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論文

Catalog of gamma-ray glows during four winter seasons in Japan

和田 有希*; 松本 崇弘*; 榎戸 輝揚*; 中澤 知洋*; 湯浅 孝行*; 古田 禄大*; 米徳 大輔*; 澤野 達哉*; 岡田 豪*; 南戸 秀仁*; et al.

Physical Review Research (Internet), 3(4), p.043117_1 - 043117_31, 2021/12

In 2015 the Gamma-Ray Observation of Winter Thunderstorms (GROWTH) collaboration launched a mapping observation campaign for high-energy atmospheric phenomena related to thunderstorms and lightning discharges. This campaign has developed a detection network of gamma rays with up to 10 radiation monitors installed in Kanazawa and Komatsu cities, Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan, where low-charge-center winter thunderstorms frequently occur. During four winter seasons from October 2016 to April 2020, in total 70 gamma-ray glows, minute-lasting bursts of gamma rays originating from thunderclouds, were detected. Their average duration is 58.9 sec. Among the detected events, 77% were observed in nighttime. The gamma-ray glows can be classified into temporally-symmetric, temporally-asymmetric, and lightning-terminated types based on their count-rate histories. An averaged energy spectrum of the gamma-ray glows is well fitted with a power-law function with an exponential cutoff, whose photon index, cutoff energy, and flux are 0.613 $$pm$$ 0.009, 4.68 $$pm$$ 0.04 MeV, and (1.013 $$pm$$ 0.003) $$times$$ 10$$^{-5}$$ erg cm$$^{-2}$$s$$^{-1}$$ (0.2-20.0 MeV), respectively. The present paper provides the first catalog of gamma-ray glows and their statistical analysis detected during winter thunderstorms in the Kanazawa and Komatsu areas.

論文

Gamma-ray observations at the coastal area of Japan Sea in winter seasons

土屋 晴文; 榎戸 輝揚*; 和田 有希*; 古田 禄大; 中澤 知洋*; 湯浅 孝行*; 楳本 大悟*; 牧島 一夫*; GROWTH collaboration*

Proceedings of Science (Internet), 358, 6 Pages, 2021/07

Since 2006, the GROWTH experiment has been successfully operating at the coastal area of Japan Sea. The GROWTH experiment aims at elucidating how particles in lightning and thunderclouds are accelerated to relativistic energies to produce gamma rays and occasionally neutrons. According to observations done by the GROWTH experiment, it is found that there are two types of radiation bursts associated with winter thunderstorms. One is long bursts lasting for a few tens of seconds to a few minutes, being not clearly related to lightning. The other is short bursts in association with lightning. To better understand the production mechanism of these radiation bursts, we have developed a small-type of radiation detectors and increased observational points with the new detectors. In this presentation, we show an overview of observations done by the GROWTH experiment. Then we focus on recent several findings observed by the new detectors. One, which is categorized into long bursts, implies a relationship between a long burst and an intra/inter-cloud discharge. Another is a combination of short bursts and long ones, showing simultaneous detections of prompt gamma rays extending up to 10 MeV and the 511-keV annihilation ones. These gamma-ray signals demonstrate the occurrence of photonuclear reactions in lightning. Based on these results, we discuss the production mechanism of gamma rays related to thunderstorms.

論文

Meteorological aspects of gamma-ray glows in winter thunderstorms

和田 有希*; 榎戸 輝揚*; 久保 守*; 中澤 知洋*; 篠田 太郎*; 米徳 大輔*; 澤野 達哉*; 湯浅 孝行*; 牛尾 知雄*; 佐藤 陽祐*; et al.

