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3D water management in polymer electrolyte fuel cells toward fuel cell electric vehicles

吉宗 航*; 樋口 雄紀*; 加藤 晃彦*; 日比 章五*; 山口 聡*; 松本 吉弘*; 林田 洋寿*; 野崎 洋*; 篠原 武尚; 加藤 悟*

ACS Energy Letters (Internet), 8(8), p.3485 - 3487, 2023/08

A multiscale water visualization technique for polymer electrolyte fuel cells was established by using ${it operando}$ multiprobe radiography with pulsed spallation neutron and synchrotron X-ray sources. The three-dimensional water distribution revealed that water back-diffusion from the cathode to the anode significantly contributes to the drainability of practical polymer electrolyte fuel cells toward fuel cell electric vehicles.


Neutron imaging of generated water inside polymer electrolyte fuel cell using newly-developed gas diffusion layer with gas flow channels during power generation

那須 三紀*; 谷内 浩*; 平山 尚樹*; 安達 宏法*; 柿澤 優*; 白勢 裕登*; 西山 博道*; 川本 鉄平*; 犬飼 潤治*; 篠原 武尚; et al.

Journal of Power Sources, 530, p.231251_1 - 231251_11, 2022/05

 被引用回数:9 パーセンタイル:88.89(Chemistry, Physical)

To accelerate the spread use of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs), it is essential to increase power density and durability, while reduce costs. We have succeeded in developing an innovative gas diffusion layer (GDL) with gas flow channels (GDLFC$$^{+}$$) fabricated on a flat separator that enabled both cost reduction and high performance. In this study, neutron radiography was used to observe the distribution of liquid water during power generation. With using our GDLs and interdigitated (comb-shaped) gas flow channels, the distributions of liquid water were quantitatively imaged, influenced by the current density, the relative humidity, the oxygen utilization, and the water repellency of the GDL. The increase in linear velocity of the oxidant gases effectively suppressed the retention of liquid water at the cathode.


Tracer diffusion coefficients measurements on LaPO$$_{4}$$-dispersed LATP by means of neutron radiography

Song, F.*; Chen, H.*; 林田 洋寿*; 甲斐 哲也; 篠原 武尚; 薮塚 武史*; 八尾 健*; 高井 茂臣*

Solid State Ionics, 377, p.115873_1 - 115873_6, 2022/04

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:36.22(Chemistry, Physical)

Lithium tracer diffusion coefficients have been measured in Li$$_{1.3}$$Al$$_{0.3}$$Ti$$_{1.7}$$(PO$$_4$$)$$_3$$ (LATP) and LATP - LaPO$$_4$$ composite solid electrolytes in the temperature range between 300$$^{circ}$$C and 500$$^{circ}$$C by means of neutron radiography technique that utilizes the difference in neutron attenuation of $$^6$$Li and $$^7$$Li isotopes. The diffusion coefficient of LATP - LaPO$$_4$$ composite is higher than that of pristine LATP, although the difference is much smaller than that estimated from the room temperature conductivity. This suggests that the bulk diffusion becomes the predominant diffusion mechanism at 300$$^{circ}$$C to 500$$^{circ}$$C instead of the diffusion along the space charge layer formed around the LaPO$$_4$$ dispersants.


Study of neutron-nuclear spin correlation term with a polarized Xe target

酒井 健二; 奥 隆之; 奥平 琢也; 甲斐 哲也; 原田 正英; 廣井 孝介; 林田 洋寿*; 加倉井 和久*; 清水 裕彦*; 広田 克也*; et al.

