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JAEA Reports

Results of groundwater pressure and hydro-chemical monitoring as part of environmental monitoring investigation in backfilling of shafts and tunnels of Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (2022)

Takeuchi, Ryuji; Kokubu, Yoko; Nishio, Kazuhisa*

JAEA-Data/Code 2023-014, 118 Pages, 2024/02

JAEA-Data-Code-2023-014.pdf:4.77MB
JAEA-Data-Code-2023-014-appendix(CD-ROM).zip:249.03MB

The Tono Geoscience Center of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been conducting the groundwater pressure and hydro-chemical monitoring to confirm the restoration process of the surrounding geological environment associated with the backfilling of shafts and tunnels of Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU). This report summarizes the data of the groundwater pressure and hydro-chemical monitoring from boreholes and forth at and around the MIU conducted in FY2022. In addition, unreported hydro-chemical monitoring data from the boreholes and forth at the MIU conducted in FY2021 were also compiled.

JAEA Reports

Results of environmental impact investigations as part of environmental monitoring investigation in backfilling of shafts and tunnels of Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (2022)

Takeuchi, Ryuji; Nishio, Kazuhisa*; Kokubu, Yoko

JAEA-Data/Code 2023-013, 74 Pages, 2024/01

JAEA-Data-Code-2023-013.pdf:4.2MB

The Tono Geoscience Center of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been conducting the environmental monitoring investigation to confirm the environmental impacts associated with the backfilling of shafts and tunnels at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU). This report summarizes the results of the environmental impact investigations conducted as part of the environmental monitoring investigation around the MIU Site in FY2022, which include groundwater level measurement in wells, river flow rate measurement, water analysis of Hazama river, noise and vibration surveys, and soil survey.

JAEA Reports

Report of backfilling and restoration works in the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory

Takeuchi, Ryuji; Mikake, Shinichiro; Ikeda, Koki; Nishio, Kazuhisa*; Kokubu, Yoko; Hanamuro, Takahiro

JAEA-Review 2023-007, 114 Pages, 2023/07

JAEA-Review-2023-007.pdf:12.02MB

Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) at Tono Geoscience Center has been conducting the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) Project to enhance the reliability of geological disposal technologies through investigations of the deep geological environment in the crystalline rock (granite) at Mizunami City, Gifu Prefecture, central Japan since fiscal year 1996. Backfilling and restoration works in the MIU site have been being conducted based on "the MIU Project from FY2020 onwards" which is defined the way forward of backfilling and restoration works and environmental monitoring investigations in the MIU site, since fiscal year 2020. This report summarizes the outline, process, and achievements of the construction and the safety patrol of the backfilling and restoration works in the MIU site performed from May 16, 2020 to January 16, 2022.

Journal Articles

$$^{10}$$Be analysis of the rock samples from the northeastern shore of Lake Pumoyum Co in south Tibetan Plateau

Nara, Fumiko*; Watanabe, Takahiro; Kokubu, Yoko; Zhu, L.*

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 539, p.28 - 32, 2023/06

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.02(Instruments & Instrumentation)

Lake Pumoyum Co is located on the south Tibetan Plateau. The lake terraces are developed on the eastern lake shore, and it supposed that the large lake level changes would have happened in Pumoyum Co. The in-situ terrestrial cosmogenic adionuclides can be used to estimate the earth surface processes, such as the erosion rate and exposure age dating of rocks. Here we report the results of $$^{10}$$Be values of the rock samples from the lake terraces around Pumoyum Co. The concentrations of $$^{10}$$Be were measured by the JAEA-AMS-TONO-5MV in the Tono Geoscience Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency. The $$^{10}$$Be concentrations ranged from 3.78 to 10.8$$times$$10$$^{6}$$ (atoms/g), but the $$^{10}$$Be values showed the decreasing trend following to the distance from the lake shore. This result indicates that $$^{10}$$Be values of the rocks at the shore of Pumoyum Co could be influenced from the erosion rate or tectonic process rather than the exposure date resulting from the lake level changes.

Journal Articles

Status report of JAEA-AMS-TONO; Research and technical development in the last four years

Kokubu, Yoko; Fujita, Natsuko; Watanabe, Takahiro; Matsubara, Akihiro; Ishizaka, Chika; Miyake, Masayasu*; Nishio, Tomohiro*; Kato, Motohisa*; Ogawa, Yumi*; Ishii, Masahiro*; et al.

