Wang, H.*; 安田 昌弘*; 近藤 洋介*; 中村 隆司*; Tostevin, J. A.*; 緒方 一介*; 大塚 孝治*; Poves, A.*; 清水 則孝*; 吉田 数貴; et al.
Physics Letters B, 843, p.138038_1 - 138038_9, 2023/08
Liu, H.*; 中山 梓介; Lei, J.*; Ren, Z.*
Physical Review C, 108(1), p.014617_1 - 014617_8, 2023/07
軽核および中重核に対すると反応における重陽子の包括的分解反応を研究した。Ichimura, Austern, VincentによるモデルとGlauberによるモデルのそれぞれを用いて非弾性分解反応の二重微分断面積を計算し、様々な反応系で結果を比較した。その結果、重陽子の非弾性分解反応では、Glauber模型と量子力学的行列を組み合わせることで、良好な結果が得られることがわかった。両モデルとも軽・中重核に対する実験値を良く再現するが、反応より反応の方がより高い再現性を示す。しかしながら、実験と理論計算の間にはまだ大きな食い違いがあり、さらなる調査や分析が必要である。本研究は、この分野における今後の研究の新たな可能性を開くものである。
Ren, Q.*; Gupta, M. K.*; Jin, M.*; Ding, J.*; Wu, J.*; Chen, Z.*; Lin, S.*; Fabelo, O.*; Rodriguez-Velamazan, J. A.*; 古府 麻衣子; et al.
Nature Materials, 22, p.999 - 1006, 2023/05
Ultralow thermal conductivity and fast ionic diffusion endow superionic materials with excellent performance both as thermoelectric converters and as solid-state electrolytes. Yet the correlation and interdependence between these two features remain unclear owing to a limited understanding of their complex atomic dynamics. Here we investigate ionic diffusion and lattice dynamics in argyrodite AgSnSe using synchrotron X-ray and neutron scattering techniques along with machine-learned molecular dynamics. We identify a critical interplay of the vibrational dynamics of mobile Ag and a host framework that controls the overdamping of low-energy Ag-dominated phonons into a quasi-elastic response, enabling superionicity. Concomitantly, the persistence of long-wavelength transverse acoustic phonons across the superionic transition challenges a proposed 'liquid-like thermal conduction' picture. Rather, a striking thermal broadening of low-energy phonons, starting even below 50 K, reveals extreme phonon anharmonicity and weak bonding as underlying features of the potential energy surface responsible for the ultralow thermal conductivity ( 0.5 WmK) and fast diffusion. Our results provide fundamental insights into the complex atomic dynamics in superionic materials for energy conversion and storage.
余語 覚文*; Lan, Z.*; 有川 安信*; 安部 勇輝*; Mirfayzi, S. R.*; Wei, T.*; 森 隆人*; Golovin, D.*; 早川 岳人*; 岩田 夏弥*; et al.
Physical Review X, 13(1), p.011011_1 - 011011_12, 2023/01
Neutrons are powerful tools for investigating the structure and properties of materials used in science and technology. Recently, laser-driven neutron sources (LDNS) have attracted the attention of different communities, from science to industry, in a variety of applications, including radiography, spectroscopy, security, and medicine. However, the laser-driven ion acceleration mechanism for neutron generation and for establishing the scaling law on the neutron yield is essential to improve the feasibility of LDNS. In this paper, we report the mechanism that accelerates ions with spectra suitable for neutron generation. We show that the neutron yield increases with the fourth power of the laser intensity, resulting in the neutron generation of in at a maximum, with Wcm, 900 J, 1.5 ps lasers. By installing a "hand-size" moderator, which is specially designed for the LDNS, it is demonstrated that the efficient generation of epithermal (0.1-100 eV) neutrons enables the single-shot analysis of composite materials by neutron resonance transmission analysis (NRTA). We achieve the energy resolution of 2.3% for 5.19-eV neutrons 1.8 m downstream of the LDNS. This leads to the analysis of elements and isotopes within sub-s times and allows for high-speed nondestructive inspection.