JPS Conference Proceedings (Internet), 33, p.011116_1 - 011116_6, 2021/03

中性子基礎物理学において、パリティ非保存(PNC)項や時間反転非保存項と干渉する中性子スピン$${bf s}$$と標的核スピン$${bf I}$$の相関項$${bf s}cdot{bf I}$$は重要な研究テーマである。中性子共鳴ピーク付近でPNC項の増大が測定され、スピン交換光ポンピング(SEOP)法により$$sim 10^{-1}$$の偏極が得られるキセノン(Xe)は、本研究にとって興味深い原子核である。我々は小型SEOPシステムを用いた偏極Xe標的を開発し、核破砕中性子源で得られる大強度の熱外中性子ビームを利用した$${bf s}cdot{bf I}$$項の研究を計画している。その第一段階として、我々は$$^{129}$$Xeの9.6eV共鳴ピーク付近でのXe偏極時と非偏極時の中性子透過率比の変化$$Delta R$$を捕らえることで、$${bf s}cdot{bf I}$$項に起因する中性子偏極能力の測定をJ-PARC物質・生命科学実験施設(MLF)のBL10で試みた。実験では、本測定系がドップラーブロードニングの影響($$Delta R_{rm DB} , {approx},10^{-2}$$)を検知できることを実証した上で、初期結果として有意な$$Delta R$$の値を得ている。現在は$$Delta R$$をより詳細に評価するために、核磁気・電子スピン共鳴法によるXe偏極度の導出を進めている。


Development and application of a $$^3$$He neutron spin filter at J-PARC

奥平 琢也; 奥 隆之; 猪野 隆*; 林田 洋寿*; 吉良 弘*; 酒井 健二; 廣井 孝介; 高橋 慎吾*; 相澤 一也; 遠藤 仁*; et al.

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 977, p.164301_1 - 164301_8, 2020/10

 被引用回数:9 パーセンタイル:80.64(Instruments & Instrumentation)

We are developing a neutron polarizer with polarized $$^3$$He gas, referred to as a $$^3$$He spin filter, based on the Spin Exchange Optical Pumping (SEOP) for polarized neutron scattering experiments at Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility (MLF) of Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC). A $$^3$$He gas-filling station was constructed at J-PARC, and several $$^3$$He cells with long spin relaxation times have been fabricated using the gas-filling station. A laboratory has been prepared in the MLF beam hall for polarizing $$^3$$He cells, and compact pumping systems with laser powers of 30 W and 110 W, which can be installed onto a neutron beamline, have been developed. A $$^3$$He polarization of 85% was achieved at a neutron beamline by using the pumping system with the 110 W laser. Recently, the first user experiment utilizing the $$^3$$He spin filter was conducted, and there have been several more since then. The development and utilization of $$^3$$He spin filters at MLF of J-PARC are reported.


Development of event-type neutron imaging detectors at the energy-resolved neutron imaging system RADEN at J-PARC

Parker, J. D.*; 原田 正英; 林田 洋寿*; 廣井 孝介; 甲斐 哲也; 松本 吉弘*; 中谷 健; 及川 健一; 瀬川 麻里子; 篠原 武尚; et al.

Materials Research Proceedings, Vol.15, p.102 - 107, 2020/05

At the RADEN instrument, we take advantage of the accurate measurement of neutron energy by time-of-flight to perform energy-resolved neutron imaging using event-type neutron imaging detectors. We are continually working to improve these detectors for better spatial resolution and shorter measurement times and, as a user facility, to improve the ease-of-use of their control and analysis software. In particular, we are actively developing a $$^{3}$$He-based gaseous micropattern detector known as the Micro-pixel chamber based Neutron Imaging Detector ($$mu$$ NID). We have recently redesigned the $$mu$$ NID control software to allow full integration into the automated experiment control system at RADEN, and we are carrying out optimization of the analysis algorithms for improved image quality and rate performance.


The Energy-resolved neutron imaging system, RADEN

篠原 武尚; 甲斐 哲也; 及川 健一; 中谷 健; 瀬川 麻里子; 廣井 孝介; Su, Y. H.; 大井 元貴; 原田 正英; 飯倉 寛; et al.

