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Journal Articles

Investigation for dust behavior of cutting in air and cutting underwater by thermal cutting methods

Soejima, Goro; Iwai, Hiroki; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Tsuzuki, Satoshi*; Yasunaga, Kazushi*; Kume, Kyo*

Heisei-29-Nendo Koeki Zaidan Hojin Wakasawan Enerugi Kenkyu Senta kenkyu Nempo, 20, P. 80, 2018/11

We investigated the behavior of the dust generated by Laser and Plasma-arc cutting underwater and in air aimed at the simulant material of reactor components (SUS304) and the pressure and calandria tube (Zr-2.5%Nb, Zry-2) of the prototype reactor "FUGEN".

Journal Articles

Study of the dust behavior on the laser and plasma cutting

Soejima, Goro; Iwai, Hiroki; Kadowaki, Haruhiko; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Tsuzuki, Satoshi*; Yasunaga, Kazushi*; Nakata, Yoshinori*; Kume, Kyo*

Heisei-28-Nendo Koeki Zaidan Hojin Wakasawan Enerugi Kenkyu Senta kenkyu Nempo, 19, P. 9, 2017/10

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Technology development on reactor dismantling and investigation of contamination in FUGEN

Soejima, Goro; Iwai, Hiroki; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Hayashi, Hirokazu; Kadowaki, Haruhiko; Mizui, Hiroyuki; Sano, Kazuya

Proceedings of 25th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-25) (CD-ROM), 5 Pages, 2017/07

no abstracts in English

JAEA Reports

Applicability test of abrasive water jet cutting technology for dismantling of the core internals of Fukushima Daiichi NPS

Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Iwai, Hiroki; Tezuka, Masashi; Sano, Kazuya

JAEA-Technology 2015-055, 89 Pages, 2016/03

JAEA-Technology-2015-055.pdf:17.54MB

It was reported that Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (1F) had lost the cooling function of the reactor by the Tohoku Earthquake. It is assumed that the core internals became narrow and complicated debris structure mixed with the molten fuel. In consideration of the above situations, the AWJ cutting method, which has features of the long work distance and little heat effect for a material, has been developed for the removal of the molten core internals through cutting tests for 3 years since FY 2012. And it was confirmed that AWJ cutting method is useful for the removal of the core internals etc. The results in FY 2012 were reported in "R&D of the fuel debris removal technologies by abrasive water jet cutting technology (JAEA-Technology 2013-041)" and this report summarizes the results of FY 2012, 2013 and 2014 in this report. It was confirmed the possibility to apply the removal work of the fuel debris and the core internals.

JAEA Reports

Applicability test of plasma cutting technology for dismantling of the core internals of Fukushima Daiichi NPS

Tezuka, Masashi; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Iwai, Hiroki; Sano, Kazuya

JAEA-Technology 2015-047, 114 Pages, 2016/03

JAEA-Technology-2015-047.pdf:46.17MB

It was reported that Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant had been lost the function of cooling the reactor by the Tohoku Earthquake. It is assumed that the original shapes of the internal core are not kept and the inside of the reactor makes so narrow in the space, however the fuel debris and the molten internal core will have to be removed for the decommissioning of 1F. We concerned the suppression of dross by optimization of cutting conditions, in using some moderated test pieces. And we can improve the cutting capability by heating the objects in advance. Moreover, it's possible that plasma arc cutting can cut off the mixed material the fuel debris and the molten internal core by using the cooperation cutting technique both the plasma arc and the plasma jet cutting. From these results, we have got the prospect that plasma cutting method can apply the removal of the fuel debris and the molten internal core.

JAEA Reports

The Development of the basic dismantling procedure of the reactor of FUGEN

Iwai, Hiroki; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Mizui, Hiroyuki; Sano, Kazuya

JAEA-Technology 2015-046, 110 Pages, 2016/03

JAEA-Technology-2015-046.pdf:85.22MB

Advanced Thermal Reactor (ATR) FUGEN is a proto-type heavy water moderated, boiling light water cooled, pressure tube-type reactor with the thermal power of 557 MW and the electrical power of 165 MW. The reactor of FUGEN is classified into the core region and the shielding region. The core region is highly activated owing to the long term operation, and characterized by its tube-cluster construction that contains 224 fuel channels arranging both the pressure and the calandria tubes coaxially in each channel closely. And the shielding region surrounding the core region has the laminated structure composed of up to 150 mm thickness of carbon steel. The reactor is planning to be dismantled under water remotely in order to shield the radiation around the core and prevent airborne dust generated by the cutting, and firing of zirconium material. This paper reports on the result of development of the basic dismantling procedure of the reactor of FUGEN.