Wang, Z.; 杉山 智之
Engineering Analysis with Boundary Elements, 144, p.279 - 300, 2022/11
Numerical simulation of gas bubbles rising in liquid is challenging due to high density and viscosity ratios. This study proposes to separately model the liquid and gas phases by the incompressible Moving Particle Semi-implicit (MPS) method and the Weakly Compressible MPS (WCMPS) method. The liquid-gas phase interface is explicitly represented by a series of discrete nodes. By adequately enforcing the stress balance equation on these moving interface nodes, the MPS and WCMPS methods are coupled. Rather than being treated as the volume force, the surface tension is considered as a pressure jump at the interface. Without applying any smoothing or averaging scheme, the density, viscosity and pressure are discontinuous across the interface. The axisymmetric formulation is directly introduced based on the least squares scheme to save computational cost. In addition, a multi-time step algorithm is proposed so that independent time increments can be adopted for different phases. Furthermore, the particle shifting technique is extended to control the multi-spatial resolution dynamically and maintain the particle distribution quasi-isotropic. Several numerical tests, including hydrostatic pressure problems, droplet deformation and bubble rising benchmark are conducted to show the accuracy, efficiency and stability. Finally, validations are performed using experimental results with wide ranges of Reynolds number and Bond number, which dominate the bubble shape.
Wang, Z.; 杉山 智之; 松永 拓也*; 越塚 誠一*
Computers & Fluids, 247, p.105646_1 - 105646_21, 2022/10
This paper develops a highly accurate, multi-resolution particle method to simulate solid-liquid phase change coupled with the thermal flow. Instead of including the latent heat in the governing equation, the heat equations for solid and liquid phases are solved separately. A sharp interface model is proposed to represent the solid-liquid interface explicitly. The sharp interface, represented by discrete nodes, provides the Neumann boundary condition for pressure and the Dirichlet boundary condition for velocity/temperature, respectively. Based on temperature gradients in the solid and liquid phases, the positions of these interface nodes are updated every time step. The Eulerian-based formulation, rather than the conventional Lagrangian-based one, is utilized to minimize time step-dependent error. Up to 4th order spatial discretization scheme is adopted based on the Least Square Moving Particle Semi-implicit (LSMPS) scheme. Moreover, a geometry-based multi-resolution scheme is introduced to dynamically refine the spatial resolution near the interface for saving computational cost. The 1-D Stefan problem is firstly simulated to verify the accuracy of the proposed sharp interface model. Then, the consistency of the multi-resolution scheme is investigated by a convergence study of the Taylor-Green vortex problem. After that, numerical simulations of natural convection in a cavity are performed with different spatial resolutions and high order schemes. Resulted computational costs are compared and discussed. Finally, the problems of melting by natural convection with different Rayleigh numbers are investigated. The results achieved so far indicate that the multi-resolution and high order schemes have great potential to save computational cost.
小山 元道*; 山下 享介*; 諸岡 聡; 澤口 孝宏*; Yang, Z.*; 北條 智彦*; 川崎 卓郎; Harjo, S.
ISIJ International, 62(10), p.2036 - 2042, 2022/10
The local plasticity and associated microstructure evolution in Fe-5Mn-0.1C medium-Mn steel (wt.%) were investigated in this study. Specifically, the micro-deformation mechanism during Lders banding was characterized based on multi-scale electron backscatter diffraction measurements and electron channeling contrast imaging. Similar to other medium-Mn steels, the Fe-5Mn-0.1C steel showed discontinuous macroscopic deformation, preferential plastic deformation in austenite, and deformation-induced martensitic transformation during Lders deformation. Hexagonal close-packed martensite was also observed as an intermediate phase. Furthermore, an in-situ neutron diffraction experiment revealed that the pre-existing body-centered cubic phase, which was mainly ferrite, was a minor deformation path, although ferrite was the major constituent phase.
小山 元道*; 山下 享介*; 諸岡 聡; Yang, Z.*; Varanasi, R. S.*; 北條 智彦*; 川崎 卓郎; Harjo, S.