Review of Scientific Instruments, 91(4), p.043302_1 - 043302_20, 2020/04

 被引用回数:42 パーセンタイル:96.41(Instruments & Instrumentation)

The energy-resolved neutron imaging system, RADEN, has been installed at the pulsed neutron source in the Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex. In addition to conventional neutron radiography and tomography, RADEN, the world's first imaging beam-line at a pulsed neutron source, provides three main options for new, quantitative neutron imaging techniques: Bragg-edge imaging to visualize the spatial distribution of crystallographic information, resonance absorption imaging for elemental composition and temperature information, and polarized neutron imaging for magnetic field information. This paper describes the results of characterization studies of the neutronic performance and installed devices at RADEN and shows the results of several demonstration studies for pulsed neutron imaging.


An Experimental setup for creating and imaging $$^{4}$$He$$_{2}$$$$^{ast}$$ excimer cluster tracers in superfluid helium-4 via neutron-$$^{3}$$He absorption reaction

Sonnenschein, V.*; 辻 義之*; 國立 將真*; 久保 渉*; 鈴木 颯*; 富田 英生*; 鬼柳 善明*; 井口 哲夫*; 松下 琢*; 和田 信雄*; et al.

Review of Scientific Instruments, 91(3), p.033318_1 - 033318_12, 2020/03

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0(Instruments & Instrumentation)

For the purpose of future visualization of the flow field in superfluid helium-4, clusters of the triplet state excimer $$^{4}$$He$$_{2}$$$$^{ast}$$ are generated along the micro-scale recoil tracks of the neutron-absorption reaction n + $$^{3}$$He $$rightarrow$$ $$^{3}$$T + p. This reaction is induced by neutron irradiation of the $$^{3}$$He fraction contained in natural isotopic abundance liquid helium with neutron beams either from the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex, Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility (J-PARC)/Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility or from the Kyoto University Institute for Integrated Radiation and Nuclear Science. These $$^{4}$$He$$_{2}$$$$^{ast}$$ clusters are expected to be ideal tracers of the normal-fluid component in superfluid helium with several advantageous properties. Evidence of the excimer generation is inferred by detection of laser induced fluorescence emitted from the $$^{4}$$He$$_{2}$$$$^{ast}$$ clusters excited by a purpose-built short pulse gain-switched titanium:sapphire (Ti:sa) laser operating at a wavelength of 905 nm. The setup and performance characteristics of the laser system including the Ti:sa and two continuous wave re-pumping lasers are described. Detection at the fluorescence wavelength of 640 nm is performed by using optical bandpass filtered photomultiplier tubes (PMT). Electrical noise in the PMT acquisition traces could successfully be suppressed by post-processing with a simple algorithm. Despite other laser-related backgrounds, the excimer was clearly identified by its fluorescence decay characteristics. Production of the excimer was found to be proportional to the neutron flux, adjusted via insertion of different collimators into the neutron beam. These observations suggest that the apparatus we constructed does function in the expected manner and, therefore, has the potential for groundbreaking turbulence research with superfluid helium.


Feasibility study of two-dimensional neutron-resonance thermometry using molybdenum in 316 stainless-steel

甲斐 哲也; 廣井 孝介; Su, Y. H.; 瀬川 麻里子; 篠原 武尚; 松本 吉弘*; Parker, J. D.*; 林田 洋寿*; 及川 健一

Materials Research Proceedings, Vol.15, p.149 - 153, 2020/02

A two-dimensional thermometry technique based on neutron resonance reactions derives the temperature of specified elements in an object by analyzing the Doppler broadening of a neutron resonance measured by a time-analyzing neutron imaging-detector. This technique is expected to be one of the important applications of the energy-resolved neutron imaging system, RADEN, at J-PARC. The authors focused on molybdenum contained in 316 stainless-steel (with a weight fraction of 2-3 wt%). Energy-dependent transmitted neutrons were measured through a 3 mm thick 316 stainless-steel plate placed in a heater at temperatures between 23 and 500 degrees Celsius at RADEN using a gas-electron multiplier (GEM) detector. Thermal and cold neutrons were eliminated from the incident beam by a cadmium filter. The sample area within the neutron beam was 30 by 50 mm$$^2$$. The feasibility is discussed in the presentation.