JAEA Reports

The Selection of the cutting technologies for dismantling the FUGEN reactor

Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Iwai, Hiroki; Mizui, Hiroyuki; Sano, Kazuya

JAEA-Technology 2015-045, 137 Pages, 2016/03

JAEA-Technology-2015-045.pdf:27.77MB

FUGEN is 9 m outer-diameter and 7m height, and characterized by its tube-cluster construction that contains 224 fuel channels arranging both the pressure and the calandria tubes coaxially in each channel. And the periphery part of the core has the laminated structure composed of up to 150 mm thickness of carbon steel for radiation shielding. The structure of the reactor, which is made of various materials such as stainless steel, carbon steel, zirconium alloy and aluminum. The reactor is planning to be dismantled under water in order to shield the radiation ray around the core and prevent airborne dust generated by the cutting, the temporary pool structure and the remote-operated dismantling machines needs to be installed on the top of reactor. In consideration of above the structure of Fugen reactor, the cutting method was selected for dismantling the reactor core in order to shorten the dismantling term and reduce the secondary waste.

Journal Articles

The Study on application of laser technology for the reactor core dismantling

Iwai, Hiroki; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Mizui, Hiroyuki; Sano, Kazuya; Morishita, Yoshitsugu

Proceedings of 7th International Congress on Laser Advanced Materials Processing (LAMP 2015) (Internet), 4 Pages, 2015/08

The reactor of FUGEN is characterized by its tube-cluster construction that contains 224 channels arranging both the pressure and the calandria tubes coaxially in each channel. And the periphery part of the core has the laminated structure of up to 150 mm thickness of carbon steel for radiation shielding. Method for dismantling the reactor core is also being studied with considering processes of dismantlement by remote-handling devices under the water for the radiation shielding. In order to shorten the term of the reactor dismantlement work and reduce the secondary waste, some cutting tests and literature research for various cutting methods had been carried out. As the result, the laser cutting method, which has feature of the narrow cutting kerf and the fast cutting velocity, was mainly selected for dismantling the reactor. In this presentation, current activities of FUGEN decommissioning and R&D of laser cutting tests are introduced.

Journal Articles

Decommissioning activities in FUGEN

Kitamura, Koichi; Kutsuna, Hideki; Matsushima, Akira; Koda, Yuya; Iwai, Hiroki

Dekomisshoningu Giho, (51), p.2 - 10, 2015/04

Fugen Decommissioning Engineering Center (herein after called as "FUGEN") obtained the approval of the decommissioning program on February 2008. FUGEN has been carrying out decommissioning works based on its decommissioning program since then. Now is in initial stage, the dismantling works was launched in turbine system whose contamination was relatively low level and their various data have been accumulating. And the draining heavy water, tritium decontamination and transferring of heavy water were carried out safely and reasonably. The preparation for the clearance system and the research and development works for the reactor core dismantling have been progressed steadily as well. Meanwhile, FUGEN has affiliation with local industries and universities for collaboration research, and has exchanged the decommissioning information with domestic and overseas organizations continuously.

Journal Articles

Pyrochemical treatment of spent nitride fuels for MA transmutation

Hayashi, Hirokazu; Sato, Takumi; Shibata, Hiroki; Kurata, Masaki; Iwai, Takashi; Arai, Yasuo

Science China; Chemistry, 57(11), p.1427 - 1431, 2014/11

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:93.88(Chemistry, Multidisciplinary)

Nitride fuels have several advantages, such as high thermal conductivity and high metal density like metallic fuels, and high melting point and isotropic crystal structure like oxide fuels. Since the late 1990s, the partitioning and transmutation of minor actinides (MA) has been studied to decrease the long term radio-toxicity of high level waste and mitigate the burden on the final disposal. Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been proposing dedicated transmutation cycle using the Accelerator-Driven System (ADS) with the nitride fuels containing MA. We have been developing the nitride fuel cycle including pyrochemical process. Our focus is on electrolysis of nitride fuels and refabrication of nitride fuel from the recovered actinides because other processes are similar to the technology for the metal fuel treatment and have been studied elsewhere. In this paper, we summarized our activity on developments of the pyrochemical treatment of the spent nitride fuels.

