Niwa, Masakazu; Kamataki, Takanobu*; Kurosawa, Hideki*; Kokubu, Yoko; Ikuta, Masafumi*
Island Arc, 29(1), p.e12341_1 - e12341_26, 2020/01
Based on detailed geochemical and paleontological analyses for lowland sediments in the Miyazaki Plain, southwest Japan, we clearly identified environmental change from the lower terrestrial sediments to the upper shallow marine sediments. Radiocarbon ages and tephra data suggest that the environmental change is attributed to local subsidence due to the 1662 Kanbun Hyuganada Sea Earthquake shown in historical records. This findings are important for historical earthquake studies because the study area is a part of the expected focal region of megathrust earthquakes along the Nankai Trough.
Niwa, Masakazu; Kurosawa, Hideki*; Kosaka, Hideki*; Ikuta, Masafumi*; Takatori, Ryoichi*
JAEA-Data/Code 2017-009, 71 Pages, 2017/06
Changes of stress state due to the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake triggered normal displacements of faults that have not been regarded as active faults. In this study, geological survey for normal faults in coastal region was conducted in order to understand the mechanism of reactivation of inactive faults triggered by megathrust earthquakes. This report includes topographical and geological data obtained by field works in and around the Kawaminami Fault in northern margin of the Miyazaki Plain, with results of microscopic examination, analyses of X-ray diffraction and particle size distribution for clayey samples, analyses of tephra and plant opal, and radiocarbon dating.
Ikuta, Masafumi*; Niwa, Masakazu; Danhara, Toru*; Yamashita, Toru*; Maruyama, Seiji*; Kamataki, Takanobu*; Kobayashi, Tetsuo*; Kurosawa, Hideki*; Kokubu, Yoko; Hirata, Takafumi*
Chishitsugaku Zasshi, 122(3), p.89 - 107, 2016/03
We carried out mineral composition analysis, morphological classification of volcanic glass shards and refractive index measurements of the glass shards and orthopyroxene from the eruption products from Sakurajima volcano. In this study, refractive indexes of hydrated and non-hydrated parts within each individual glass shard were measured separately. This measurements in consideration of hydration in glass shards made possible distinct discrimination of the pumice samples from the three eruption events of Bunmei, An-ei, and Taisho. Pumice layers in the core samples obtained from the southern part of the Miyazaki Plain were also identified as the Sakurajima-Bunmei tephra by the above mentioned analyses, and also by the data of radiocarbon dating for coaly materials included in the pumice layers. Occurrences of the pumice layers suggest that the Sakurajima-Bunmei tephra could have reached the southern part of Miyazaki Plain as pumice falls.
Shibata, Masahiro; Sawada, Atsushi; Tachi, Yukio; Makino, Hitoshi; Wakasugi, Keiichiro; Mitsui, Seiichiro; Kitamura, Akira; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Oda, Chie; Ishidera, Takamitsu; et al.
JAEA-Research 2014-030, 457 Pages, 2015/03
JAEA and NUMO have conducted a collaborative research work which is designed to enhance the methodology of repository design and post-closure performance assessment in preliminary investigation stage. With regard to (1) study on rock suitability in terms of hydrology, based on some examples of developing method of hydro-geological structure model, acquired knowledge are arranged using the tree diagram, and model uncertainty and its influence on the evaluation items were discussed. With regard to (2) study on scenario development, the developed approach for "defining conditions" has been reevaluated and improved from practical viewpoints. In addition, the uncertainty evaluation for the effect of use of cementitious material, as well as glass dissolution model, was conducted with analytical evaluation. With regard to (3) study on setting radionuclide migration parameters, based on survey of precedent procedures, multiple-approach for distribution coefficient of rocks was established, and the adequacy of the approach was confirmed though its application to sedimentary rock and granitic rock. Besides, an approach for solubility setting was developed including the procedure of selection of solubility limiting solid phase. The adequacy of the approach was confirmed though its application to key radionuclides.
Ikuta, Masafumi; Niwa, Masakazu; Takatori, Ryoichi*; Kamataki, Takanobu*; Kurosawa, Hideki*
JAEA-Data/Code 2014-002, 246 Pages, 2014/06
The Miyazaki Plain, facing the Hyuga-nada, had been attacked repeatedly by historical tsunami events induced by the giant earthquakes centered in the Hyuga-nada or Nankai Trough. However, scientific studies concerning the tsunami events are still poor in this area. Disappearance of subsurface sediments due to fast uplift rates in the Miyazaki Plain is considered to make difficult to proceed such studies. This database shows the result of the study for Holocene sediments in the Miyazaki Plain in 2012, including chemical composition analysis of absorbed water, microfossil identification, description of tephra deposits and radiocarbon dating, as well as geological description of drilled cores. It is closely related to the study for the reactivation of coastal geological faults caused by the giant subduction zone earthquakes.