Development of the neutron polarizer for the T-violation search using compound nuclei

奥平 琢也; 奥 隆之; 酒井 健二; 猪野 隆*; 林田 洋寿*; 廣井 孝介; 篠原 武尚; 加倉井 和久*; 相澤 一也; 清水 裕彦*; et al.

Proceedings of Science (Internet), 356, p.029_1 - 029_5, 2019/12




清水 一行*; 林田 洋寿*; 戸田 裕之*; 甲斐 哲也; 松本 吉弘*; 松本 佳久*

日本金属学会誌, 83(11), p.434 - 440, 2019/11

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:6.52(Metallurgy & Metallurgical Engineering)

Neutron imaging experiment was performed to visualize the distribution of solute hydrogen in an Al-10.1%Zn-1.2%Mg alloy and a pure palladium after hydrogen charging. Changes in the contrast of neutron transmission images caused by hydrogen were clearly observed in a palladium. In the wavelength range of 2-3 AA and 5-13.5 AA, the mean neutron transmission around the center of a hydrogen-charged palladium were 0.692 and 0.511, respectively. The hydrogen content in a palladium was estimated to be 10.8 mol% from the measured neutron transmission. This study has demonstrated that hydrogen content can be analyzed by considering the wavelength dependence of neutron intensity. On the other hand, hydrogen could not be observed from the neutron transmission image in Al-Zn-Mg alloys. This was due to the low hydrogen content, which was mass ppm level even after hydrogen charging, and statistical precision was not sufficient to discuss the amount of hydrogen of the mass ppm order.


Generation of $$^{4}$$He$$_2^{*}$$ clusters via neutron-$$^{3}$$He absorption reaction toward visualization of full velocity field in quantum turbulence

松下 琢*; Sonnenschein, V.*; Guo, W.*; 林田 洋寿*; 廣井 孝介; 広田 克也*; 井口 哲夫*; 伊藤 大介*; 北口 雅暁*; 鬼柳 善明*; et al.

Journal of Low Temperature Physics, 196(1-2), p.275 - 282, 2019/07

For flow visualization study of quantum turbulence in superfluid $$^{4}$$He, $$^{4}$$He$$_2^{*}$$ excimers are unique tracers which follow only normal-fluid component flow above 1 K. To generate detectable small $$^{4}$$He$$_2^{*}$$ clouds (clusters) required for full-space velocity field measurements, we have adopted a new method based on neutron absorption reaction of $$^{3}$$He impurities in $$^{4}$$He and conducted proof-of-principle experiments. Generation of the $$^{4}$$He$$_2^{*}$$ excimers was detected by laser-induced fluorescence using photomultiplier tubes. The fluorescence was observed to increase proportionally to the neutron flux, suggesting that a sufficient amount of $$^{4}$$He$$_2^{*}$$ excimers were generated by neutrons. We also estimated the number of $$^{4}$$He$$_2^{*}$$ excimers possibly generated by $$gamma$$-rays and found that the relevant contribution was less than 40%. Thus, the majority of the $$^{4}$$He$$_2^{*}$$ excimers was confirmed to be generated via n-$$^{3}$$He absorption reactions.


Recent progress on practical materials study by Bragg edge imaging at J-PARC

及川 健一; Su, Y.; 鬼柳 亮嗣; 川崎 卓郎; 篠原 武尚; 甲斐 哲也; 廣井 孝介; Harjo, S.; Parker, J. D.*; 松本 吉弘*; et al.

