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Journal Articles

Evaluation of power distribution calculation of the very high temperature reactor critical assembly (VHTRC) with Monte Carlo MVP3 code

Simanullang, I. L.*; Nakagawa, Naoki*; Ho, H. Q.; Nagasumi, Satoru; Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Iigaki, Kazuhiko; Fujimoto, Nozomu*

Annals of Nuclear Energy, 177, p.109314_1 - 109314_8, 2022/11

Journal Articles

Calculation of shutdown gamma distribution in the high temperature engineering test reactor

Ho, H. Q.; Ishii, Toshiaki; Nagasumi, Satoru; Ono, Masato; Shimazaki, Yosuke; Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Goto, Minoru; Simanullang, I. L.*; Fujimoto, Nozomu*; Iigaki, Kazuhiko

Nuclear Engineering and Design, 396, p.111913_1 - 111913_9, 2022/09

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Journal Articles

MCNP6 calculation of neutron flux map in the HTTR during normal operation

Ho, H. Q.; Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Iigaki, Kazuhiko

Recent Contributions to Physics, 82(3), p.16 - 20, 2022/09

JAEA Reports

Calculation of nuclear core parameters for HTTR; Report of summer holiday practical training 2021

Isogawa, Hiroki*; Naoi, Motomasa*; Yamasaki, Seiji*; Ho, H. Q.; Katayama, Kazunari*; Matsuura, Hideaki*; Fujimoto, Nozomu*; Ishitsuka, Etsuo

JAEA-Technology 2022-015, 18 Pages, 2022/07

JAEA-Technology-2022-015.pdf:1.37MB

As a summer holiday practical training 2021, the impact of 10 years long-term shutdown on critical control rod position of the HTTR and the delayed neutron fraction ($$beta$$$$_{rm eff}$$) of the VHTRC-1 core were investigated using Monte-Carlo MVP code. As a result, a long-term shutdown of 10 years caused the critical control rods of the HTTR to withdraw about 4.0$$pm$$0.8 cm compared to 3.9 cm in the experiment. The change in critical control rods position of the HTTR is due to the change of some fission products such as $$^{241}$$Pu, $$^{241}$$Am, $$^{147}$$Pm, $$^{147}$$Sm, $$^{155}$$Gd. Regarding the $$beta$$$$_{rm eff}$$ calculation of the VHTRC-1 core, the $$beta$$$$_{rm eff}$$ value is underestimate of about 10% in comparison with the experiment value.

Journal Articles

Design of a portable backup shutdown system for the high temperature gas cooled reactor

Hamamoto, Shimpei; Ho, H. Q.; Iigaki, Kazuhiko; Goto, Minoru; Shimazaki, Yosuke; Sawahata, Hiroaki; Ishitsuka, Etsuo

Nuclear Engineering and Design, 386, p.111564_1 - 111564_8, 2022/01

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The experience of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident caused by the great earthquake that occurred in eastern Japan in 2011 showed the importance of preparing for the loss of function of the engineered safety features. Increasing the strength of equipment to prevent loss of function in an accident is effective, but the possibility of loss of function remains. Therefore, it is important to have an alternative to lost functions in order to put the accident under control early. Thus, this study designed an alternative shutdown system, namely a portable backup shutdown system (PBSS), to make countermeasures in the event of a loss of shutdown function more robust without impairing economic efficiency of the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR). The PBSS is portable and capable of being installed manually so that it can operate in a total loss of off-site electricity. Various neutron absorber materials for the PBSS were also considered from the viewpoints of technical and cost-effective properties. As results of optimization, the boron nitride (BN) was selected as it shows a good neutronic property as well as a reasonable cost in comparison with other materials.

Journal Articles

Study on chemical form of tritium in coolant helium of high temperature gas-cooled reactor with tritium production device

Hamamoto, Shimpei; Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Nakagawa, Shigeaki; Goto, Minoru; Matsuura, Hideaki*; Katayama, Kazunari*; Otsuka, Teppei*; Tobita, Kenji*

Proceedings of 2021 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP 2021) (USB Flash Drive), 5 Pages, 2021/10

Impurity concentrations of hydrogen and hydride in the coolant were investigated in detail for the HTTR, a block type high-temperature gas reactor owned by Japan. As a result, it was found that CH$$_{4}$$ was 1/10 of H$$_{2}$$ concentration, which was under the conventional detection limit. If the ratio of H$$_{2}$$ to CH$$_{4}$$ in the coolant is the same as the ratio of HT to CH$$_{3}$$T, the CH$$_{3}$$T has a larger dose conversion factor, and this compositional ratio is an important finding for the optimal dose evaluation. Further investigation of the origin of CH$$_{4}$$ suggested that CH$$_{4}$$ was produced as a result of a thermal equilibrium reaction rather than being released as an impurity from the core.