Niwa, Masakazu; Kurosawa, Hideki; Shimada, Koji; Ishimaru, Tsuneari; Kosaka, Hideki*
Pure and Applied Geophysics, 168(5), p.887 - 900, 2011/07
Previous studies have reported that high concentrations of H gas are released from active fault zones. Experimental studies suggest that the H gas is derived from the reaction of water with free radicals formed when silicate minerals are fractured at hypocenter depths during fault activities. Based on the H gas measurements and the particle size distribution analyses, the deep-seated H gas is considered to have migrated in permeable damage zones mostly by advection with groundwater. Multipoint H gas measurement will be effective in delineating qualitatively, variations in permeability of regional structures.
Adare, A.*; Afanasiev, S.*; Aidala, C.*; Ajitanand, N. N.*; Akiba, Yasuyuki*; Al-Bataineh, H.*; Alexander, J.*; Aoki, Kazuya*; Aphecetche, L.*; Armendariz, R.*; et al.
Physical Review C, 83(6), p.064903_1 - 064903_29, 2011/06
Transverse momentum distributions and yields for , and in collisions at = 200 and 62.4 GeV at midrapidity are measured by the PHENIX experiment at the RHIC. We present the inverse slope parameter, mean transverse momentum, and yield per unit rapidity at each energy, and compare them to other measurements at different collisions. We also present the scaling properties such as and scaling and discuss the mechanism of the particle production in collisions. The measured spectra are compared to next-to-leading order perturbative QCD calculations.
Niwa, Masakazu; Kurosawa, Hideki; Ishimaru, Tsuneari
Engineering Geology, 119(1-2), p.31 - 50, 2011/04
Fracture zone development has a substantial impact on long-term changes in the underground environment because fracture zones are leading candidates as groundwater flowpaths as well as a locus for mechanical disturbance by fracturing. For understanding fracture zone development we surveyed the spatial distribution and characteristics of fracture zones in an area 4 km to the north and 6 km to the south from the western part of the Atotsugawa Fault, a long-lived active fault in central Japan. This study suggests that fracture zones along the Atotsugawa Fault act as a major conduit controlling regional groundwater flow. Based on rock features and deformation fabrics at meso- and microscopic scales, once fracture zones had formed, epigenetic deformation was concentrated in the ancient fracture zones.
Adare, A.*; Afanasiev, S.*; Aidala, C.*; Ajitanand, N. N.*; Akiba, Yasuyuki*; Al-Bataineh, H.*; Alexander, J.*; Aoki, Kazuya*; Aphecetche, L.*; Aramaki, Y.*; et al.
Physical Review C, 83(4), p.044912_1 - 044912_16, 2011/04
Measurements of electrons from the decay of open-heavy-flavor mesons have shown that the yields are suppressed in Au+Au collisions compared to expectations from binary-scaled collisions. Here we extend these studies to two particle correlations where one particle is an electron from the decay of a heavy flavor meson and the other is a charged hadron from either the decay of the heavy meson or from jet fragmentation. These measurements provide more detailed information about the interaction between heavy quarks and the quark-gluon matter. We find the away-side-jet shape and yield to be modified in Au+Au collisions compared to collisions.
Kurosawa, Hideki; Niwa, Masakazu; Ishimaru, Tsuneari; Shimada, Koji
JAEA-Data/Code 2010-036, 199 Pages, 2011/03
Research on the influence of fault activity on deep geological environments contributes to the reliability of geological disposal systems for high level radioactive wastes. Measurement of deep-seated gas discharged along faults is proposed as an effective method to understand the extent of influence of fault activity. In this study, in-situ and short-lasting measurement of hydrogen, carbon dioxide and methane gases by use of a portable monitor is tested for prehension of spatial distribution of active faults. The gas measurement data are compiled and recorded on CD-ROM.
Adare, A.*; Afanasiev, S.*; Aidala, C.*; Ajitanand, N. N.*; Akiba, Y.*; Al-Bataineh, H.*; Alexander, J.*; Aoki, K.*; Aphecetche, L.*; Armendariz, R.*; et al.
Physical Review D, 83(5), p.052004_1 - 052004_26, 2011/03
The PHENIX experiment at RHIC has measured the invariant differential cross section for production of , , and mesons in collisions at = 200 GeV. The spectral shapes of all hadron transverse momentum distributions are well described by a Tsallis distribution functional form with only two parameters, and , determining the high and characterizing the low regions for the spectra, respectively. The integrated invariant cross sections calculated from the fitted distributions are found to be consistent with existing measurements and with statistical model predictions.