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 539, p.68 - 72, 2023/06

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.02(Instruments & Instrumentation)

The JAEA-AMS-TONO facility at the Tono Geoscience Center, JAEA has an accelerator mass spectrometer (JAEA-AMS-TONO-5MV). The spectrometer enabled us to use a multi-nuclide AMS of carbon-14 ($$^{14}$$C), beryllium-10, aluminium-26 and iodine-129, and we have recently been proceeding test measurement of chlorine-36. In response to an increase of samples, we installed a state-of-the-art multi-nuclide AMS with a 300 kV Tandetron accelerator in 2020. Recently, we are driving the development of techniques of isobar separation in AMS and of sample preparation. Ion channeling is applied to remove isobaric interference and we are building a prototype AMS based on this technique for downsizing of AMS. The small sample graphitization for $$^{14}$$C has been attempted using an automated graphitization equipment equipped with an elemental analyzer.

JAEA Reports

Results of environmental impact investigations as part of environmental monitoring investigation in backfilling of shafts and tunnels of Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (2020-2021)

Takeuchi, Ryuji; Nishio, Kazuhisa*; Hanamuro, Takahiro; Kokubu, Yoko

JAEA-Data/Code 2022-010, 110 Pages, 2023/03

JAEA-Data-Code-2022-010.pdf:6.2MB

The Tono Geoscience Center of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been conducting the environmental monitoring investigation to confirm the environmental impacts associated with the backfilling of shafts and tunnels at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU). This report summarizes the results of environmental impact investigations conducted as part of the environmental monitoring investigation around the MIU Site from FY2020 to FY2021, which include groundwater level measurement in wells, river flow rate measurement, water analysis of Hazama river, noise and vibration surveys, and soil survey.

Journal Articles

Present status of the JAEA-AMS-TONO (2021)

Matsubara, Akihiro*; Fujita, Natsuko; Miyake, Masayasu; Ishii, Masahiro*; Watanabe, Takahiro; Kokubu, Yoko; Nishio, Tomohiro*; Ogawa, Yumi; Jinno, Satoshi; Kimura, Kenji; et al.

JAEA-Conf 2022-002, p.55 - 62, 2023/03

We report the present status of the JAEA-AMS-TONO. Particularly, the destructions of varistors used in the beamline equipment will be presented. The cause of the destruction as well as implementation of the safety measures are mentioned.

Journal Articles

Project for development of a downsized AMS system based on the surface stripper technique

Fujita, Natsuko; Matsubara, Akihiro; Kimura, Kenji; Jinno, Satoshi; Kokubu, Yoko

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 532, p.13 - 18, 2022/12

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:28.09(Instruments & Instrumentation)

Over the last decade, significant technological advances were made to downsize the AMS systems. Japan Atomic Energy Agency has started a project for developing a prototype downsized AMS system (with the footprint of the system is 1.9 m $$times$$ 1.9 m) based on the surface stripper technique. Although the system configuration using an ion source, magnets, and detectors is similar to that in conventional systems, there is no tandem accelerator as well as a gas stripper. The ion acceleration is provided in the ion source (maximum ion energy 40 keV). For proof-of-principle experiments, we have planned two steps: (1) Observation of the specular reflection and the dissociation by using a compact electrostatic analyzer located just behind the stripper, and (2) Demonstration of $$^{14}$$C measurement, along with the experimental confirmation of the isobar suppression capability of the surface stripper.

Journal Articles

The New 300 kV multi-element AMS system at the TONO Geoscience Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency

Fujita, Natsuko; Miyake, Masayasu*; Matsubara, Akihiro; Kokubu, Yoko; Klein, M.*; Scognamiglio, G.*; Mous, D. J. W.*; Columna, E. L.*; Shimada, Akiomi; Ishimaru, Tsuneari

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 533, p.91 - 95, 2022/12

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:28.09(Instruments & Instrumentation)

In the Tono Geoscience Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, investigation of deep underground environments for R&D program related to the geological disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste has been performed by using various dating systems including an AMS system. In response to the increasing demand for our AMS measurements especially from a newly established R&D program supporting development of technology for geological disposal of HLW, a state-of-the-art multi-nuclide AMS system was installed. This system is equipped with a 300 kV AMS. The system has capability to measure four nuclides: carbon-14, beryllium-10, aluminium-26 and iodine-129. The system structure and features, as well as the results of performance test will be presented.

