Yoshida, Masafumi; Hanada, Masaya; Kojima, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Grisham, L. R.*; Hatayama, Akiyoshi*; Shibata, Takanori*; Yamamoto, Takashi*; Akino, Noboru; Endo, Yasuei; et al.
Fusion Engineering and Design, 96-97, p.616 - 619, 2015/10
In JT-60 Super Advanced for the fusion experiment, 22A, 100s negative ions are designed to be extracted from the world largest ion extraction area of 450 mm 1100 mm. One of the key issues for producing such as high current beams is to improve non-uniform production of the negative ions. In order to improve the uniformity of the negative ions, a tent-shaped magnetic filter has newly been developed and tested for JT-60SA negative ion source. The original tent-shaped filter significantly improved the logitudunal uniformity of the extracted H ion beams. The logitudinal uniform areas within a 10 deviation of the beam intensity were improved from 45% to 70% of the ion extraction area. However, this improvement degrades a horizontal uniformity. For this, the uniform areas was no more than 55% of the total ion extraction area. In order to improve the horizontal uniformity, the filter strength has been reduced from 660 Gasuscm to 400 Gasuscm. This reduction improved the horizontal uniform area from 75% to 90% without degrading the logitudinal uniformity. This resulted in the improvement of the uniform area from 45% of the total ion extraction areas. This improvement of the uniform area leads to the production of a 22A H ion beam from 450 mm 1100 mm with a small amount increase of electron current of 10%. The obtained beam current fulfills the requirement for JT-60SA.
Kojima, Atsushi; Umeda, Naotaka; Hanada, Masaya; Yoshida, Masafumi; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Tobari, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Akino, Noboru; Komata, Masao; Mogaki, Kazuhiko; et al.
Nuclear Fusion, 55(6), p.063006_1 - 063006_9, 2015/06
Significant progresses in the extension of pulse durations of powerful negative ion beams have been made to realize the neutral beam injectors for JT-60SA and ITER. In order to overcome common issues of the long pulse production/acceleration of negative ion beams in JT-60SA and ITER, the new technologies have been developed in the JT-60SA ion source and the MeV accelerator in Japan Atomic Energy Agency. As for the long pulse production of high-current negative ions for JT-60SA ion source, the pulse durations have been successfully increased from 30 s at 13 A on JT-60U to 100 s at 15 A by modifying the JT-60SA ion source, which satisfies the required pulse duration of 100 s and 70% of the rated beam current for JT-60SA. This progress was based on the R&D efforts for the temperature control of the plasma grid and uniform negative ion productions with the modified tent-shaped filter field configuration. Moreover, the each parameter of the required beam energy, current and pulse has been achieved individually by these R&D efforts. The developed techniques are useful to design the ITER ion source because the sustainment of the cesium coverage in large extraction area is one of the common issues between JT-60SA and ITER. As for the long pulse acceleration of high power density beams in the MeV accelerator for ITER, the pulse duration of MeV-class negative ion beams has been extended by more than 2 orders of magnitude by modifying the extraction grid with a high cooling capability and a high-transmission of negative ions. A long pulse acceleration of 60 s has been achieved at 70 MW/m (683 keV, 100 A/m) which has reached to the power density of JT-60SA level of 65 MW/m.
Akino, Noboru; Endo, Yasuei; Hanada, Masaya; Kawai, Mikito*; Kazawa, Minoru; Kikuchi, Katsumi*; Kojima, Atsushi; Komata, Masao; Mogaki, Kazuhiko; Nemoto, Shuji; et al.
JAEA-Technology 2014-042, 73 Pages, 2015/02
According to the project plan of JT-60 Super Advanced that is implemented as an international project between Japan and Europe, the neutral beam (NB) injectors have been disassembled. The disassembly of the NB injectors started in November, 2009 and finished in January, 2012 without any serious problems as scheduled. This reports the disassembly activities of the NB injectors.
Ikeda, Yoshitaka; Okano, Fuminori; Sakasai, Akira; Hanada, Masaya; Akino, Noboru; Ichige, Hisashi; Kaminaga, Atsushi; Kiyono, Kimihiro; Kubo, Hirotaka; Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; et al.