Kusano, Tomohiro; Asamori, Koichi; Kurosawa, Hideki; Kokubu, Yoko; Tanikawa, Shinichi; Negi, Tateyuki; Hanamuro, Takahiro; Yasue, Kenichi; Yamasaki, Seiko; Yamada, Kunimi; et al.
JAEA-Research 2010-044, 153 Pages, 2011/01
This progress report (H22 report) documents progress made during JAEA 1st Midterm Plan (FY 2005 - 2009) to provide the scientific base for assessing geosphere stability for long-term isolation of the high-level radioactive waste. For the current 5-year R&D programme, three major goals have been defined as follows: (1) development and synthesis of investigation techniques for selecting suitable sites in geosphere stability, (2) development, application, and evaluation of prediction models for evaluating the changes of geological environment in thermal, hydraulic, mechanical and geochemical conditions for a long period of time, and (3) development of new dating techniques for providing information about geologic history and the timing of geologic events. In this paper, the current status of R&D activities with previous scientific and technological progress is summarized.
Yasue, Kenichi; Asamori, Koichi; Yamada, Kunimi; Kokubu, Yoko; Yamasaki, Seiko; Kurosawa, Hideki; Tanikawa, Shinichi; Negi, Tateyuki; Kusano, Tomohiro; Hanamuro, Takahiro; et al.
JAEA-Review 2010-034, 42 Pages, 2010/09
The concept of geological disposal of HLW in Japan is based on a multibarrier system which combines a stable geological environment with an engineered barrier system. Potential geological host formations and their surroundings are chosen, in particular, for their long-term stability, taking into account the fact that Japan is located in a tectonically active zone. This report is a plan of research and development (R&D) for geosphere stability for long-term isolation of HLW in JAEA, in fiscal year 2010. The objectives and contents in fiscal year 2010 are described in detail based on the outline of 5 years plan (fiscal years 2010-2014). In addition, the plan framework is structured into the following categories: (1) Development and systematization of investigation techniques, (2) Development of models for long-term estimation and effective assessment, (3) Development of dating techniques.
Kusano, Tomohiro; Asamori, Koichi; Kurosawa, Hideki; Tanikawa, Shinichi; Ninomiya, Atsushi; Negi, Tateyuki; Hanamuro, Takahiro; Yasue, Kenichi; Yamada, Kunimi; Ishimaru, Tsuneari; et al.
JAEA-Research 2009-072, 72 Pages, 2010/03
The Japanese islands are located in the tectonically active Circum-Pacific Mobile Belt. As a result, Japan has a high frequency of earthquakes and eruptions. Special consideration is given to the long-term stability of the geological environment, taking into account volcanism, faulting, uplift, denudation, climatic change and sea-level change in Japan. Development of research/prediction technologies for geotectonic events has been carried out to evaluate the long-term stability of the geological environment in Japan. In fiscal year 2008, we carried out the following researches. For studies on faulting and seismic activity, we developed investigation techniques for evolutional history and activity of fault, and carried out case studies for development of effective assessment model in the fault zones. For volcanological and geothermal studies, we provided an integrated approach for detecting crustal magma and/or geothermal fluid in deep underground using geophysical and geochemical data. For the general evaluation study on uplift/denudation and climatic/sea-level change, we arranged investigation techniques for reconstruction of paleo-topography and paleo-climate, and to establish a simulation model for landform development. For studies on the long-term stability of the geological environments, we developed simulation techniques for groundwater flow related by crustal movement.
Kurosawa, Hideki; Ishimaru, Tsuneari; Shimada, Koji; Niwa, Masakazu; Kosaka, Hideki*; Saito, Satoshi*; Ninomiya, Atsushi
JAEA-Research 2009-043, 144 Pages, 2010/01
Research on the influence of fault activity on deep geological environments contributes to the reliability of geological disposal systems for HLW. In this study, preliminary test shows that measured value within 1 hour after measurement start is supposed to include hydrogen gas generated by rock fracturing during the drilling of sampling holes and that stored in surrounding disturbed rocks, though the monitoring from a hand-drilled hole is effective for a rapid measurement. We investigated the concentration of hydrogen gas emitted from the Yamasaki fault zone, in southeast Japan. In our survey, the points where high concentrations of hydrogen gas emission was detected were unevenly distributed along the active fault, and in the southeast portion of the study area where small earthquakes frequently occurred.
Kusano, Tomohiro; Nohara, Tsuyoshi; Umeda, Koji; Ishimaru, Tsuneari; Hanamuro, Takahiro; Saito, Tatsuo; Yasue, Kenichi; Niwa, Masakazu; Shimada, Koji; Yamada, Kunimi; et al.