Journal Articles

Present status of the JAEA-AMS-TONO (2019-2020)

Fujita, Natsuko; Matsubara, Akihiro; Miyake, Masayasu*; Watanabe, Takahiro; Kokubu, Yoko; Nishio, Tomohiro*; Ogawa, Yumi*; Kato, Motohisa*; Shimada, Akiomi; Ogata, Nobuhisa

Dai-33-Kai Tandemu Kasokuki Oyobi Sono Shuhen Gijutsu No Kenkyukai Hokokushu, P. 48, 2022/04

no abstracts in English

JAEA Reports

Data comparison of measurement of carbon isotope standards between JAEA-AMS-TONO and JAEA-AMS-MUTSU

Kokubu, Yoko; Matsubara, Akihiro; Fujita, Natsuko; Kuwabara, Jun; Kinoshita, Naoki

JAEA-Technology 2021-028, 33 Pages, 2022/02

JAEA-Technology-2021-028.pdf:2.18MB

Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has two facilities of accelerator mass spectrometry, JAEA-AMS-TONO and JAEA-AMS-MUTSU at Tono Geoscience Center and Aomori Research and Development Center, respectively. In this report, characteristics of each facility and results of standard samples in the inner-comparison test of carbon isotope measurement will be described. Both facilities have been used for research by not only JAEA's staff but also researchers who belong to universities and other institutes on the shared use program of JAEA facilities. Recently, researchers trend to use both facilities with the expansion of demand for the carbon isotope measurement by using the accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS). However, each facility has a spectrometer made by a different manufacturer and equipped with different mechanical components. There is a difference in each ability to the carbon isotope measurement such as background level. This is, for example, due to different ion injection system adapted at each spectrometer. Further, each facility uses a different analytical method adjusted to each main research field. When a researcher uses both facilities, the researcher understands more about the characteristics and need to make a suitable choice of a facility for samples and the analytical method. The report presents a detailed information of characteristics of the spectrometer, sample preparation method and analytical method, and of ability of the measurement based on the inner-comparison test.

JAEA Reports

Annual report for research on geosphere stability for long-term isolation of radioactive waste in fiscal year 2020

Ishimaru, Tsuneari; Ogata, Nobuhisa; Kokubu, Yoko; Shimada, Koji; Niwa, Masakazu; Shimada, Akiomi; Watanabe, Takahiro; Sueoka, Shigeru; Yokoyama, Tatsunori; Fujita, Natsuko; et al.

JAEA-Research 2021-007, 65 Pages, 2021/10

JAEA-Research-2021-007.pdf:4.21MB

This annual report documents the progress of research and development (R&D) in the 6th fiscal year during the JAEA 3rd Mid- and Long-term Plan (fiscal years 2015-2021) to provide the scientific base for assessing geosphere stability for long-term isolation of the high-level radioactive waste. The planned framework is structured into the following categories: (1) Development and systematization of investigation techniques, (2) Development of models for long-term estimation and effective assessment, (3) Development of dating techniques. The current status of R&D activities with previous scientific and technological progress is summarized.

Journal Articles

$$^{129}$$I/$$^{127}$$I and $$Delta$$$$^{14}$$C records in a modern coral from Rowley Shoals off northwestern Australia reflect the 20th-century human nuclear activities and ocean/atmosphere circulations

Mitsuguchi, Takehiro; Okabe, Nobuaki*; Yokoyama, Yusuke*; Yoneda, Minoru*; Shibata, Yasuyuki*; Fujita, Natsuko; Watanabe, Takahiro; Kokubu, Yoko

Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 235-236, p.106593_1 - 106593_10, 2021/09

 Times Cited Count:5 Percentile:32.67(Environmental Sciences)

For a contribution to developing the usage of iodine-129 ($$^{129}$$I) as a tracer of deep-seated fluid, $$^{129}$$I/$$^{127}$$I and $$Delta$$$$^{14}$$C were measured for annual bands (AD 1931-1991) of a modern coral collected from Northwestern Australia; the measurements were performed using the JAEA-AMS-TONO-5MV for $$^{129}$$I/$$^{127}$$I and an AMS facility of the University of Tokyo for $$Delta$$$$^{14}$$C. Results indicate that both $$^{129}$$I/$$^{127}$$I and $$Delta$$$$^{14}$$C distinctly increase from 1950s. The $$Delta$$$$^{14}$$C increase can be ascribed to atmospheric nuclear tests, while the $$^{129}$$I/$$^{127}$$I increase is due to nuclear-fuel reprocessing as well as atmospheric nuclear tests. These results are in good agreement with previous studies, indicating that the $$^{129}$$I/$$^{127}$$I measurement by JAEA-AMS-TONO-5MV has been further developed.