JAEA Reports

Document collection of the 29th Technical Special Committee on Fugen Decommissioning

Kutsuna, Hideki; Iwai, Hiroki; Kadowaki, Haruhiko

JAEA-Review 2014-023, 30 Pages, 2014/08

JAEA-Review-2014-023.pdf:100.36MB

Fugen Decommissioning Engineering Center, in planning and carrying out our decommissioning technical development, has been establishing "Technical special committee on Fugen decommissioning" which consists of the members well-informed, aiming to make good use of Fugen as a place for technological development which is opened inside and outside the country, as the central point in the energy research and development base making project of Fukui prefecture, and to utilize the outcome in our decommissioning to the technical development effectively. This report compiles presentation materials "The Current Situation of Fugen Decommissioning", "Development for the Sampling Technology from the Reactor Core Structure of FUGEN" and "Efficiency Improvement for the Room-Temperature Vacuum Drying in the Tritium Removal", presented in the 29th Technical special committee on Fugen decommissioning which was held on March 13, 2014.

Journal Articles

The Development of thermal and mechanical cutting technology for the dismantlement of the internal core of Fukushima Daiichi NPS

Tezuka, Masashi; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Iwai, Hiroki; Sano, Kazuya; Fukui, Yasutaka

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 51(7-8), p.1054 - 1058, 2014/07

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:51.53(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The cutting technologies for removing the fuel debris and the internal core structure in 1F are needed in consideration of the situation in the core and so on. On the other hand, JAEA has been carrying out the decommissioning of the nuclear facilities ending the R&D, has several technologies and knowledge to dismantle the nuclear facilities. In particular, the cutting technologies of the plasma arc, the laser, and the abrasive water jet (AWJ) and the plasma jet have been developed. Therefore, based on the above, JAEA has carried out the cutting test for investigating the applicability of those cutting technologies to propose the method for removing the fuel debris and the internal core structure to the national project. In this paper, it is outlined on the test results of the plasma arc and the AWJ cutting technologies, and the future plan of the test of those technologies and the plasma jet cutting technology.

JAEA Reports

R&D of the fuel debris removal technologies by abrasive water jet cutting technology

Iwai, Hiroki; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Tezuka, Masashi; Sano, Kazuya

JAEA-Technology 2013-041, 57 Pages, 2014/02

JAEA-Technology-2013-041.pdf:7.01MB

It was reported that Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (1F) had been lost the function of cooling the reactor by the Tohoku Earthquake. It is assumed that the original shapes of the internal core are not kept and the inside of the reactor makes so narrow in the space, however the fuel debris and the molten internal core will have to be removed for the decommissioning of 1F. The cutting methods for those removal works will have to be selected depending on the situation of the inside of the reactor. In consideration of above situations, the abrasive water jet cutting method, Fugen has much data of underwater cutting for the reactor dismantling and there are experiences of the reactor maintenance and dismantling in both domestic and international, will be being developed for the fuel debris removal works and so on. In the fiscal year 2012, in order to confirm the cutting performance of the cutting machine, the cutting tests were carried out to acquire the fundamental data.

JAEA Reports

R&D of the fuel debris removal technologies by plasma arc cutting technology

Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Tezuka, Masashi; Iwai, Hiroki; Sano, Kazuya

JAEA-Technology 2013-040, 80 Pages, 2014/02

JAEA-Technology-2013-040.pdf:4.29MB

It was reported that Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (1F) had been lost the function of cooling the reactor by the Tohoku Earthquake. It is assumed that the original shapes of the internal core are not be kept and the inside of the reactor make so narrow in the space, however the fuel debris and the molten internal core will have to be removed for the decommissioning of 1F. The cutting methods for those removal works will have to be selected depending on the situation of the inside of the reactor. In consideration of above situations, the plasma-arc cutting method, Fugen has much data of underwater cutting for the reactor dismantling and there are experiences of the reactor dismantling in both domestic and international, will be being developed for the fuel debris removal works and so on.