Nihon Genshiryoku Gakkai Wabun Rombunshi, 13(4), p.167 - 178, 2014/12
The JT-60U torus was disassembled so as to newly install the superconducting tokamak JT-60SA torus. The JT-60U used the deuterium for 18 years, so the disassembly project of the JT-60U was the first disassembly experience of a fusion device with radioactivation in Japan. All disassembly components were stored with recording the data such as dose rate, weight and kind of material, so as to apply the clearance level regulation in future. The lessons learned from the disassembly project indicated that the cutting technologies and storage management of disassembly components were the key factors to conduct the disassembly project in an efficient way. After completing the disassembly project, efforts have been made to analyze the data for characterizing disassembly activities, so as to contribute the estimation of manpower needs and the radioactivation of the disassembly components on other fusion devices.
Ikeda, Yoshitaka; Okano, Fuminori; Hanada, Masaya; Sakasai, Akira; Kubo, Hirotaka; Akino, Noboru; Chiba, Shinichi; Ichige, Hisashi; Kaminaga, Atsushi; Kiyono, Kimihiro; et al.
Fusion Engineering and Design, 89(9-10), p.2018 - 2023, 2014/10
Disassembly of the JT-60U torus was started in 2009 after 18-years D operations, and was completed in October 2012. The JT-60U torus was featured by the complicated and welded structure against the strong electromagnetic force, and by the radioactivation due to D-D reactions. Since this work is the first experience of disassembling a large radioactive fusion device in Japan, careful disassembly activities have been made. About 13,000 components cut into pieces with measuring the dose rates were removed from the torus hall and stored safely in storage facilities by using a total wokers of 41,000 person-days during 3 years. The total weight of the disassembly components reached up to 5,400 tons. Most of the disassembly components will be treated as non-radioactive ones after the clearance verification under the Japanese regulation in future. The assembly of JT-60SA has started in January 2013 after this disassembly of JT-60U torus.
Yoshida, Masafumi; Hanada, Masaya; Kojima, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Grisham, L. R.*; Akino, Noboru; Endo, Yasuei; Komata, Masao; Mogaki, Kazuhiko; Nemoto, Shuji; et al.
Review of Scientific Instruments, 85(2), p.02B314_1 - 02B314_4, 2014/02
Non-uniformity of the negative ion beams in the JT-60 negative ion source was improved by modifying an external magnetic field to a tent-shaped magnetic field for reduction of the local heat loads in the source. Distributions of the source plasmas (H ions and H atoms) of the parents of H ions converted on the cesium covered plasma grids were measured by Langmuir probes and emission spectroscopy. Beam intensities of the H ions extracted from the plasma grids were measured by IR camera from the back of the beam target plate. The tent-shaped magnetic field prevented the source plasmas to be localized by B grad B drift of the primary electrons emitted from the filaments in the arc chamber. As a result, standard derivation of the H ions beams was reduced from 14% (the external magnetic field) to 10% (the tent-shaped magnetic field) without reduction of an activity of the H ion production.
Yoshida, Masafumi; Hanada, Masaya; Kojima, Atsushi; Inoue, Takashi; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Grisham, L. R.*; Akino, Noboru; Endo, Yasuei; Komata, Masao; Mogaki, Kazuhiko; et al.
Plasma and Fusion Research (Internet), 8(Sp.1), p.2405146_1 - 2405146_4, 2013/11
Distributions of H and H in the source plasmas produced at the end-plugs of JT-60 negative ions source were measured by Langmuir probes and emission spectroscopy in order to experimentally investigate the cause of lower density of the negative ions extracted from end-plugs in the source. Densities of H and H in end-plugs of the plasma grid in the source were compared with those in the center regions. As a result, lower density of the negative ion at the edge was caused by lower beam optics due to lower and higher density of the H and H.
Hanada, Masaya; Kojima, Atsushi; Tanaka, Yutaka; Inoue, Takashi; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Taniguchi, Masaki; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Tobari, Hiroyuki; Umeda, Naotaka; Akino, Noboru; et al.