JAEA Reports

Research plan on geosphere stability for long-term isolation of radioactive waste (Scientific program for fiscal year 2021)

Ishimaru, Tsuneari; Kokubu, Yoko; Shimada, Koji; Shimada, Akiomi; Niwa, Masakazu; Watanabe, Takahiro; Sueoka, Shigeru; Yokoyama, Tatsunori; Fujita, Natsuko; Ogita, Yasuhiro; et al.

JAEA-Review 2021-012, 48 Pages, 2021/08

JAEA-Review-2021-012.pdf:1.64MB

This report is a plan of research and development (R&D) on geosphere stability for long-term isolation of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), in fiscal year 2021. The objectives and contents in fiscal year 2021 are described in detail based on the JAEA 3rd Medium- and Long-term Plan (fiscal years 2015-2021). In addition, the background of this research is described from the necessity and the significance for site investigation and safety assessment, and the past progress. The plan framework is structured into the following categories: (1) Development and systematization of investigation techniques, (2) Development of models for long-term estimation and effective assessment, (3) Development of dating techniques.

Journal Articles

Dating of buried wood logs and fragments for high resolution reconstruction of landslide histories; Case studies in the Japanese Alps region in the historical times

Yamada, Ryuji*; Kimura, Takashi*; Kariya, Yoshihiko*; Sano, Masaki*; Tsushima, Akane*; Li, Z.*; Nakatsuka, Takeshi*; Kokubu, Yoko; Inoue, Kimio*

Sabo Gakkai-Shi, 73(5), p.3 - 14, 2021/01

We discuss the applicability of dating methods for determining landslide chronologies in relation to the type of samples and the sampling location. Case studies are carried out with fossil wood samples buried in the colluvial soil of large-scale landslides occurred in two areas of the Japanese Alps region. Ages are determined by accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dating and dendrochronological analysis using the oxygen isotope composition of tree ring cellulose. Most of ages for Dondokosawa rock avalanche are concordant with the period of AD 887 Ninna (Goki-Shichido) earthquake. Ages for Ohtsukigawa debris avalanche are not concentrated in a specific period. In order to obtain accurate age of large-scale landslide, utilizing buried large diameter tree trunk or branches with the good preservation condition has a lot of advantages because it allows us to compare the landslide chronology with historical records of heavy rainfall and large earthquakes.

Journal Articles

Preliminary report on small-mass graphitization for radiocarbon dating using EA-AGE3 at JAEA-AMS-TONO

Watanabe, Takahiro; Fujita, Natsuko; Matsubara, Akihiro; Miyake, Masayasu*; Nishio, Tomohiro*; Ishizaka, Chika; Kokubu, Yoko

Geochemical Journal, 55(4), p.277 - 281, 2021/00

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:20.07(Geochemistry & Geophysics)

Small-mass radiocarbon dating less than 0.1 mg carbon has been developed by Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and manual preparation techniques using the vacuum glass lines. Because geological samples are limited for the dating in many cases, preparation techniques should be improved for small samples and high efficiency analysis. For radiocarbon dating of geological and other organic samples, small-mass graphitization of international standard reference materials (ca. 0.1 and 0.05 mg carbon) was evaluated using the elemental analyzer and automated graphitization equipment 3 (EA-AGE3; IonPlus AG) in our study. Additionally, this paper presents the first data for the small samples by the EA-AGE3. The average radiocarbon concentration of the small-mass international standards (NIST-SRM4990C, IAEA-C5, and C7) prepared by the EA-AGE3 were agreement with the consensus values within $$pm$$ 2$$sigma$$. Therefore, small-mass graphitization using the EA-AGE3 can be adapted for AMS radiocarbon measurements in our case (down to ca. 0.05 mg carbon).

JAEA Reports

Practical guide on soil sampling, treatment, and carbon isotope analysis for carbon cycle studies

Koarashi, Jun; Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko; Nagano, Hirohiko*; Sugiharto, U.*; Saengkorakot, C.*; Suzuki, Takashi; Kokubu, Yoko; Fujita, Natsuko; Kinoshita, Naoki; Nagai, Haruyasu; et al.