Geophysical Research Letters, 48(7), 11 Pages, 2021/04

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:0(Geosciences, Multidisciplinary)

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論文

Photonuclear reactions in lightning, 1; Verification and modeling of reaction and propagation processes

和田 有希*; 榎戸 輝揚*; 中澤 知洋*; 小高 裕和*; 古田 禄大; 土屋 晴文

Journal of Geophysical Research; Atmospheres, 125(20), 17 Pages, 2020/10

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:0.01(Meteorology & Atmospheric Sciences)

We report simulation results of photonuclear reactions in the atmosphere triggered by a downward terrestrial gamma-ray flash in lightning. Possible channels of reactions in the atmosphere and their cross sections are verified with the ENDF/B-VII.1 library. Monte-Carlo simulations with two stages are then performed with the Geant4 framework. In the first stage, electrons following the relativistic runaway electron avalanche spectrum are produced in a mass model of the atmosphere, and production of photoneutrons and $$beta^{+}$$-decay nuclei is calculated based on the nuclear data library. In total 1$$times$$$$10^{13}$$ neutrons and 4$$times$$$$10^{12}$$ $$beta^{+}$$-decay nuclei are produced by $$10^{18}$$ energetic electrons above 1 MeV. In the second stage, propagation of the photoneutrons and positrons from the $$beta^{+}$$-decay nuclei in the previous stage is calculated. As a result, we model on-ground distributions of fluxes and energy spectra for neutrons, neutron-related gamma rays, and annihilation ones. The simulation model is to be compared with photonuclear events detected in low-charge-center winter thunderstorms.

論文

Thundercloud project; Exploring high-energy phenomena in thundercloud and lightning

湯浅 孝行*; 和田 有希*; 榎戸 輝揚*; 古田 禄大; 土屋 晴文; 久富 章平*; 辻 結菜*; 奥田 和史*; 松元 崇弘*; 中澤 知洋*; et al.

Progress of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (Internet), 2020(10), p.103H01_1 - 103H01_27, 2020/10

 被引用回数:2 パーセンタイル:32.18(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

We designed, developed, and deployed a distributed sensor network aiming at observing high-energy ionizing radiation, primarily gamma rays, from winter thunderclouds and lightning in coastal areas of Japan. Starting in 2015, we have installed, in total, more than 15 units of ground-based detector system in Ishikawa Prefecture and Niigata Prefecture, and accumulated 551 days of observation time in four winter seasons from late 2015 to early 2019. In this period, our system recorded 51 gamma-ray radiation events from thundercloud and lightning. Highlights of science results obtained from this unprecedented amount of data include the discovery of photonuclear reaction in lightning which produces neutrons and positrons along with gamma rays, and deeper insights into the life cycle of a particle-acceleration and gamma-ray-emitting region in a thunder-cloud. The present paper reviews objective, methodology, and results of our experiment, with a stress on its instrumentation.

論文

Photoneutron detection in lightning by gadolinium orthosilicate scintillators

和田 有希*; 中澤 知洋*; 榎戸 輝揚*; 古田 禄大; 湯浅 孝行*; 牧島 一夫*; 土屋 晴文

Physical Review D, 101(10), p.102007_1 - 102007_6, 2020/05

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:22.99(Astronomy & Astrophysics)

During a winter thunderstorm on November 24, 2017, a downward terrestrial gamma-ray flash took place and triggered photonuclear reactions with atmospheric nitrogen and oxygen nuclei, coincident with a lightning discharge at the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power station in Japan. We directly detected neutrons produced by the photonuclear reactions with gadolinium orthosilicate scintillation crystals installed at sea level. Two gadolinium isotopes included in the scintillation crystals, $$^{155}$$Gd and $$^{157}$$Gd, have large cross sections of neutron captures to thermal neutrons such as $$^{155}$$Gd(n,$$gamma$$)$$^{156}$$Gd and $$^{157}$$Gd(n,$$gamma$$)$$^{158}$$Gd. De-excitation gamma rays from $$^{156}$$Gd and $$^{158}$$Gd are self-absorbed in the scintillation crystals, and make spectral-line features which can be distinguished from other non-neutron signals. The neutron burst lasted for $$sim$$100 ms, and neutron fluences are estimated to be $$>$$ 58 and $$>$$ 31 neutrons cm$$^{-2}$$ at two observation points at the power plant. Gadolinium orthosilicate scintillators work as valid detectors for thermal neutrons in lightning.