Fusion Engineering and Design, 86(6-8), p.835 - 838, 2011/10
Neutral beam (NB) injectors for JT-60 Super Advanced (JT-60SA) have been designed and developed. Twelve positive-ion-based and one negative-ion-based NB injectors are allocated to inject 30 MW D beams in total for 100 s. Each of the positive-ion-based NB injector is designed to inject 1.7 MW for 100s at 85 keV. A part of the power supplies and magnetic shield utilized on JT-60U are upgraded and reused on JT-60SA. To realize the negative-ion-based NB injector for JT-60SA where the injection of 500 keV, 10 MW D beams for 100s is required, R&Ds of the negative ion source have been carried out. High-energy negative ion beams of 490-500 keV have been successfully produced at a beam current of 1-2.8 A through 20% of the total ion extraction area, by improving voltage holding capability of the ion source. This is the first demonstration of a high-current negative ion acceleration of 1 A to 500 keV. The design of the power supplies and the beamline is also in progress. The procurement of the acceleration power supply starts in 2010.
Hanada, Masaya; Kojima, Atsushi; Inoue, Takashi; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Taniguchi, Masaki; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Tobari, Hiroyuki; Umeda, Naotaka; Akino, Noboru; Kazawa, Minoru; et al.
AIP Conference Proceedings 1390, p.536 - 544, 2011/09
no abstracts in English
Kojima, Atsushi; Hanada, Masaya; Tanaka, Yutaka*; Kawai, Mikito*; Akino, Noboru; Kazawa, Minoru; Komata, Masao; Mogaki, Kazuhiko; Usui, Katsutomi; Sasaki, Shunichi; et al.
Nuclear Fusion, 51(8), p.083049_1 - 083049_8, 2011/08
Hydrogen negative ion beams of 490 keV, 3 A and 510 keV, 1 A have been successfully produced in the JT-60 negative ion source with three acceleration stages. These successful productions of the high-energy beams at high current have been achieved by overcoming the most critical issue, i.e., a poor voltage holding of the large negative ion sources with the grids of 2 m for JT-60SA and ITER. To improve voltage holding capability, the breakdown voltages for the large grids was examined for the first time. It was found that a vacuum insulation distance for the large grids was 6-7 times longer than that for the small-area grid (0.02 m). From this result, the gap lengths between the grids were tuned in the JT-60 negative ion source. The modification of the ion source also realized a significant stabilization of voltage holding and a short conditioning time. These results suggest a practical use of the large negative ion sources in JT-60SA and ITER.
Kojima, Atsushi; Hanada, Masaya; Tanaka, Yutaka*; Kawai, Mikito*; Akino, Noboru; Kazawa, Minoru; Komata, Masao; Mogaki, Kazuhiko; Usui, Katsutomi; Sasaki, Shunichi; et al.
Proceedings of 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference (FEC 2010) (CD-ROM), 8 Pages, 2011/03
Hydrogen negative ion beams of 490keV, 3A and 510 keV, 1A have been successfully produced in the JT-60 negative ion source with three acceleration stages. These successful productions of the high-energy beams at high current have been achieved by overcoming the most critical issue, i.e., a poor voltage holding of the large negative ion sources with the grids of 2 m for JT-60SA and ITER. To improve voltage holding capability, the breakdown voltages for the large grids was examined for the first time. It was found that a vacuum insulation distance for the large grids was 6-7 times longer than that for the small-area grid (0.02 m). From this result, the gap lengths between the grids were tuned in the JT-60 negative ion source. The modification of the ion source also realized a significant stabilization of voltage holding and a short conditioning time. These results suggest a practical use of the large negative ion sources in JT-60 SA and ITER.
Hanada, Masaya; Akino, Noboru; Endo, Yasuei; Inoue, Takashi; Kawai, Mikito; Kazawa, Minoru; Kikuchi, Katsumi; Komata, Masao; Kojima, Atsushi; Mogaki, Kazuhiko; et al.
Journal of Plasma and Fusion Research SERIES, Vol.9, p.208 - 213, 2010/08
A large negative ion source with an ion extraction area of 110 cm 45 cm has been developed to produce 500 keV, 22 A D ion beams required for JT-60 Super Advanced. To realize the JT-60SA negative ion source, the JT-60 negative ion source has been modified and tested on the negative-ion-based neutral beam injector on JT-60U. A 500 keV H ion beam has been produced at 3 A without a significant degradation of beam optics. This is the first demonstration of a high energy negative ion acceleration of more than one-ampere to 500 keV in the world. The beam current density of 90 A/m is being increased to meet 130 A/m of the design value for JT-60SA by tuning the operation parameters. A long pulse injection of 30 s has been achieved at a injection D power of 3 MW. The injection energy, defined as the product of the injection time and power, reaches 80 MJ by neutralizing a 340 keV, 27 A D ion beam produced with two negative ion sources.