JAEA-Research 2009-022, 47 Pages, 2009/09
The Japanese islands are located in the tectonically active Circum-Pacific Mobile Belt. As a result, Japan has a high frequency of earthquakes and eruptions. Special consideration is given to the long-term stability of the geological environment, taking into account volcanism, faulting, uplift, denudation, climatic change and sea-level change in Japan. Development of research/prediction technologies for geotectonic events has been carried out to evaluate the long-term stability of the geological environment in Japan. In fiscal year 2007, we carried out the following researches, to confirm existence of the phenomena that have influences on geological disposal system (e.g., active faulting, volcanism), and to develop the investigation techniques to reconstruct the history of these phenomena. For studies of faulting and seismic activity, we developed the investigation techniques to research distribution of crush zone, process of faulting, activity, and so on. For volcanological and geothermal studies, we developed a technique for detecting crustal magma and/or geothermal fluid in deep underground. For studies of uplift/denudation and climatic/sea-level changes, we extracted investigation techniques for landform developments and uplift rate with river terraces.
Kosaka, Hideki*; Kagohara, Kyoko; Miwa, Atsushi*; Imaizumi, Toshifumi*; Kurosawa, Hideki; Nohara, Tsuyoshi
Chigaku Zasshi, 117(5), p.851 - 862, 2008/10
To understand the development process of the fault zone, fission-track ages of rocks and rock facies are investigated in western margin of the Ou Backbone Range of Northeast Japan. Fission-track dating was carried out for 5 acid volcanic rocks from the late Pliocene to Pleistocene strata which were deposit associated with mountain belt growth. Statistically significant ages obtained are 1.50.1 Ma (OB-03) and 1.850.1 Ma (YG-01) for the Tazawa Formation, 1.60.3 Ma (FT-01) for the Kurisawa Formation,0.930.14 Ma (FT-02) and 2.70.3 Ma (FT-03) for the Senya Formation. According to the fission-track dating in this study, ages of the mountain belt growth with acid volcanic activity are estimated to before 1 Ma.
Niwa, Masakazu; Shimada, Koji; Kurosawa, Hideki; Miwa, Atsushi*
Chishitsugaku Zasshi, 114(10), p.495 - 515, 2008/10
This paper provides a geological description of crush zones in the western part of the active Atotsugawa Fault, Gifu Prefecture of Japan, to understand crush zone structures in steps of strike-slip faults. By means of aerial photograph interpretation, we recognized that the occurrence of a step is suggestive in the Sangawara area, and that a long strand of the Atotsugawa Fault with ENE-WSW trend is traced in the Itani Area. On the Basis of the detailed geological observation, attitude and sense of shear planes, and thickness and clay mineral composition of fault gouge are different between crush zones of the Sangawara and Itani areas. In the Sangawara area, shear planes with NNE-SSW and NW-SE strikes, high-angle oblique to the trend of the Atotsugawa Fault, are characteristically developed. These shear planes can be a part of the composite planar fabric such as R2 surfaces which are dominantly developed within compressional steps.
Ishimaru, Tsuneari; Niwa, Masakazu; Kurosawa, Hideki; Kagohara, Kyoko
Proceedings of 2008 East Asia Forum on Radwaste Management Conference (2008 EAFORM 2nd Conference) (USB Flash Drive), 6 Pages, 2008/10
Plate-boundary and intraplate earthquakes occur relative to convergent plate margins in the Japanese Islands. For site selection and design of HLW repositories in Japan, an assessment of the effects of earthquakes and faulting on the deep geological environment is absolutely essential. As a results, it has been determined that consideration of seismic shaking and frictional heating may be unnecessary if repositories are located away from active faults. On the other hand, fracturing along faults could result in the development of fracture zones, which could consequently increase permeability. The number of fracture zone decreases significantly at about 500 m away from the fault, based on the case study of the Atotsugawa Fault System. Therefore, understanding changes in character and spatial distribution of fracture zones through studying the history of fault development is important for long-term changes of regional groundwater flow.
Kawamura, Makoto; Oi, Takao; Niizato, Tadafumi; Yasue, Kenichi; Tokiwa, Tetsuya; Niwa, Masakazu; Shimada, Koji; Kurosawa, Hideki; Asamori, Koichi; Kawachi, Susumu; et al.
JAEA-Research 2008-018, 47 Pages, 2008/03
In this report, we sophisticated the framework as a part of the total system performance assessment for two purposes: the first one is quantification of relationship of characteristic of natural phenomena between geological environmental conditions (THMCG), and the other one is quantification of relationship of THMCG condition between parameters of performance assessment. On the other hand, we applied the sophisticated framework to all natural phenomena. As a result, to apply the sophisticated framework, we could show that information integration could carry out efficiently. Moreover, we have checked that the framework was applicable to all phenomena. Furthermore, we could show that suitable scenarios might be chosen by information integration.