論文

Downward terrestrial gamma-ray flash observed in a winter thunderstorm

和田 有希*; 榎戸 輝揚*; 中澤 知洋*; 古田 禄大; 湯浅 孝行*; 中村 佳敬*; 森本 健志*; 松元 崇弘*; 牧島 一夫*; 土屋 晴文

Physical Review Letters, 123(6), p.061103_1 - 061103_6, 2019/08

 被引用回数:14 パーセンタイル:82.27(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

During a winter thunderstorm on 2017 November 24, a strong burst of gamma-rays with energies up to $$sim$$10 MeV was detected coincident with a lightning discharge, by scintillation detectors installed at Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant at sea level in Japan. The burst had a sub-second duration, which is suggestive of photoneutron productions. The leading part of the burst was resolved into four intense gamma-ray bunches, each coincident with a low-frequency radio pulse. These bunches were separated by 0.7$$-$$1.5 ms, with a duration of $$<$$1 ms each. Thus, the present burst may be considered as a "downward" terrestrial gamma-ray flash (TGF), which is analogous to up-going TGFs observed from space. Although the scintillation detectors were heavily saturated by these bunches, the total dose associated with them was successfully measured by ionization chambers, employed by nine monitoring posts surrounding the power plant. From this information and Monte Carlo simulations, the present downward TGF is suggested to have taken place at an altitude of 2500$$pm$$500 m, involving $$8^{+8}_{-4} times10^{18}$$ avalanche electrons with energies above 1 MeV which is comparable to those in up-going TGFs.

論文

Gamma-ray glow preceding downward terrestrial gamma-ray flash

和田 有希*; 榎戸 輝揚*; 中村 佳敬*; 古田 禄大; 湯浅 孝行*; 中澤 知洋*; 森本 健志*; 佐藤 光輝*; 松元 崇弘*; 米徳 大輔*; et al.

Communications Physics (Internet), 2(1), p.67_1 - 67_9, 2019/06

 被引用回数:18 パーセンタイル:89.5(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

Two types of high-energy events have been detected from thunderstorms. One is "terrestrial gamma-ray flashes" (TGFs), sub-millisecond emissions coinciding with lightning discharges. The other is minute-lasting "gamma-ray glows". Although both phenomena are thought to originate from relativistic runaway electron avalanches in strong electric fields, the connection between them is not well understood. Here we report unequivocal simultaneous detection of a gamma-ray glow termination and a downward TGF, observed from the ground. During a winter thunderstorm in Japan on 9 January 2018, our detectors caught a gamma-ray glow, which moved for $$/sim$$ 100 s with ambient wind, and then abruptly ceased with a lightning discharge. Simultaneously, the detectors observed photonuclear reactions triggered by a downward TGF, whose radio pulse was located within $$sim$$ 1 km from where the glow ceased. It is suggested that the highly-electrified region producing the glow was related to the initiation of the downward TGF.

論文

Termination of electron acceleration in thundercloud by intracloud/intercloud discharge

和田 有希*; Bowers, G. S.*; 榎戸 輝揚*; 鴨川 仁*; 中村 佳敬*; 森本 健志*; Smith, D.*; 古田 禄大*; 中澤 知洋*; 湯浅 孝行*; et al.

Geophysical Research Letters, 45(11), p.5700 - 5707, 2018/06

 被引用回数:16 パーセンタイル:79.35(Geosciences, Multidisciplinary)

An on-ground observation program for high energy atmospheric phenomena in winter thunderstorms along Japan Sea has been performed via lightning measurements of $$gamma$$-ray radiation, atmospheric electric field and low-frequency radio band. On February 11, 2017, the radiation detectors recorded $$gamma$$-ray emission lasting for 75 sec. The $$gamma$$-ray spectrum extended up to 20 MeV and was reproduced by a cutoff power-law model with a photon index of 1.36$$^{+0.03}_{-0.04}$$, being consistent with a Bremsstrahlung radiation from a thundercloud (as known as a $$gamma$$-ray glow). Then the $$gamma$$-ray glow was abruptly terminated with a nearby lightning discharge. The low-frequency radio monitors, installed $$sim$$50 km away from Noto School, recorded intra/inter-cloud discharges spreading over $$sim$$60km area with a $$sim$$300 ms duration. The timing of the $$gamma$$-ray termination coincided with the moment when a sequence of intra/inter-cloud discharges passed 0.7 km horizontally away from the radiation monitors. The atmospheric electric-field measurement presented that negative charge was located in the cloud base and not neutralized by the lightning discharge. This indicates that the $$gamma$$-ray source was located at an higher region than the cloud base.

