下村 憲一*; 鈴木 秀俊*; 佐々木 拓生; 高橋 正光; 大下 祥雄*; 神谷 格*
Journal of Applied Physics, 118(18), p.185303_1 - 185303_7, 2015/11
Direct measurements on the growth of InAs quantum dots (QDs) and various cap layers during molecular beam epitaxy are performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The evolution of strain induced both in the QDs and cap layers during capping is discussed based on the XRD intensity transients obtained at various lattice constants. Transients with different features are observed from those obtained during InGaAs and GaAs capping, attributed to In-Ga intermixing between the QDs and the cap layer. Photoluminescence wavelength can be tuned by controlling the intermixing and the cap layer thickness. It is demonstrated that such information about strain is useful for designing and preparing novel device structures.
佐々木 拓生*; 下村 憲一*; 鈴木 秀俊*; 高橋 正光; 神谷 格*; 大下 祥雄*; 山口 真史*
Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 51(2), p.02BP01_1 - 02BP01_3, 2012/02
In-plane asymmetric strain relaxation in lattice-mismatched InGaAs/GaAs(001) heteroepitaxy is studied by three-dimensional X-ray reciprocal space mapping. Repeating crystal growth and growth interruptions during measurements allows us to investigate whether the strain relaxation is limited at a certain thickness or saturated. We find that the degree of relaxation during growth interruption depends on both the film thickness and the in-plane directions. Significant lattice relaxation is observed in rapid relaxation regimes during interruption. This is a clear indication that relaxation is kinetically limited. In addition, relaxation along the  direction can saturate more readily than that along the  direction. We discuss this result in terms of the interaction between orthogonally aligned dislocations.
佐々木 拓生*; 鈴木 秀俊*; 稲垣 充*; 池田 和磨*; 下村 憲一*; 高橋 正光; 神津 美和*; Hu, W.; 神谷 格*; 大下 祥雄*; et al.
IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, 2(1), p.35 - 40, 2012/01
Compositionally step-graded InGaAs/GaAs(001) buffers with overshooting (OS) layers were evaluated by several characterization techniques for higher efficiency metamorphic III-V multijunction solar cells. By high-resolution X-ray diffraction, we found that fully relaxed or tensile strained top layers can be obtained by choosing appropriate OS layer thickness. Moreover, from real-time structural analysis using X-ray reciprocal space mapping ( RSM), it was proved that the top layer is almost strained to the OS layers, and it is independent of the thicknesses of the OS layers. Dislocations in the vicinity of the OS layers were observed by transmission electron microscopy, and the validity of results of RSM was confirmed from the viewpoint of misfit dislocation behavior. Finally, by photoluminescence measurements, we showed that tensile strained top layers may be suitable for the improvement of minority-carrier lifetime.
佐々木 拓生*; 鈴木 秀俊*; 高橋 正光; 大下 祥男*; 神谷 格*; 山口 真史*
Journal of Applied Physics, 110(11), p.113502_1 - 113502_7, 2011/12
Dislocation-mediated strain relaxation during lattice-mismatched InGaAs/GaAs(001) heteroepitaxy was studied through X-ray reciprocal space mapping. At the synchrotron radiation facility SPring-8, a hybrid system of molecular beam epitaxy and X-ray diffractometry with a two-dimensional detector enabled us to perform reciprocal space mapping at high-speed and high-resolution. Using this experimental setup, the lattice constants, the diffraction broadenings along in-plane and out-of-plane directions, and the diffuse scattering were investigated. The strain relaxation processes were classified into four thickness ranges with different dislocation behavior. In addition, the existence of transition regimes between the thickness ranges was identified.
佐々木 拓生*; 鈴木 秀俊*; 崔 炳久*; 高橋 正光; 藤川 誠司; 神谷 格*; 大下 祥雄*; 山口 真史*
Journal of Crystal Growth, 323(1), p.13 - 16, 2011/05
InGaAs/GaAs(001)の分子線エピタキシャル成長中のひずみ緩和の様子をその場X線逆格子マッピングにより解析した。成長温度420, 445, 477Cにおける残留ひずみ・結晶性の変化の様子が測定された。Dodson-Tsaoの運動学的モデルは、実験による残留ひずみの測定結果とよく一致することがわかった。さらにひずみ緩和過程における転位の運動の温度依存性の解析から、転位の運動の熱励起を議論することが可能になった。
鈴木 秀俊*; 佐々木 拓生*; 崔 炳久*; 大下 祥雄*; 神谷 格*; 山口 真史*; 高橋 正光; 藤川 誠司
Applied Physics Letters, 97(4), p.041906_1 - 041906_3, 2010/07
Real-time three-dimensional reciprocal space mapping measurement during InGaAs/GaAs(001) molecular beam epitaxial growth has been performed to investigate anisotropy in relaxation processes. Anisotropies, strain relaxation, and crystal quality in  and  directions were simultaneously evaluated via the position and broadness of 022 diffraction. In the small-thickness region, strain relaxation caused by -dislocations is higher than that caused by -dislocations, and therefore crystal quality along  is worse than that along . Rapid relaxation along both  and  directions occurs at almost the same thickness. After rapid relaxation, anisotropy in strain relaxation gradually decreases, whereas crystal quality along  direction, presumably due to -dislocations, becomes better that along  direction and the ratio does not decay with thickness.
佐々木 拓生*; 鈴木 秀俊*; 崔 炳久*; Lee, J.-H.*; 高橋 正光; 藤川 誠司; 新船 幸二*; 神谷 格*; 大下 祥雄*; 山口 真史*
Applied Physics Express, 2, p.085501_1 - 085501_3, 2009/07
real-time X-ray diffraction measurements during InGaAs/GaAs(001) epitaxial growth are performed for the first time to understand the strain relaxation mechanisms in a lattice-mismatched system. The high resolution reciprocal space maps of 004 diffraction obtained at interval of 6.2 nm thickness enable transient behavior of residual strain and crystal quality to be observed simultaneously as a function of InGaAs film thickness. From the evolution of these data, five thickness ranges with different relaxation processes and these transition points are determined quantitatively, and the dominant dislocation behavior in each phase is deduced.