Physica B; Condensed Matter, 551, p.436 - 442, 2018/12

 被引用回数:5 パーセンタイル:31.05(Physics, Condensed Matter)

We are promoting for practical product observation by the energy-resolved neutron imaging method using high-intensity pulsed neutrons at J-PARC, under the Photon and Quantum Basic Research Coordinated Development Program from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan. Bragg edge imaging, one of the energy-resolved neutron imaging methods for visualizing material properties, was applied to feasibility study of the temperature distribution of copper rod, complementary study of the texture and strain distribution of bent steel plates using neutron diffraction and EBSD, and so on. Outline of results obtained by these imaging experiments will be presented.


Study of the magnetization distribution in a grain-oriented magnetic steel using pulsed polarized neutron imaging

廣井 孝介; 篠原 武尚; 林田 洋寿*; Parker, J. D.*; Su, Y.; 及川 健一; 甲斐 哲也; 鬼柳 善明*

Physica B; Condensed Matter, 551, p.146 - 151, 2018/12

 被引用回数:5 パーセンタイル:26.51(Physics, Condensed Matter)

Grain oriented magnetic steel is widely used as a key material for magnetic industrial products. Since magnetic properties of steels are closely related to its magnetic domain structure, observation of the domain structure is important for understanding its magnetic properties. In this study, we attempted to observe the domain structure of a grain oriented steel using polarized pulsed neutron imaging. In the experiment, we first magnetized the sample by applying a magnetic field along the easy-to-magnetize direction via a coil, and confirmed the sample was magnetized almost uniformly from the obtained polarization distribution images. By analyzing the oscillatory behavior in the wavelength dependence of polarization, magnetization of the steel was estimated to be 1.82 T. Then, we removed the field and performed the same measurement. As a result, a striped domain structure was observed, with neighboring domains aligned anti-parallel to each other. From these results, it was demonstrated that our magnetic imaging method could visualize the magnetization and the direction of the domains in the practical steel.


Characteristics of the 2012 model lithium-6 time-analyzer neutron detector (LiTA12) system as a high efficiency detector for resonance absorption imaging

甲斐 哲也; 佐藤 節夫*; 廣井 孝介; Su, Y.; 瀬川 麻里子; Parker, J. D.*; 松本 吉弘*; 林田 洋寿*; 篠原 武尚; 及川 健一; et al.

Physica B; Condensed Matter, 551, p.496 - 500, 2018/12

 被引用回数:2 パーセンタイル:10.66(Physics, Condensed Matter)

The 2012 model lithium-6 time-analyzer neutron detector (LiTA12) system, based on a lithium glass scintillator and multi-anode photomultiplier tube, has the highest neutron efficiency among the detectors for pulsed neutron imaging together with a flexibility of the efficiency by changing the thickness of the lithium glass. The authors expect this detector system could become a main detector system for the energy-resolved neutron imaging system, RADEN, at J-PARC, and have started evaluation of the LiTA12 system. For example, spatial resolution for resonance absorption imaging was evaluated by using a line-pair pattern made by 3 micro meter thick gold on a quartz plate. Less than 1 mm width line pairs were resolved at an 8 Mcps neutron counting rate and around 5 eV neutron energy.


Spatial resolution test targets made of gadolinium and gold for conventional and resonance neutron imaging

瀬川 麻里子; 及川 健一; 甲斐 哲也; 篠原 武尚; 林田 洋寿*; 松本 吉弘*; Parker, J. D.*; 中谷 健; 廣井 孝介; Su, Y.; et al.

JPS Conference Proceedings (Internet), 22, p.011028_1 - 011028_8, 2018/11

We have fabricated and utilized spatial resolution test targets made of gadolinium and gold for conventional and resonance neutron imaging performed at RADEN, located at beam line BL22 of the J-PARC Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility (MLF). RADEN covers a broad energy range from cold neutrons to high-energy neutrons with energy of several tens keV and was designed to perform energy-resolved neutron imaging utilizing two-dimensional detectors combined with the accurate measurement of neutron energy by the time-of-flight method. The test targets were designed to verify the spatial resolution and image uniformity of two kinds of neutron detectors, counting-type detectors and camera-type detectors. In this presentation, we report the details of these two-dimensional test targets, and the results of demonstrations using the test targets with our neutron imaging detectors. This work was supported in part by the Photon and Quantum Basic Research Coordinated Development Program from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan.