Journal Articles

Proposal of evaluation method of graphite incombustibility

Hamamoto, Shimpei; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Iigaki, Kazuhiko; Shimazaki, Yosuke; Ono, Masato; Shimizu, Atsushi; Ishitsuka, Etsuo

Proceedings of 2021 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP 2021) (USB Flash Drive), 6 Pages, 2021/10

Since the HTGR has a large amount of graphite material in the core, it is necessary to assume an accident in which the reactor pressure boundary is damaged and air flows into the core. It is important to state that at the time of this accident, graphite does not burn and the accident does not develop due to the heat of oxidation reaction. Therefore, in this study, in order to evaluate the combustibility of graphite materials, we propose a method to compare the calorific value and heat removal amount of the material. When calculating the calorific value, the structural material of HTTR, a high-temperature gas reactor in Japan, was used as a reference. The amount of air in contact with the structural material is a value determined from the chimney effect. The amount of heat release is the sum of convection and radiation. As a result of comparing the heat generation amount with the heat removal amount, it was shown that the heat release amount was always larger than the heat generation amount. This result shows that the graphite material does not depend on the state at the time of the air inflow accident, the temperature decreases and does not burn. It is important to clearly explain the non-flammability of graphite materials when deciding how to deal with severe accidents in HTGRs. This quantitative evaluation method based on a simple theory is considered useful.

JAEA Reports

Report of summer holiday practical training 2020; Feasibility study on nuclear battery using HTTR core; Feasibility study for nuclear design, 3

Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Mitsui, Wataru*; Yamamoto, Yudai*; Nakagawa, Kyoichi*; Ho, H. Q.; Ishii, Toshiaki; Hamamoto, Shimpei; Nagasumi, Satoru; Takamatsu, Kuniyoshi; Kenzhina, I.*; et al.

JAEA-Technology 2021-016, 16 Pages, 2021/09

JAEA-Technology-2021-016.pdf:1.8MB

As a summer holiday practical training 2020, the feasibility study for nuclear design of a nuclear battery using HTTR core was carried out, and the downsizing of reactor core were studied by the MVP-BURN. As a result, it is clear that a 1.6 m radius reactor core, containing 54 (18$$times$$3 layers) fuel blocks with 20% enrichment of $$^{235}$$U, and BeO neutron reflector, could operate continuously for 30 years with thermal power of 5 MW. Number of fuel blocks of this compact core is 36% of the HTTR core. As a next step, the further downsizing of core by changing materials of the fuel block will be studied.

JAEA Reports

HTTR burnup characteristic analysis with detailed axial burning region using MVP-BURN

Ikeda, Reiji*; Ho, H. Q.; Nagasumi, Satoru; Ishii, Toshiaki; Hamamoto, Shimpei; Nakano, Yumi*; Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Fujimoto, Nozomu*

JAEA-Technology 2021-015, 32 Pages, 2021/09

JAEA-Technology-2021-015.pdf:2.74MB

Burnup calculation of the HTTR considering temperature distribution and detailed burning regions was carried out using MVP-BURN code. The results show that the difference in k$$_{rm eff}$$, as well as the difference in average density of some main isotopes, is insignificant between the cases of uniform temperature and detailed temperature distribution. However, the difference in local density is noticeable, being 6% and 8% for $$^{235}$$U and $$^{239}$$Pu, respectively, and even 30% for the burnable poison $$^{10}$$B. Regarding the division of burning regions to more detail, the change of k$$_{rm eff}$$ is also small of 0.6%$$Delta$$k/k or less. The small burning region gives a detailed distribution of isotopes such as $$^{235}$$U, $$^{239}$$Pu, and $$^{10}$$B. As a result, the effect of graphite reflector and the burnup behavior could be evaluated more clearly compared with the previous study.