JAEA Reports

Document collection of the 28th Technical Special Committee on Fugen Decommissioning

Kutsuna, Hideki; Iwai, Hiroki; Mizui, Hiroyuki; Kadowaki, Haruhiko; Nakamura, Yasuyuki

JAEA-Review 2013-049, 49 Pages, 2014/02

JAEA-Review-2013-049.pdf:5.59MB

Fugen Decommissioning Engineering Center has been establishing "Technical special committee on Fugen decommissioning" which consists of the members well-informed, aiming to make good use of Fugen as a place for technological development which is opened inside and outside the country. This report compiles presentation materials "The Current Situation of Fugen Decommissioning", "The Current Status of the Cutting Test toward the Practical Use of Laser Cutting Technology and the Future Plan", "Study on Radioactive Substance Osmosis for Basis Concrete of Equipment", "Verification Tests of the Room-Temperature Vacuum Drying and the Evaluation Method of Residual Amount of Heavy Water in the Tritium Removal" and "Applicability Test of Thermal and Mechanical Cutting Technology for the Dismantlement of the Internal Core of Fukushima Daiichi NPS", presented in the 28th Technical special committee on Fugen decommissioning which was held on September 24, 2013.

Journal Articles

Electrode properties of Li$$_{2}$$MnO$$_{3}$$ (${it C}$2/${it m}$) for a lithium-battery cathode in several charge-discharge potential ranges

Nakao, Yasuhiro*; Ozawa, Kiyoshi*; Fujii, Hiroki*; Mochiku, Takashi*; Iwai, Hideo*; Tsuchiya, Yoshinori*; Igawa, Naoki

Transactions of the Materials Research Society of Japan, 38(2), p.229 - 233, 2013/12

Li$$_{2}$$MnO$$_{3}$$ powder with a monoclinic cell related to the space group of ${it C}$2/${it m}$ was synthesized by a simplified coprecipitation method. Its electrode properties as a lithium-battery cathode were investigated in the charge-discharge potential ranges of 2.0 - 4.6, 2.0 - 4.8, and 2.0 - 5.0 V. In all the potential ranges, the electrochemical capacities gradually increased during cycling, and the increased capacities significantly depended on the potential ranges. Compared to the discharge capacities for the potential ranges of 2.0 - 4.6 and 2.0 - 5.0 V, the former merely increased from 12.5 to 22.5 mAhg$$^{-1}$$ between the 1st and 99th cycles, whereas the latter increased from 20.0 to 110.2 mAhg$$^{-1}$$ during the same cycling. The structural variation in Li$$_{2}$$MnO$$_{3}$$ is induced by the cycling, the rhombohedral phase is detected during cycling in the potential range of 2.0 - 5.0 V.

Journal Articles

Electrochemical characteristics of layered Li$$_{1.95}$$Mn$$_{0.9}$$Co$$_{0.15}$$O$$_{3}$$ (${it C}$2/${it m}$) as a lithium-battery cathode

Ozawa, Kiyoshi*; Nakao, Yasuhiro*; Mochiku, Takashi*; Cheng, Z.*; Wang, L.*; Iwai, Hideo*; Tsuchiya, Yoshinori*; Fujii, Hiroki*; Igawa, Naoki

Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 159(3), p.A300 - A304, 2012/01

 Times Cited Count:9 Percentile:54.82(Electrochemistry)

A manganese-based solid solution with the composition of Li$$_{1.95}$$Mn$$_{0.9}$$Co$$_{0.15}$$O$$_{3}$$ was synthesized by a simplified coprecipitation method, and its electrochemical characteristics as a lithium-battery cathode were investigated. Rietveld refinement based on neutron diffraction data revealed that the material is assigned to an Li$$_{2}$$MnO$$_{3}$$-type structure model with a space group symmetry of ${it C}$2/${it m}$. In cycling of the cell in the potential range from 2.0 to 4.8 V at current densities of 30 mAhg$$^{-1}$$, the discharge capacity characteristically increases from 46.3 to 196.5 mAhg$$^{-1}$$ as the cycle increases from 1 to 11, and a discharge capacity above 175.5 mAhg$$^{-1}$$ is obtained between the 23rd and 58th cycles. The cyclic voltammogram and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements showed that the manganese redox reaction is progressively activated during the first ten-odd cycles.