ISIJ International, 62(10), p.2043 - 2053, 2022/10
deformation experiments with cold-rolled and intercritically annealed Fe-5Mn-0.1C steel were carried out at ambient temperature to characterize the deformation heterogeneity during Lders band propagation. Deformation band formation, which is a precursor phenomenon of Lders band propagation, occurred even in the macroscopically elastic deformation stage. The deformation bands in the Lders front grew from both the side edges to the center of the specimen. After macroscopic yielding, the thin deformation bands grew via band branching, thickening, multiple band initiation, and their coalescence, the behavior of which was heterogeneous. Thick deformation bands formed irregularly in front of the region where the thin deformation bands were densified. The thin deformation bands were not further densified when the spacing of the bands was below 10 m. Instead, the regions between the deformation bands showed a homogeneous plasticity evolution. The growth of the thin deformation bands was discontinuous, which may be due to the presence of ferrite groups in the propagation path of the deformation bands. Based on these observations, a model for discontinuous Lders band propagation has been proposed.
Sheng, Q.*; 金子 竜也*; Yamakawa, Kohtaro*; Guguchia, Z.*; Gong, Z.*; Zhao, G.*; Dai, G.*; Jin, C.*; Guo, S.*; Fu, L.*; et al.
Physical Review Research (Internet), 4(3), p.033172_1 - 033172_14, 2022/09
A pyrite system NiSSe exhibits a bandwidth controlled Mott transition via (S,Se) substitutions in a two-step process: the antiferromagnetic insulator (AFI) to antiferromagnetic metal (AFM) transition at 0.45 followed by the AFM to paramagnetic metal (PMM) transition at 1.0. Among a few other Mott systems which exhibit similar two-step transitions, Ni(S,Se) is of particular interest because a large intermediate AFM region in the phase diagram would provide unique opportunities to study the interplay between the spin and charge order. By comparing and combining our muon spin relaxation studies and previous neutron scattering studies, here we propose a picture where the spin order is maintained by the percolation of "nonmetallic" localized and dangling Ni moments surrounded by S, while the charge transition from AFI to AFM is caused by the percolation of the conducting paths generated by the Ni-Se-Ni bonds.
山野 秀将; 高井 俊秀; 江村 優軌; 福山 博之*; 東 英生*; 西 剛史*; 太田 弘道*; 守田 幸路*; 中村 勤也*; 深井 尋史*; et al.
Proceedings of 13th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal-Hydraulics, Operation and Safety (NUTHOS-13) (Internet), 12 Pages, 2022/09
Zhang, M. M.*; Tian, Y. L.*; Wang, Y. S.*; Zhang, Z. Y.*; Gan, Z. G.*; Yang, H. B.*; Huang, M. H.*; Ma, L.*; Yang, C. L.*; Wang, J. G.*; et al.
Physical Review C, 106(2), p.024305_1 - 024305_6, 2022/08
The extremely neutron-deficient even-even uranium isotopes U were produced in the complete-fusion reactions induced by impinging Ar and Ca ions on W targets. Fusion evaporation residues were separated in flight by the gas-filled recoil separator SHANS (Spectrometer for Heavy Atoms and Nuclear Structure) and subsequently identified using the recoil--correlation method. In this paper, we report on new -decay activities with keV for U and keV for U, which decay from the 8 isomeric states of U into the 2 states of their daughter nuclei Th, respectively. The new results extend the systematics of the -decay fine structure for the = 124 and 126 even-even isotones.
Walter, H.*; Colonna, M.*; Cozma, D.*; Danielewicz, P.*; Ko, C. M.*; Kumar, R.*; 小野 章*; Tsang, M. Y. B*; Xu, J.*; Zhang, Y.-X.*; et al.
Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics, 125, p.103962_1 - 103962_90, 2022/07
原子核-原子核衝突や原子核の状態方程式の研究において、反応計算モデルは重要なツールとなり、世界中で開発が進んでいる。本論文は、原子力機構のJQMD-2.0を含め、現在開発中の複数のコード開発者の協力により、これらコードを同じ条件で比較することで共通点や差異を明らかにしたプロジェクトTransport Model Evaluation Project (TMEP)を総括したものである。参加したコードはBoltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck(BUU)法に基づく13のコードと、Quantum Molecular Dynamics (QMD)法に基づく12のコードであった。プロジェクトでは、Au原子核同士を衝突させてその終状態を観測する現実的な計算や、一辺が640nmの箱に核子を詰めて時間発展させる仮想的な計算を行った。その結果、BUU法コードとQMD法コードは計算原理が異なるため、計算の設定に関係なく系統的な差異が生じることが明らかになった。その一方で、同じ方法を採用するコード間の比較では、時間発展を細かく計算することでコード間の差は埋まっていき、一定の収束値を持つことが示された。この結果は今後開発される同分野のコードのベンチマークデータとして有用なものであるだけでなく、原子核基礎物理学の実験や理論研究の標準的な指針としても役に立つことが期待される。
西田 明美; 村上 高宏*; 里田 啓*; 浅野 祐也*; Guo, Z. H.*; 大嶋 昌巳*; 松川 圭輔*; 中島 憲宏
Transactions of 26th International Conference on Structural Mechanics in Reactor Technology (SMiRT-26) (Internet), 10 Pages, 2022/07
Miao, Z.-Q.*; Xia, C.-J.*; Lai, X.-Y.*; 丸山 敏毅; Xu, R.-X.*; Zhou, E.-P.*
International Journal of Modern Physics E, 31(4), p.2250037_1 - 2250037_20, 2022/04
It is suggested that pulsar-like compact stars are comprised entirely of strangeons (quark-clusters with three-light-flavor symmetry) and a small amount of electrons. To constrain the properties of strangeon stars, we propose a linked bag model to describe matter with the strong interaction in both 2-flavored (nucleons) and 3-flavored (hyperons, strangeons, etc.) scenarios. The parameters are calibrated to reproduce the saturation properties of nuclear matter. The energy per baryon of strangeon matter is smaller than that of baryon matter if the strangeon carries a large number of valence quarks, which stiffens the equation of state and consequently increases the maximum mass of strangeon stars. The maximum mass and tidal deformability of strangeon stars within the present model are consistent with the observation, i.e. the maximum mass of strangeon stars can be 2.5 solar mass, and the tidal deformability of a 1.4 solar mass star can be .
新井 陽介*; 黒田 健太*; 野本 拓也*; Tin, Z. H.*; 櫻木 俊輔*; Bareille, C.*; 明比 俊太朗*; 黒川 輝風*; 木下 雄斗*; Zhang, W.-L.*; et al.
Nature Materials, 21(4), p.410 - 415, 2022/04
Low-energy electronic structures of CeSb which shows multiple phase transitions known as devil's staircase were examined by combination of laser angle-resolved photoemission, Raman and neutron scattering spectroscopies. A new type of electron-boson coupling between the mobile electrons and quadrupole CEF-excitations of the 4f orbitals was found. The coupling is exceedingly strong and exhibits anomalous step-like enhancement during the devil's staircase transition, unveiling a new type of quasiparticle, named multipole polaron.
Liu, M.*; Gong, W.; Zheng, R.*; Li, J.*; Zhang, Z.*; Gao, S.*; Ma, C.*; 辻 伸泰*
Acta Materialia, 226, p.117629_1 - 117629_13, 2022/03
One hopeful path to realize good comprehensive mechanical properties in metallic materials is to accomplish homogeneous nanocrystalline (NC) or ultrafine grained (UFG) structure with low dislocation density. In this work, high pressure torsion deformation followed by appropriate annealing was performed on 316 stainless steel (SS). For the first time, we successfully obtained NC/UFG 316 SS having uniform microstructures with various average grain sizes ranging from 46 nm to 2.54 m and low dislocation densities. Among the series, an un-precedentedly high yield strength (2.34 GPa) was achieved at the smallest grain size of 46 nm, in which dislocation scarcity induced hardening accounting for 57% of the strength. On the other hand, exceptional strength-ductility synergy with high yield strength (900 MPa) and large uniform elongation (27%) was obtained in the fully recrystallized specimen having the grain size of 0.38 m. The high yield stress and scarcity of dislocation sources in recrystallized UFGs activated stacking faults and deformation twins nucleating from grain boundaries during straining, and their interaction with dislocations allowed for sustainable strain hardening, which also agreed with the plaston concept recently proposed. The multiple deformation modes activated, together with the effective strengthening mechanisms, were responsible for the outstanding comprehensive mechanical performance of the material.
Wei, D.*; Wang, L.*; Zhang, Y.*; Gong, W.; 都留 智仁; Lobzenko, I.; Jiang, J.*; Harjo, S.; 川崎 卓郎; Bae, J. W.*; et al.