Tanaka, Yutaka; Hanada, Masaya; Kojima, Atsushi; Akino, Noboru; Shimizu, Tatsuo; Oshima, Katsumi; Inoue, Takashi; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Taniguchi, Masaki; Kashiwagi, Mieko; et al.
Review of Scientific Instruments, 81(2), p.02A719_1 - 02A719_3, 2010/02
The JT-60U negative ion source is required to produce 44 A of 500 keV D ion beams for the JT-60SA. So far, acceleration voltage of 450 kV was achieved without beam acceleration and 416 kV with beam acceleration. These are lower than the rated voltage for JT-60SA due to vacuum breakdowns. To examine the cause of vacuum breakdown, the complicated structure of the accelerator was modeled for the calculation of electric field inside the accelerator. At the corners of the grid support flanges, the electric fields are locally concentrated to be 5.2-5.5 kV/mm. This is higher than other parts of the accelerator where the averaged field is around 3 kV/mm. To reduce the concentrated electric field, the support structures were modified to extend the gap lengths between grids. By repeating the high-voltage application of 3 s pulses, the applied voltage was increased. After 15 hours of conditioning, the accelerator sustained its rated value of 500 kV without beam acceleration.
Tanaka, Yutaka; Ikeda, Yoshitaka; Hanada, Masaya; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Kamada, Masaki; Kisaki, Masashi; Akino, Noboru; Yamano, Yasushi*; Kobayashi, Shinichi*; Grisham, L. R.*
IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, 37(8), p.1495 - 1498, 2009/08
Voltage holding capability of the JT-60 negative ion source is limited by surface flashover on the FRP insulator. To improve the voltage holding capability of the ion source, the understanding of the surface flashover is required. In this study, electron energy is estimated by measuring the bremsstrahlung X-ray emitted from an FRP insulator. Energy spectra of X-ray were measured for 3 different positions and compared with those of the vacuum gap between electrodes. Near the anode, X-ray spectrum was dominated by the monoenergetic electron. Near the cathode, spectrum peak shifted to low energy compared with that near the anode. This result showed that a large amount of low energy electrons was generated on the surface of the FRP insulator near the cathode.
Kobayashi, Kaoru; Hanada, Masaya; Akino, Noboru; Sasaki, Shunichi; Ikeda, Yoshitaka; Takahashi, Masahiro*; Yamano, Yasushi*; Kobayashi, Shinichi*; Grisham, L. R.*
IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, 16(3), p.871 - 875, 2009/06
Voltage holding capability of a 500kV, 22A three-stage electrostatic accelerator, where large-area grids of 0.28 m and large FRP insulators of 1.8 m in diameter are used, was examined. High voltage was independently applied to each acceleration stage, where the voltage holding capabilities of 130 kV were obtained. To identify whether the breakdowns occur in the gaps between the grids or the FRP insulators, high voltages were applied to the accelerator with and without the grids. Breakdown voltages without grids, i.e., the FRP insulator itself reached 170 kV of design value for each stage. These results show that the breakdown voltage of the accelerator was mainly determined by the gaps between the large-area grids. In this paper, the influence of non-uniform electric field and multi-stage grids on the voltage holding capabilities was also discussed.
Dairaku, Masayuki; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Tobari, Hiroyuki; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Inoue, Takashi; Sakamoto, Keishi; Hanada, Masaya; Akino, Noboru; Ikeda, Yoshitaka; Yamamoto, Takumi*
JAEA-Technology 2008-091, 23 Pages, 2009/03
A plasma generator whose inner dimensions are 25 cm in width, 59 cm in length, and 31 cm in depth for a high power and long pulse ion source in neutral beam injector has been designed and fabricated. The plasma generator has a beam extraction area of 12 cm in width and 46 cm in length. A target of the output beam using the plasma generator is to produce deuterium positive ion beams up to 120 keV, 65 A for longer than 200 s pulses. Arrangement of the permanent magnets and filaments has been designed by using an electron trajectory simulation code to produce uniform and high density plasma with high proton yield. Cooling channels have been also designed to operate the long pulse plasma generation with a 100 kW arc discharge power.
