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Journal Articles

Regulatory implementation of the occupational equivalent dose limit for the lens of the eye and underlying relevant efforts in Japan

Yokoyama, Sumi*; Hamada, Nobuyuki*; Tsujimura, Norio; Kunugita, Naoki*; Nishida, Kazutaka*; Ezaki, Iwao*; Kato, Masahiro*; Okubo, Hideki*

International Journal of Radiation Biology, 99(4), p.604 - 619, 2023/04

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:23.74(Biology)

In April 2011, the International Commission on Radiological Protection recommended reducing the occupational equivalent dose limit for the lens. Such a new occupational lens dose limit has thus far been implemented in many countries, and there are extensive discussions toward its regulatory implementation in other countries. In Japan, discussions in the Japan Health Physics Society (JHPS) began in April 2013 and in Radiation Council in July 2017, and the new occupational lens dose limit was implemented into regulation in April 2021. To share our experience, we have published a series of papers summarizing situations in Japan: the first paper based on information available by early 2017, and the second paper by early 2019. This paper (our third paper of this series) aims to review updated information available by mid-2022, such as regarding regulatory implementation of the new occupational lens dose limit, recent discussions by relevant ministries based on the opinion from the council, establishment process of safety and health management systems, the JHPS guidelines on lens dose monitoring and radiation safety, voluntary countermeasures of the licensees, development of lens dose calibration method, and recent studies on exposure of the lens in nuclear workers and biological effect on the lens.

JAEA Reports

Development of a test method for electrochemical measurements of stainless steel in nitric acid solution containing neptunium-237 under gamma-ray irradiation

Yamashita, Naoki; Irisawa, Eriko; Kato, Chiaki; Sano, Naruto; Tagami, Susumu

JAEA-Technology 2022-035, 29 Pages, 2023/03


In the treatment process of the current commercial reprocessing plant (Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant), the high-level liquid waste concentrator is the equipment that treats the most corrosive solution. In the high-level liquid waste concentrator, the extracted liquid waste after separation of uranium and plutonium is heated, concentrated, and reduced in volume. Therefore, the amount of gamma- rays emitted from fission products and the concentration of corrosive metal ion species such as neptunium-237 ($$^{237}$$Np) are the highest in the reprocessing process, and the amount of corrosion in the high-level liquid waste concentrate canner is expected to be large. In this study, in order to clarify the effect of gamma-rays on the corrosion reaction of stainless steel in nitric acid solutions containing $$^{237}$$Np from the electrochemical viewpoint, the corrosion test apparatus for heat transfer surfaces in an airtight concrete cell at the Waste Safety TEsting Facility (WASTEF) of Nuclear Science Research Institute was modified to enable electrochemical measurements under gamma-ray irradiation. The effect of gamma-rays on the corrosion reaction taking place on the stainless steel surface was discussed from the electrochemical test results obtained. As a result, changes in the immersion potentials of stainless steel and the polarization curves due to chemical species caused by radiolysis of gamma-ray irradiation were confirmed.

Journal Articles

Design and actual performance of J-PARC 3 GeV rapid cycling synchrotron for high-intensity operation

Yamamoto, Kazami; Kinsho, Michikazu; Hayashi, Naoki; Saha, P. K.; Tamura, Fumihiko; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Tani, Norio; Takayanagi, Tomohiro; Kamiya, Junichiro; Shobuda, Yoshihiro; et al.

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 59(9), p.1174 - 1205, 2022/09

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:82.38(Nuclear Science & Technology)

In the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex, the purpose of the 3 GeV rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) is to accelerate a 1 MW, high-intensity proton beam. To achieve beam operation at a repetition rate of 25 Hz at high intensities, the RCS was elaborately designed. After starting the RCS operation, we carefully verified the validity of its design and made certain improvements to establish a reliable operation at higher power as possible. Consequently, we demonstrated beam operation at a high power, namely, 1 MW. We then summarized the design, actual performance, and improvements of the RCS to achieve a 1 MW beam.