JAEA-Technology 2020-012, 53 Pages, 2020/10

JAEA-Technology-2020-012.pdf:3.71MB

There is growing concern that recent rapid changes in climate and environment could have a significant influence on carbon cycling in terrestrial ecosystems (especially forest ecosystems) and could consequently lead to a positive feedback for global warming. The magnitude and timing of this feedback remain highly uncertain largely due to a lack of quantitative understanding of the dynamics of organic carbon stored in soils and its responses to changes in climate and environment. The tracing of radiocarbon (natural and bomb-derived $$^{14}$$C) and stable carbon ($$^{13}$$C) isotopes through terrestrial ecosystems can be a powerful tool for studying soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics. The primary aim of this guide is to promote the use of isotope-based approaches to improve our understanding of the carbon cycling in soils, particularly in the Asian region. The guide covers practical methods of soil sampling; treatment and fractionation of soil samples; preparation of soil samples for $$^{13}$$C (and stable nitrogen isotope, $$^{15}$$N) and $$^{14}$$C analyses; and $$^{13}$$C, $$^{15}$$N, and $$^{14}$$C measurements by the use of isotope ratio mass spectrometry and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The guide briefly introduces ways to report $$^{14}$$C data, which are frequently used for soil carbon cycling studies. The guide also reports results of a case study conducted in a Japanese forest ecosystem, as a practical application of the use of isotope-based approaches. This guide is mainly intended for researchers who are interested but are not experienced in this research field. The guide will hopefully encourage readers to participate in soil carbon cycling studies, including field works, laboratory experiments, isotope analyses, and discussions with great interest.

JAEA Reports

Annual report for research on geosphere stability for long-term isolation of radioactive waste in fiscal year 2019

Ishimaru, Tsuneari; Ogata, Nobuhisa; Kokubu, Yoko; Shimada, Koji; Hanamuro, Takahiro; Shimada, Akiomi; Niwa, Masakazu; Asamori, Koichi; Watanabe, Takahiro; Sueoka, Shigeru; et al.

JAEA-Research 2020-011, 67 Pages, 2020/10

JAEA-Research-2020-011.pdf:3.87MB

This annual report documents the progress of research and development (R&D) in the 5th fiscal year during the JAEA 3rd Mid- and Long-term Plan (fiscal years 2015-2021) to provide the scientific base for assessing geosphere stability for long-term isolation of the high-level radioactive waste. The planned framework is structured into the following categories: (1) Development and systematization of investigation techniques, (2) Development of models for long-term estimation and effective assessment, (3) Development of dating techniques. The current status of R&D activities with previous scientific and technological progress is summarized.

Journal Articles

Formation and mobility of soil organic carbon in a buried humic horizon of a volcanic ash soil

Wijesinghe, J. N.*; Koarashi, Jun; Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko; Kokubu, Yoko; Yamaguchi, Noriko*; Sase, Takashi*; Hosono, Mamoru*; Inoue, Yuzuru*; Mori, Yuki*; Hiradate, Shuntaro*

Geoderma, 374, p.114417_1 - 114417_10, 2020/09

 Times Cited Count:10 Percentile:49.80(Soil Science)

JAEA Reports

Research plan on geosphere stability for long-term isolation of radioactive waste (Scientific program for fiscal year 2020)

Ishimaru, Tsuneari; Ogata, Nobuhisa; Shimada, Koji; Kokubu, Yoko; Niwa, Masakazu; Asamori, Koichi; Watanabe, Takahiro; Sueoka, Shigeru; Komatsu, Tetsuya; Yokoyama, Tatsunori; et al.

JAEA-Review 2020-010, 46 Pages, 2020/07

JAEA-Review-2020-010.pdf:1.89MB

This report is a plan of research and development (R&D) on geosphere stability for long-term isolation of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), in fiscal year 2020. The objectives and contents in fiscal year 2020 are described in detail based on the JAEA 3rd Medium- and Long-term Plan (fiscal years 2015-2021). In addition, the background of this research is described from the necessity and the significance for site investigation and safety assessment, and the past progress. The plan framework is structured into the following categories: (1) Development and systematization of investigation techniques, (2) Development of models for long-term estimation and effective assessment, (3) Development of dating techniques.

257 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)