Acta Materialia, 225, p.117571_1 - 117571_16, 2022/02
Recently-developed high-entropy alloys (HEAs) containing multiple principal metallic elements have ex-tended the compositional space of solid solutions and the range of their mechanical properties. Here we show that the realm of possibilities can be further expanded through substituting the constituent metals with metalloids, which are desirable for tailoring strength/ductility because they have chemical interactions and atomic sizes distinctly different from the host metallic elements. Specifically, the metalloid substitution increases local lattice distortion and short-range chemical inhomogeneities to elevate strength, and in the meantime reduces the stacking fault energy to discourage dynamic recovery and encourage defect accumulation via partial-dislocation-mediated activities. These impart potent dislocation storage to improve the strain hardening capability, which is essential for sustaining large tensile elongation. As such, metalloid substitution into HEAs evades the normally expected strength-ductility trade-off, enabling an unusual synergy of high tensile strength and extraordinary ductility for these single-phase solid solutions.
Wang, Z.; 杉山 智之
Engineering Analysis with Boundary Elements, 135, p.266 - 283, 2022/02
The moving particle semi-implicit (MPS) method has great potential in dealing with free surface flow due to its Lagrangian nature. In most cases, the free surface boundary is simply served as the pressure boundary condition. In this paper, an improved MPS method is presented for thermocapillary driven free surface flow. A series of surface nodes explicitly represent the free surface boundary. The normal stress on the free surface provides the Dirichlet pressure boundary condition, while the velocity boundary condition, i.e., Marangoni stress, is enforced through the Taylor series expansion and least squares method. Meanwhile, a quasi-Lagrangian formulation is introduced to avoid particle clustering and the corresponding numerical instability by slightly modifying the advection velocity. The upwind scheme is employed for the convection term to obtain accurate and stable results. A novel constraint scheme with the divergence of provisional velocity is developed for the pressure gradient to enhance stability further. The consistency of the derived generalized boundary condition is firstly verified with a simple convergence test. Then, several numerical tests, including square patch rotation, lid-driven and square droplet oscillation, are simulated to show the improvements. Finally, thermocapillary driven flows in an open cavity without and with buoyancy effect are studied. Good agreements are obtained by comparing with reference simulations taken from literature. Heat transfer characteristics are further investigated for different dimensionless numbers, including the Rayleigh number and Marangoni number.
Yang, J.*; Ren, W.*; Zhao, X.*; 菊地 龍弥*; Miao, P.*; 中島 健次; Li, B.*; Zhang, Z.*
Journal of Materials Science & Technology, 99, p.55 - 60, 2022/02
Bao, S.*; Wang, W.*; Shangguan, Y.*; Cai, Z.*; Dong, Z.-Y.*; Huang, Z.*; Si, W.*; Ma, Z.*; 梶本 亮一; 池内 和彦*; et al.
Physical Review X, 12(1), p.011022_1 - 011022_15, 2022/02
In the local or itinerant extreme, magnetic excitations can be described by the Heisenberg model which treats electron spins as localized moments, or by the itinerant-electron model where the exchange interaction between electrons leads to unequal numbers of electrons with up and down spins. However, the nature of the magnetic excitations has been elusive when both local moments and itinerant electrons are present in the intermediate range. Using inelastic neutron scattering, we provide direct spectroscopic evidence on the coexistence of and interplay between local moments and itinerant electrons in a van der Waals metallic ferromagnet FeGeTe, which can sustain tunable room-temperature ferromagnetism down to the monolayer limit. We find that there exist ferromagnetic spin-wave excitations dispersing from the zone center at low energies resulting from local moments and a columnlike broad continuum at the zone boundary at high energies up to over 100 meV resulting from itinerant electrons. Unlike the two-dimensional crystal structure, the low-energy mode exhibits a three-dimensional nature, and the high-energy mode also has an out-of-plane dependence. Both modes persist well above the Curie temperature of 160 K. Our neutron spectroscopic data reveal that the low-energy spin waves at 100 K are more coherent than those at 4 K, which is evidence of the weakening of the Kondo screening at high temperatures. These results unambiguously demonstrate the coexistence of local moments and itinerant electrons and the Kondo effect between these two components in FeGeTe. Such behaviors are generally expected in heavy-fermion systems with heavy electrons but are rarely clearly observed in materials with light electrons. These findings shed light on the understanding of magnetism in transition-metal compounds.