論文

Photonuclear reactions triggered by lightning discharge

榎戸 輝揚*; 和田 有希*; 古田 禄大*; 中澤 知洋*; 湯浅 孝行*; 奥田 和史*; 牧島 一夫*; 佐藤 光輝*; 佐藤 陽祐*; 中野 俊男*; et al.

Nature, 551(7681), p.481 - 484, 2017/11

 被引用回数:71 パーセンタイル:97.24(Multidisciplinary Sciences)

Relativistic electrons accelerated by electric fields of lightnings and thunderclouds emit bremsstrahlung $$gamma$$ rays, which have been detected at ground observations. The energy of the $$gamma$$ rays is sufficiently high to potentially invoke atmospheric photonuclear reactions $$^{14}$$N($$gamma$$, n)$$^{13}$$N, which would produce neutrons and eventually positrons via $$beta^{+}$$ decay of generated unstable radioactive isotopes, especially $$^{13}$$N. However, no clear observational evidence for the reaction has been reported to date. Here we report the first detection of neutron and positron signals from lightning with a ground observation. During a thunderstorm on 6 February 2017 in Japan, an intense $$gamma$$-ray flash ($$<$$1 ms) was detected at our monitoring sites. The subsequent initial burst quickly subsided with an exponential decay constant of 40-60 ms, followed by a prolonged line emission at $$sim$$0.511MeV, lasting for a minute. The observed decay timescale and spectral cutoff at $$sim$$10 MeV of the initial emission are well explained with de-excitation $$gamma$$ rays from the nuclei excited by neutron capture. The centre energy of the prolonged line emission corresponds to the electron-positron annihilation, and hence is the conclusive indication of positrons produced after the lightning. Our detection of neutrons and positrons is unequivocal evidence that natural lightning triggers photonuclear reactions.

論文

High-resolution Compton cameras based on Si/CdTe double-sided strip detectors

小高 裕和*; 一戸 悠人*; 武田 伸一郎*; 福山 太郎*; 萩野 浩一*; 齋藤 新也*; 佐藤 有*; 佐藤 悟朗*; 渡辺 伸*; 国分 紀秀*; et al.

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 695, p.179 - 183, 2012/12

 被引用回数:19 パーセンタイル:84.11(Instruments & Instrumentation)

Si/CdTe半導体両面ストリップ検出器(DSD)を用いた新しいコンプトンカメラの開発を行った。このカメラは、各面において電極が128ストリップ(250$$mu$$mピッチ)で分割されている、厚さ500$$mu$$mのSi-DSDと4層の厚さ750$$mu$$mのCdTe-DSDから成り、ファインピッチのDSDを4mm間隔で積層配置することで、高角度分解能(356keVで4.5度、662keVで3.5度)を有しかつ小型な装置を実現している。許容できる検出効率を保ちつつこのような高解像度を得るために、コンプトン散乱連続スペクトルを用いたエネルギー較正法と、CdTe-DSD内の深度計測を用いたデータ処理法を新たに試みた。さらに、同時マルチエネルギーイメージングの結果を用いて、カメラの撮像能力について詳細な検討を行った。

論文

Applications and imaging techniques of a Si/CdTe Compton $$gamma$$-ray camera

武田 伸一郎*; 一戸 悠人*; 萩野 浩一*; 小高 裕和*; 湯浅 孝行*; 石川 真之介*; 福山 太郎*; 齋藤 新也*; 佐藤 有*; 佐藤 悟朗*; et al.

Physics Procedia, 37, p.859 - 866, 2012/10

 被引用回数:16 パーセンタイル:98.04

ASTRO-Hミッションのために開発されたSi/CdTe半導体両面ストリップ検出器(DSD)を利用したコンプトンカメラを用い、放射線ホットスポットのモニタリングの実行可能性チェックを目的とした複数放射線源の画像化実験を行った。本装置は半導体検出器によって与えられた良好なエネルギー分解能により、既に商業的な画像処理システムが提供するホットスポットの画像可能力に加え、複数の放射性同位元素を同定する能力を有する。今回の実験では、$$^{133}$$Ba(356keV), $$^{22}$$Na(511keV)及び$$^{137}$$Cs(662keV)の三放射性同位元素を同時に測定し、これらの画像化に成功した。5つの検出器モジュール(有効面積: 1.7$$times$$10$$^{-3}$$cm$$^2$$)を積み重ねることによって、662keVの$$gamma$$線に対し、検出効率1.68$$times$$10$$^{-4}$$、及び、3.8度の角度分解能を確認した。本装置は、より多くの検出器モジュールをスタックすることにより、さらに大きな検出効率を達成することが可能である。