Journal Articles

Development of the pyrochemical process of spent nitride fuels for ADS; Its elemental technologies and process flow diagram

Hayashi, Hirokazu; Sato, Takumi; Shibata, Hiroki; Iwai, Takashi; Nishihara, Kenji; Arai, Yasuo

Proceedings of International Conference on Toward and Over the Fukushima Daiichi Accident (GLOBAL 2011) (CD-ROM), 6 Pages, 2011/12

R&D on the transmutation of long-lived minor actinides (MA) by the accelerator-driven system (ADS) using nitride fuels is underway at Japan Atomic Energy Agency. In regard to reprocessing technology, pyrochemical process has several advantages in case of treating spent fuel with large decay heat and fast neutron emission, and recovering highly enriched N-15. In the pyrochemical reprocessing, plutonium (Pu) and MA are dissolved in LiCl-KCl eutectic melts and selectively recovered into liquid cadmium (Cd) cathode by molten salt electrorefining. The recovered Pu and MA are converted to nitrides by the nitridation-distillation combined method, in which the Cd alloys containing Pu and MA are heated in nitrogen gas stream. The authors have investigated its elemental technologies such as electrorefining and renitridation. On the other hand, development of the process flow diagram with the material balance sheet of the pyrochemical reprocessing of spent nitride fuel for ADS is in progress. This paper summarized recent progress of the study which aims to prove the technological applicability of pyrochemical process to the nitride fuel cycle for transmutation of MA.

Journal Articles

Radiation-induced crosslinking of Nafion$$^{textregistered}$$ N117CS membranes

Iwai, Yasunori; Hiroki, Akihiro; Tamada, Masao

Journal of Membrane Science, 369(1-2), p.397 - 403, 2011/03

 Times Cited Count:12 Percentile:48.87(Engineering, Chemical)

The successful formation of radiation-induced crosslinking in Nafion$$^{textregistered}$$ N117CS membranes was clearly demonstrated by tensile testing, a methanol uptake measurement, thermo-mechanical analysis (TMA) and fluorine-19 MAS NMR ($$^{19}$$F NMR). The possibility of radiation-induced crosslinking of Nafion$$^{textregistered}$$ never had been considered with regard to the thermal stability of Nafion$$^{textregistered}$$ membranes, since the scission of PFAE pendant-chains in Nafion$$^{textregistered}$$ membranes in their protonated form begins at 523 K. To improve the thermal stability of Nafion$$^{textregistered}$$ membranes, Nafion$$^{textregistered}$$ membranes were soaked in sodium chloride prior to irradiation. The sodium-exchange Nafion$$^{textregistered}$$ membranes were irradiated with $$gamma$$ rays in an argon atmosphere at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 618 K. The irradiated membranes were re-exchanged to the protonated form. Fluorine-19 MAS NMR results for the alcohol-swollen membranes indicate peaks which originated due to radiation-induced crosslinking. An increase in percent elongation at break, a decrease in methanol uptake, and a decrease in the softening temperature at a differential TMA peak for membranes irradiated at 598 K compared to received membranes also add support for our new finding.

Journal Articles

Recent R&D results on polymeric materials for a SPE-type high-level tritiated water electrolyzer system

Iwai, Yasunori; Sato, Katsumi; Hiroki, Akihiro; Tamada, Masao; Hayashi, Takumi; Yamanishi, Toshihiko

Fusion Engineering and Design, 85(7-9), p.1421 - 1425, 2010/12

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:77.77(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The deteriorations of polymeric materials for a SPE-type high-level tritiated water electrolyzer composed of the Water Detritiation System (WDS) against sulfonic acid environment and radiation environment were discussed. A long-term durability of VITON, AFLAS, denaturated polyphenylene ether, and Kapton polyimide immersed in a sulfonic acid was demonstrated. Negligible degradation in percent elongation at break of these polymeric materials was observed up to the immersing period of 2 years. The detectable radiation deterioration in ionic conductivity of Nafion N117CS ion exchange membrane irradiated with electron beams up to the integrated dose of 1500 kGy was measured. The ionic conductivity of Nafion N117CS ion exchange membrane irradiated at more than 1000 kGy was slightly deteriorated. As for the elastomers for its use as a seal, the radiation degradation in hardness of VITON, AFLAS was investigated. Negligible degradation in hardness of these rubbers was observed up to the integrated dose of 1500 kGy. The water uptake of rubbers was generally increased as the integrated dose was increased. However, irradiated VITON rubbers had constant water uptake up to the integrated dose of 1500 kGy.

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