Journal Articles

Investigation of physical properties of glove for glove-box and estimation of its life-time

Kobayashi, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Masahiko; Nishida, Naoki; Miyoshi, Ryuta; Nemoto, Ryo*; Hayashi, Hiroyuki*; Kato, Keisuke; Nishino, Saki; Kuno, Takehiko; Kitao, Takahiko; et al.

Nihon Hozen Gakkai Dai-18-Kai Gakujutsu Koenkai Yoshishu, p.237 - 240, 2022/07

All gloves attached to glove-box in Tokai Reprocessing Plant have a fixed expiration date and have to be replaced every 4-year. However, degrees of glove deterioration are different depending on its usage environment (frequency, chemicals, radiation, etc.), because of rubber products. Therefore, physical properties such as tensile strength, elongation, hardness of gloves are measured, and the life-time of gloves are estimated. As a result, gloves without any defects in its appearance have enough physical property for acceptance criteria of new glove. The extrapolated physical property of glove is sufficiently larger than the reported values of damaged glove. No deterioration in physical properties of gloves, that are periodically replaced without any defects in its appearance, is observed and the usable life-time of the glove is estimated to be 8 years.

Journal Articles

Effect of $$^{90}$$Sr dissolved solution on corrosion potential of type 316L stainless steel

Aoyama, Takahito; Kato, Chiaki; Sato, Tomonori; Sano, Naruto; Yamashita, Naoki; Ueno, Fumiyoshi

Zairyo To Kankyo, 71(4), p.110 - 115, 2022/04

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

The Japan Health Physics Society Guideline on Dose Monitoring for the Lens of the Eye

Yokoyama, Sumi*; Tsujimura, Norio; Hashimoto, Makoto; Yoshitomi, Hiroshi; Kato, Masahiro*; Kurosawa, Tadahiro*; Tatsuzaki, Hideo*; Sekiguchi, Hiroshi*; Koguchi, Yasuhiro*; Ono, Koji*; et al.

Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, 47(1), p.1 - 7, 2022/03

Background: In Japan, new regulations that revise the dose limit for the lens of the eye (the lens), operational quantities, and measurement positions for the lens dose were enforced in April 2021. Based on the international safety standards, national guidelines, the results of the Radiation Safety Research Promotion Fund of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority, and other studies, the Working Group of Radiation Protection Standardization Committee, the Japan Health Physics Society (JHPS) developed a guideline for radiation dose monitoring for the lens. Materials and Methods: The Working Group of the JHPS discussed the criteria of non-uniform exposure and the management criteria set to not exceed the dose limit for the lens. Results and Discussion: In July 2020, the JHPS guideline was published. The guideline consists of three parts: main text, explanations, and 26 questions. In the questions, the corresponding answers were prepared, and specific examples were provided to enable similar cases to be addressed. Conclusion: With the development of guideline on radiation dose monitoring of the lens, radiation managers and workers will be able to smoothly comply with revised regulations and optimise radiation protection.

Journal Articles

Polarization characteristics and evaluation of corrosion rate of stainless steel in nitric acid solution containing $$^{237}$$Np

Irisawa, Eriko; Kato, Chiaki; Yamashita, Naoki; Sano, Naruto

Zairyo To Kankyo, 71(3), p.70 - 74, 2022/03

In order to evaluate the corrosion of stainless steels used in spent nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities, the immersion corrosion tests and polarization measurements were performed using R-SUS304ULC stainless steel in nitric acid solution containing a kind of radionuclides, $$^{237}$$Np. At temperatures above 328 K, the corrosion potential was higher than that in nitric acid solution and was near the transpassive region. From the comparison between the corrosion amount calculated by the immersion corrosion tests and the polarization resistance, the values of $$k$$=0.018-0.025 V were obtained as a conversion factor, and the possibility of calculating the corrosion amount from the electrochemical measurement was examined.