Kawai, Mikito; Akino, Noboru; Ikeda, Yoshitaka; Ebisawa, Noboru; Honda, Atsushi; Kazawa, Minoru; Kikuchi, Katsumi; Mogaki, Kazuhiko; Noto, Katsuya; Oshima, Katsumi; et al.
JAEA-Technology 2008-069, 32 Pages, 2008/10
The neutral beam injection system for JT-60U consists of positive-ion based type(P-NBI) and negative-ion based type(N-NBI). The reionization losses of neutral beams in the drift ducts of both P-NBI and N-NBI are estimated using the data of ambient pressure and gas flow rate into the beamlines. This system was not enough to obtain detail injection power for a long pulse operation. Modifications of the system to obtain reionization loss for a long pulse operation have been conducted. The new system has a capability to measure the pressures of drift duct during operation. The system can calculate the reionization loss automatically during the pulse from the measured pressure. More acurate injection power can be obtained by this new system.
Ikeda, Yoshitaka; Hanada, Masaya; Kamada, Masaki; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Umeda, Naotaka; Akino, Noboru; Ebisawa, Noboru; Inoue, Takashi; Honda, Atsushi; Kawai, Mikito; et al.
IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, 36(4), p.1519 - 1529, 2008/08
The JT-60SA N-NBI system is required to inject 10 MW for 100 s at 500 keV. Three key issues should be solved for the JT-60SA N-NBI ion source. One is to improve the voltage holding capability. Recent R&D tests suggested that the accelerator with a large area of grids may need a high margin in the design of electric field and a long time for conditioning. The second issue is to reduce the grid power loading. It was found that some beamlets were strongly deflected due to beamlet-beamlet interaction and strike on the grounded grid. The grids are to be designed by taking account of beamlet-beamlet interaction in three-dimensional simulation. Third is to maintain the D- production for 100 s. A simple cooling structure is proposed for the active cooled plasma grid, where a key is the temperature gradient on the plasma grid for uniform D- production. The modified N-NBI ion source will start on JT-60SA in 2015.
Kobayashi, Kaoru; Hanada, Masaya; Kamada, Masaki; Akino, Noboru; Sasaki, Shunichi; Ikeda, Yoshitaka
JAEA-Technology 2008-042, 25 Pages, 2008/06
Breakdown locations of a JT-60U negative ion source were investigated to improve the voltage holding capability. The accelerator is characterized by three acceleration stages with large grids 0.45 m 1.1 m and large FRP insulators 1.8 m in inner diameter. High voltages were applied to each acceleration stage independently. Voltage holding capabilities of each stage were almost the same, 120-130 kV, which was lower than the design acceleration voltage of 167 kV. Then, in order to identify whether the breakdowns occur in the gaps between grids or on the surface of the FRP insulators, high voltages were also applied to the accelerator with the grids and their support flanges removed. The voltage holding capabilities of three FRP insulators rapidly achieved 167 kV. These results indicate that the breakdowns mainly occur in the gaps between the acceleration grids and/or their support flanges.
Kikuchi, Katsumi; Akino, Noboru; Ebisawa, Noboru; Ikeda, Yoshitaka; Seki, Norikazu*; Takenouchi, Tadashi; Tanai, Yutaka
JAEA-Technology 2008-034, 25 Pages, 2008/04
The control system for auxiliary pumping facility and primary water cooling facility in JT-60 NBI was updated. To realize the cost reduction, the control system with many input and outputs of 2000 was updated by JAEA itself using commercial Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC's). JAEA also made software with 3600 ladder lines by JAEA itself based on commercial basic programs. In addition to the simple replacement of the hardware and software, the function of remote operation has been newly added. At present, the auxiliary pumping facility and the primary water cooling facility have been stably operated without troubles. The remote operation enables to collect the detailed information on the trouble more easily, resulting in a quick countermeasure for the trouble.