Journal Articles

Nuclear data processing code FRENDY; A Verification with HTTR criticality benchmark experiments

Fujimoto, Nozomu*; Tada, Kenichi; Ho, H. Q.; Hamamoto, Shimpei; Nagasumi, Satoru; Ishitsuka, Etsuo

Annals of Nuclear Energy, 158, p.108270_1 - 108270_8, 2021/08

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:53.86(Nuclear Science & Technology)

JAEA Reports

Mesh effect around burnable poison rod of cell model for HTTR fuel block

Fujimoto, Nozomu*; Fukuda, Kodai*; Honda, Yuki*; Tochio, Daisuke; Ho, H. Q.; Nagasumi, Satoru; Ishii, Toshiaki; Hamamoto, Shimpei; Nakano, Yumi*; Ishitsuka, Etsuo

JAEA-Technology 2021-008, 23 Pages, 2021/06

JAEA-Technology-2021-008.pdf:2.62MB

The effect of mesh division around the burnable poison rod on the burnup calculation of the HTTR core was investigated using the SRAC code system. As a result, the mesh division inside the burnable poison rod does not have a large effect on the burnup calculation, and the effective multiplication factor is closer to the measured value than the conventional calculation by dividing the graphite region around the burnable poison rod into a mesh. It became clear that the mesh division of the graphite region around the burnable poison rod is important for more appropriately evaluating the burnup behavior of the HTTR core..

Journal Articles

Preparation for restarting the high temperature engineering test reactor; Development of utility tool for auto seeking critical control rod position

Ho, H. Q.; Fujimoto, Nozomu*; Hamamoto, Shimpei; Nagasumi, Satoru; Goto, Minoru; Ishitsuka, Etsuo

Nuclear Engineering and Design, 377, p.111161_1 - 111161_9, 2021/06

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:30.57(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Journal Articles

Feasibility study on tritium recoil barrier for neutron reflectors of research and test reactors

Kenzhina, I.*; Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Ho, H. Q.; Sakamoto, Naoki*; Okumura, Keisuke; Takemoto, Noriyuki; Chikhray, Y.*

Fusion Engineering and Design, 164, p.112181_1 - 112181_5, 2021/03

Tritium release into the primary coolant during operation of the JMTR (Japan Materials Testing Reactor) and the JRR-3M (Japan Research Reactor-3M) had been studied. It is found that the recoil release by $$^{6}$$Li(n$$_{t}$$,$$alpha$$)$$^{3}$$H reaction, which comes from a chain reaction of beryllium neutron reflectors, is dominant. To prevent tritium recoil release, the surface area of beryllium neutron reflectors needs to be minimum in the core design and/or be shielded with other material. In this paper, as the feasibility study of the tritium recoil barrier for the beryllium neutron reflectors, various materials such as Al, Ti, V, Ni, and Zr were evaluated from the viewpoint of the thickness of barriers, activities after long-term operations, and effects on the reactivities. From the results of evaluations, Al would be a suitable candidate as the tritium recoil barrier for the beryllium neutron reflectors.

Journal Articles

High temperature gas-cooled reactors

Takeda, Tetsuaki*; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Aihara, Jun; Aoki, Takeshi; Fujiwara, Yusuke; Fukaya, Yuji; Goto, Minoru; Ho, H. Q.; Iigaki, Kazuhiko; Imai, Yoshiyuki; et al.

High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors; JSME Series in Thermal and Nuclear Power Generation, Vol.5, 464 Pages, 2021/02

As a general overview of the research and development of a High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) in JAEA, this book describes the achievements by the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) on the designs, key component technologies such as fuel, reactor internals, high temperature components, etc., and operational experience such as rise-to-power tests, high temperature operation at 950$$^{circ}$$C, safety demonstration tests, etc. In addition, based on the knowledge of the HTTR, the development of designs and component technologies such as high performance fuel, helium gas turbine and hydrogen production by IS process for commercial HTGRs are described. These results are very useful for the future development of HTGRs. This book is published as one of a series of technical books on fossil fuel and nuclear energy systems by the Power Energy Systems Division of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers.