Journal Articles

Development of guidelines on radiation protection for the lens of the eye in Japan

Yokoyama, Sumi*; Iwai, Satoshi*; Tsujimura, Norio; Hashimoto, Makoto; Yoshitomi, Hiroshi; Kato, Masahiro*; Kurosawa, Tadahiro*; Tatsuzaki, Hideo*; Sekiguchi, Hiroshi*; Koguchi, Yasuhiro*; et al.

Proceedings of 15th International Congress of the International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA-15) (Internet), 8 Pages, 2022/00

JAEA Reports

Study on the evaluation method to determine the radioactivity concentration in radioactive waste on Oarai Research and Development Institute (FY2020)

Asakura, Kazuki; Shimomura, Yusuke; Donomae, Yasushi; Abe, Kazuyuki; Kitamura, Ryoichi; Miyakoshi, Hiroyuki; Takamatsu, Misao; Sakamoto, Naoki; Isozaki, Ryosuke; Onishi, Takashi; et al.

JAEA-Review 2021-020, 42 Pages, 2021/10


The disposal of radioactive waste from the research facility need to calculate from the radioactivity concentration that based on variously nuclear fuels and materials. In Japan Atomic Energy Agency Oarai Research and Development Institute, the study on considering disposal is being advanced among the facilities which generate radioactive waste as well as the facilities which process radioactive waste. This report summarizes a study result in FY2020 about the evaluation method to determine the radioactivity concentration in radioactive waste on Oarai Research and Development Institute.

Journal Articles

Post irradiation experiment about SiC-coated oxidation-resistant graphite for high temperature gas-cooled reactor

Shibata, Taiju; Mizuta, Naoki; Sumita, Junya; Sakaba, Nariaki; Osaki, Takashi*; Kato, Hideki*; Izawa, Shoichi*; Muto, Takenori*; Gizatulin, S.*; Shaimerdenov, A.*; et al.

Proceedings of 9th International Topical Meeting on High Temperature Reactor Technology (HTR 2018) (USB Flash Drive), 7 Pages, 2018/10

Graphite materials are used for the in-core components of High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR). Oxidation damage on the graphite components in air ingress accident is a crucial issue for the safety point of view. SiC coating on graphite surface is a possible technique to enhance oxidation resistance. However, it is important to confirm the integrity of this material against high temperature and neutron irradiation for the application of the in-core components. JAEA and Japanese graphite companies carried out the R&D to develop the oxidation-resistant graphite. JAEA and INP investigated the irradiation effects on the oxidation-resistant graphite by using a framework of ISTC partner project. This paper describes the results of post irradiation experiment about the neutron irradiated SiC-coated oxidation-resistant graphite. A brand of oxidation-resistant graphite shows excellent performance against oxidation test after the irradiation.

Journal Articles

Enhancement of oxidation tolerance of graphite materials for high temperature gas-cooled reactor

Mizuta, Naoki; Sumita, Junya; Shibata, Taiju; Osaki, Takashi*; Kato, Hideki*; Izawa, Shoichi*; Muto, Takenori*; Gizatulin, S.*; Sakaba, Nariaki

Tanso Zairyo Kagaku No Shinten; Nihon Gakutsu Shinkokai Dai-117-Iinkai 70-Shunen Kinen-Shi, p.161 - 166, 2018/10

To enhance oxidation resistance of graphite material for in-core components of HTGR, JAEA and four Japanese graphite companies; Toyo Tanso, IBIDEN, Tokai Carbon and Nippon Techno-Carbon, are carrying out for development of oxidation-resistant graphite by CVD-SiC coating. This paper describes the outline of neutron irradiation test about the oxidation-resistant graphite by WWR-K reactor of INP, Kazakhstan through an ISTC partner project. Prior to the irradiation test, the oxidation-resistant graphite by CVD-SiC coating of all specimens showed enough oxidation resistance under un-irradiation condition. The neutron irradiation test was already completed and out-of-pile oxidation test will be carried out at the hot-laboratory of WWR-K.

