the collar. The residual stresses in the PDE specimen were smaller compared with those of a specimen with the similar shape and dimension made by a simple compression (SC) process. The hoop residual stress varied from -98 to 2 MPa around the circumference at the surface of the collar in the PDE specimen, whereas it was nearly constant in the SC one. The residual stresses in the central region of the both specimens were nearly in a hydrostatic compressive stress condition.

論文

Spontaneous decays of magneto-elastic excitations in non-collinear antiferromagnet (Y,Lu)MnO$$_{3}$$

Oh, J.*; Le, M. D.*; Nahm, H.-H.*; Sim, H.*; Jeong, J.*; Perring, T. G.*; Woo, H.*; 中島 健次; 河村 聖子; Yamani, Z.*; et al.

Nature Communications (Internet), 7, p.13146_1 - 13146_6, 2016/10

 被引用回数:53 パーセンタイル:86.59(Multidisciplinary Sciences)

(Y,Lu)MnO$$_{3}$$において、磁気励起とフォノンが結合する磁気弾性励起を中性子散乱により観測し、その量子的振る舞いを調べた。

論文

OECD/NEA expert group on uncertainty analysis for criticality safety assessment; Current activities

Ivanova, T.*; Fernex, F.*; Kolbe, E.*; Vasiliev, A.*; Lee, G. S.*; Woo, S. W.*; Mennerdahl, D.*; 長家 康展; Neuber, J. C.*; Hoefer, A.*; et al.

Proceedings of International Conference on Physics of Reactors; Advances in Reactor Physics to Power the Nuclear Renaissance (PHYSOR 2010) (CD-ROM), 15 Pages, 2010/05

臨界安全関連トピックスの情報交換の促進,不確定性解析のための手法とツールの比較,性能評価,臨界計算妥当性評価のための安全で効率的な手法の選択/開発の支援を目的として、2007年12月、臨界安全に関するOECD/NEAのワーキングパーティにおいて、臨界安全評価のための不確定性解析に関する専門家グループを発足した。現段階では、本グループは臨界計算の妥当性評価手法に着目している。その手法の多様化に伴い、各手法について詳細に調査し、性能評価することは、臨界安全コミュニティにとって有益である。また、これらの手法を評価する人,使用を考えている人,開発者にとっても有益である。フェーズIとして、類似性評価,$$k_mathit{eff}$$バイアスの定義,バイアスの不確定性,類似体系の選択を含む妥当性評価手法についてベンチマーク計算により比較した。手法の説明とベンチマーク結果は、妥当性評価手法の現状レポートとしてまとめる予定である。本論文では、専門家グループの現在と将来の活動、現在用いられている妥当性評価手法,フェーズIベンチマーク結果について報告する。

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