Journal Articles

Evaluation of tritium release into primary coolant for research and testing reactors

Kenzhina, I.*; Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Okumura, Keisuke; Ho, H. Q.; Takemoto, Noriyuki; Chikhray, Y.*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 58(1), p.1 - 8, 2021/01

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The sources and mechanisms for the tritium release into the primary coolant in the JMTR and the JRR-3M containing beryllium reflectors are evaluated. It is found that the recoil release from chain reaction of $$^{9}$$Be is dominant and its calculation results agree well with trends derived from the measured variation of tritium concentration in the primary coolant. It also indicates that the simple calculation method used in this study for the tritium recoil release from the beryllium reflectors can be utilized for an estimation of the tritium release into the primary coolant for a research and testing reactors containing beryllium reflectors.

JAEA Reports

Report of summer holiday practical training 2019; Feasibility study on nuclear battery using HTTR core; Feasibility study for nuclear design, 2

Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Nakashima, Koki*; Nakagawa, Naoki*; Ho, H. Q.; Ishii, Toshiaki; Hamamoto, Shimpei; Takamatsu, Kuniyoshi; Kenzhina, I.*; Chikhray, Y.*; Matsuura, Hideaki*; et al.

JAEA-Technology 2020-008, 16 Pages, 2020/08

JAEA-Technology-2020-008.pdf:2.98MB

As a summer holiday practical training 2019, the feasibility study for nuclear design of a nuclear battery using HTTR core was carried out, and the $$^{235}$$U enrichment and burnable poison of the fuel, which enables continuous operation for 30 years with thermal power of 5 MW, were studied by the MVP-BURN. As a result, it is clear that a fuel with $$^{235}$$U enrichment of 12%, radius of burnable poison and natural boron concentration of 1.5 cm and 2wt% are required. As a next step, the downsizing of core will be studied.

JAEA Reports

Study on control rod model in HTTR core analysis

Nagasumi, Satoru; Matsunaka, Kazuaki*; Fujimoto, Nozomu*; Ishii, Toshiaki; Ishitsuka, Etsuo

JAEA-Technology 2020-003, 13 Pages, 2020/05

JAEA-Technology-2020-003.pdf:1.5MB

The influence of the control rod model on the nuclear characteristics of the HTTR has been evaluated, by creating detailed control rod model, in which geometric shape was close to that of the actual control rod structure, in MVP code. According to refinement of the control rod model, the critical control rod position was 11 mm lower than that of the conventional model, and this was close to the measured value of 1775 mm. The reactivity absorbed by the shock absorber located at the tip of the control rod was 0.2%$$Delta$$k/k, and this was 14 mm difference at the critical control rod position. Considering the effect of refinement of the control rod and the effect of the shock absorber, the correction amount for the analysis value in SRAC code due to the shape effect of the control rod, is -0.05%$$Delta$$k/k in reactivity, and -3 mm in the critical control rod position at low temperature criticality.

Journal Articles

Modeling the processes of hydrogen isotopes interactions with solid surfaces

Chikhray, Y.*; Askerbekov, S.*; Kenzhin, Y.*; Gordienko, Y.*; Ishitsuka, Etsuo

Fusion Science and Technology, 76(4), p.494 - 502, 2020/05

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:17.77(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Journal Articles

Promising neutron irradiation applications at the high temperature engineering test reactor

Ho, H. Q.; Honda, Yuki*; Hamamoto, Shimpei; Ishii, Toshiaki; Takada, Shoji; Fujimoto, Nozomu*; Ishitsuka, Etsuo

Journal of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Science, 6(2), p.021902_1 - 021902_6, 2020/04

Journal Articles

Feasibility study of tritium recoil barrier for neutron reflectors

Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Sakamoto, Naoki*

Physical Sciences and Technology, 6(2), p.60 - 63, 2019/12

Tritium release into the primary coolant of the research and test reactors during operation had been studied, and it is found that the recoil release from chain reaction of $$^{9}$$Be is dominant. To reduce tritium concentration of the primary coolant, feasibility study of the tritium recoil barrier for the beryllium neutron reflectors was carried out, and the tritium recoils of various materials were calculated by PHITS. From these calculation results, it is clear that the thickness of tritium recoil barrier depends on the material and 20$$sim$$40 $$mu$$m is required for three orders reduction.

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