Journal Articles

Achievement of a low-loss 1-MW beam operation in the 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex

Hotchi, Hideaki; Harada, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Naoki; Kato, Shinichi; Kinsho, Michikazu; Okabe, Kota; Saha, P. K.; Shobuda, Yoshihiro; Tamura, Fumihiko; Tani, Norio; et al.

Physical Review Accelerators and Beams (Internet), 20(6), p.060402_1 - 060402_25, 2017/06


 Times Cited Count:24 Percentile:88.38(Physics, Nuclear)

The 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) is the world's highest class of high-power pulsed proton driver, aiming for an output beam power of 1 MW. The most important issues in realizing such a high-power beam operation are to control and minimize beam loss for maintaining machine activations within permissible levels. In RCS, numerical simulation was successfully utilized along with experimental approaches to isolate the mechanism of beam loss and find its solution. By iteratively performing actual beam experiments and numerical simulations, and also by several hardware improvements, we have recently established a 1-MW beam operation with very low fractional beam loss of a couple of 10$$^{-3}$$. In this paper, our recent efforts toward realizing such a low-loss high-intensity beam acceleration are presented.

Journal Articles

Beam-loss monitoring signals of interlocked events at the J-PARC Linac

Hayashi, Naoki; Kato, Yuko; Miura, Akihiko; Futatsukawa, Kenta*; Miyao, Tomoaki*

Proceedings of 5th International Beam Instrumentation Conference (IBIC 2016) (Internet), p.368 - 371, 2017/03

It is important to understand why the beam loss occurs during user operation. It is understandable that the beam loss results from RF cavities failure. However, it would be still useful to study the beam loss detailed mechanism and to know which beam loss monitor (BLM) experiences the highest loss or is most sensitive. This may lead a reduction in the number of interlocked events and a more stable accelerator operation. The J-PARC Linac BLM has a simple data recorder that comprises multiple oscilloscopes. Although its functionality is limited, it can record events when an interlock is triggered. Of particular interest here are the events associated with only the BLM Machine Protection System (MPS). These may reveal hidden problems with the accelerator.

Journal Articles

Development of a control system at a 3 MeV linac in J-PARC

Sawabe, Yuki*; Ishiyama, Tatsuya; Takahashi, Daisuke; Kato, Yuko; Suzuki, Takahiro*; Hirano, Koichiro; Takei, Hayanori; Meigo, Shinichiro; Kikuzawa, Nobuhiro; Hayashi, Naoki

Proceedings of 13th Annual Meeting of Particle Accelerator Society of Japan (Internet), p.647 - 651, 2016/11

In the J-PARC, a 3 MeV linac has been developed for the tests of beam scraper irradiation and charge exchange by high-power laser. To accomplish tests efficiently and safely, the control system for 3 MeV was designed and developed, and this system consists of four subsystems, personal protection system, machine protection system, timing system, and remote control system using the EPICS. In this paper, the details of control system for a 3 MeV linac are presented.

Journal Articles

Beam commissioning of two horizontal pulse steering magnets for changing injection painting area from MLF to MR in the 3-GeV RCS of J-PARC

Saha, P. K.; Harada, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Naoki; Hotchi, Hideaki; Kinsho, Michikazu; Takayanagi, Tomohiro; Tani, Norio; Irie, Yoshiro*; Kato, Shinichi*

Proceedings of 4th International Particle Accelerator Conference (IPAC '13) (Internet), p.518 - 520, 2014/07

Journal Articles

High intensity beam trial of up to 540 kW in J-PARC RCS

Hotchi, Hideaki; Harada, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Naoki; Kinsho, Michikazu; Saha, P. K.; Shobuda, Yoshihiro; Tamura, Fumihiko; Yamamoto, Kazami; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Yoshimoto, Masahiro; et al.