Development of a polarization analysis method for visualization of the magnetic field distribution in a small electric transformer using pulsed polarized neutron imaging

廣井 孝介; 篠原 武尚; 林田 洋寿*; Parker, J. D.*; 及川 健一; Su, Y.; 甲斐 哲也; 鬼柳 善明*

JPS Conference Proceedings (Internet), 22, p.011030_1 - 011030_7, 2018/11

We have been developing magnetic imaging method for industrial products using polarized pulsed neutrons. In this presentation, we report observation results of magnetic field distribution in a small electric transformer as a demonstration of our magnetic imaging method. The polarized pulsed neutron imaging experiment was performed at BL22 RADEN at MLF of J-PARC. 9 polarization distribution images were obtained with changing incident polarization and analyzing direction in 3D. By analyzing wavelength dependent polarization position by position, distribution of field strength and direction around the core of the transformer were successfully visualized. Obtained field distribution images were well corresponded with that expected by the simulation and clearly demonstrated a leaked field from the gap of step lap.


Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex, 3; Neutron devices and computational and sample environments

坂佐井 馨; 佐藤 節夫*; 瀬谷 智洋*; 中村 龍也; 藤 健太郎; 山岸 秀志*; 曽山 和彦; 山崎 大; 丸山 龍治; 奥 隆之; et al.

Quantum Beam Science (Internet), 1(2), p.10_1 - 10_35, 2017/09



Reliability estimation of neutron resonance thermometry using tantalum and tungsten

甲斐 哲也; 廣井 孝介; Su, Y.; 篠原 武尚; Parker, J. D.*; 松本 吉弘*; 林田 洋寿*; 瀬川 麻里子; 中谷 健; 及川 健一; et al.

Physics Procedia, 88, p.306 - 313, 2017/06

 被引用回数:4 パーセンタイル:85.49

Neutron resonance thermometry, which measures material temperature by analyzing the Doppler broadening of a neutron resonance peak, is one of the applications of energy-resolved neutron imaging at RADEN of J-PARC. Although this technique is promising, advantages and disadvantages have not been discussed in practical applications. The authors measured neutron transmission rates of tantalum and tungsten foils in a heater chamber up to 300 degrees Celsius at RADEN. The energy-dependent neutron transmission rates with different statistics were obtained after the measurements by selecting arbitrary measuring intervals from one measurement, and the temperatures of the foils were estimated from those transmission rates with different statistics. The reliability of the neutron resonance thermometry with statistical accuracy, irradiation time and spatial resolution are discussed.


Time-of-flight neutron transmission imaging of martensite transformation in bent plates of a Fe-25Ni-0.4C alloy

Su, Y.; 及川 健一; 篠原 武尚; 甲斐 哲也; 廣井 孝介; Harjo, S.; 川崎 卓郎; Gong, W.; Zhang, S. Y.*; Parker, J. D.*; et al.

Physics Procedia, 88, p.42 - 49, 2017/06

 被引用回数:4 パーセンタイル:85.49

The influences of bending deformation and subsequent subzero treatment on the martensite transformation behaviors in a metastable austenitic alloy Fe-25Ni-0.4C were investigated by the time-of-flight (TOF) neutron Bragg-edge transmission (BET) imaging method. Two-dimensional (2D) maps of martensite phase volume fractions and texture variations due to residual stress and lowering the temperature of the bent samples before and after subzero treatment were obtained by Bragg-edge spectral analysis. The obtained phase volume fractions were quantitatively compared with those determined by neutron diffraction.

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