Proceedings of 4th International Particle Accelerator Conference (IPAC '13) (Internet), p.3836 - 3838, 2014/07

In November 2012, we have performed a high intensity beam trial of up to 540 kW. The beam loss for 540 kW intensity beam was well reduced from 30% to 2% by injection painting. This remaining beam loss of 2%, arising from foil scattering and 100-kHz field ripple induced by injection bump field, corresponds to 650 W in power, which is still less than 1/6 of the current collimator capability of 4 kW. The numerical simulation well reproduced the experimental results. Accelerator modelling and quantitative benchmarking between experiment and numerical simulation becomes feasible. The numerical simulation very much helped us to understand the mechanism of observed beam loss. Also several beam loss mitigation ideas were proposed with a help of numerical simulation and verified by experiment.

Journal Articles

Three-layer GSO depth-of-interaction detector for high-energy gamma camera

Yamamoto, Seiichi*; Watabe, Hiroshi*; Kawachi, Naoki; Fujimaki, Shu; Kato, Katsuhiko*; Hatazawa, Jun*

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 743, p.124 - 129, 2014/04

 Times Cited Count:9 Percentile:57.68(Instruments & Instrumentation)

Journal Articles

Performance of the beam collimation system in the J-PARC RCS

Yamamoto, Kazami; Kato, Shinichi*; Harada, Hiroyuki; Yoshimoto, Masahiro; Yamazaki, Yoshio; Hayashi, Naoki; Saha, P. K.; Hotchi, Hideaki; Kinsho, Michikazu

Progress in Nuclear Science and Technology (Internet), 4, p.243 - 246, 2014/04

The most important issue in a high-intensity proton accelerator is achieving low beam loss operation in order to keep the accelerator tunnel in a hands-on-maintenance condition. To achieve such a condition, a collimation system was designed and installed in the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) 3GeV Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS). The experimental results indicated that the RCS collimation system performs well enough such that nearly all the ring components are maintained in good condition. However, as the beam power increased, unexpected losses downstream of the injection foil increased. Therefore, an additional collimator was installed that successfully reduced such unexpected losses.

Journal Articles

The Result of beam commissioning in J-PARC 3-GeV RCS

Harada, Hiroyuki; Hotchi, Hideaki; Saha, P. K.; Shobuda, Yoshihiro; Hayashi, Naoki; Yamamoto, Kazami; Yoshimoto, Masahiro; Tamura, Fumihiko; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Kinsho, Michikazu; et al.

Proceedings of 52nd ICFA Advanced Beam Dynamics Workshop on High-Intensity and High-Brightness Hadron Beams (HB 2012) (Internet), p.339 - 343, 2012/09

J-PARC 3-GeV RCS has started the beam commissioning since Oct. 2007. In the beam commissioning, the beam tuning for basic parameters and high-intensity operation has been continuously performed. This presentation will describe the results of the beam-loss reduction and minimization for high-intensity operation.

Journal Articles

Comparison of the residual doses before and after resumption of user operation in J-PARC RCS

Yamamoto, Kazami; Hayashi, Naoki; Hotchi, Hideaki; Saha, P. K.; Harada, Hiroyuki; Yoshimoto, Masahiro; Kinsho, Michikazu; Saeki, Riuji; Hatakeyama, Shuichiro; Kato, Shinichi*

Proceedings of 3rd International Particle Accelerator Conference (IPAC '12) (Internet), p.3901 - 3903, 2012/05

J-PARC Facilities were seriously damaged by the Great East Japan Earthquake in March 2011, but all facilities resumed a beam operation from December 2012. Beam commissioning results indicated that the beam loss and the residual dose at injection area in the RCS was reduced to 10% of before earthquake. This result owed to new collimator at injection area. The losses and residual doses of other area were almost same as before earthquake.

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