論文

高温工学試験研究炉(HTTR)の高温連続運転

高松 邦吉; 沢 和弘; 國富 一彦; 日野 竜太郎; 小川 益郎; 小森 芳廣; 中澤 利雄*; 伊与久 達夫; 藤本 望; 西原 哲夫; et al.

日本原子力学会和文論文誌, 10(4), p.290 - 300, 2011/12

高温工学試験研究炉(HTTR)において平成22年1月から3月にかけて50日間の高温(950$$^{circ}$$C)連続運転を実施し、水素製造に必要な高温の熱を長期にわたり安定供給できることを世界で初めて示した。本運転の成功により、高温ガス炉の技術基盤を確立するとともに、低炭素社会に向けて温室効果ガスを排出しない革新的な熱化学水素製造等の熱源として原子力エネルギーを利用できることを世界で初めて実証した。

論文

Experimental results of the $$gamma$$-ray imaging capability with a Si/CdTe semiconductor Compton camera

武田 伸一郎*; 青野 博之*; 奥山 翔*; 石川 真之介*; 小高 裕和*; 渡辺 伸*; 国分 紀秀*; 高橋 忠幸*; 中澤 知洋*; 田島 宏康*; et al.

IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 56(3), p.783 - 790, 2009/06

 被引用回数:47 パーセンタイル:95.74(Engineering, Electrical & Electronic)

A semiconductor Compton camera that combines silicon (Si) and Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) detectors was developed, and its imaging capability was examined with various kinds of $$gamma$$-ray targets such as a point source, arranged point sources and an extended source. The camera consists of one double-sided Si strip detector and four layers of CdTe pad detectors, and was designed to minimize the distance between a scatterer and the target. This is because the spatial resolution with Compton imaging improves as the target approaches the scatterer. This new camera realizes a minimum distance of 25 mm. By placing the target at a distance of 30 mm from the detector, resolving power better than 3 mm was demonstrated experimentally for a 364 keV ($$^{131}$$I) $$gamma$$-ray. Positional determination with accuracy of 1 mm was also demonstrated. As a deconvolution method, we selected the iteration algorithm (called List-Mode Expectation-Maximizing Maximum Likelihood), and applied it to several kinds of experimental data. The Compton back projection images of the arranged point sources and an extended object were successfully deconvolved.

論文

Observation of an energetic radiation burst from mountain-top thunderclouds

土屋 晴文*; 榎戸 輝揚*; 鳥居 建男; 中澤 知洋*; 湯浅 孝行*; 鳥井 俊輔*; 福山 太郎*; 山口 貴弘*; 加藤 博*; 岡野 眞治*; et al.

Physical Review Letters, 102(25), p.255003_1 - 255003_4, 2009/06

 被引用回数:59 パーセンタイル:89.79(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

2008年9月20日に標高2770mの乗鞍観測所において$$gamma$$線と電子が同時に検出された。これらの放出は、雷雲活動によるもの考えられ90秒続いた。$$gamma$$線のエネルギーは10MeVに達し、距離60$$sim$$130mにある線源からの制動放射線によるものと推定された。電子は、雷雲中での加速によって生成されたものと考えられる。

報告書

HTTR高温試験運転の出力上昇試験計画

坂場 成昭; 中川 繁昭; 高田 英治*; 野尻 直喜; 島川 聡司; 植田 祥平; 沢 和弘; 藤本 望; 中澤 利雄; 足利谷 好信; et al.

JAERI-Tech 2003-043, 59 Pages, 2003/03

JAERI-Tech-2003-043.pdf:2.54MB

HTTRは、原子炉出口冷却材温度950$$^{circ}C$$の達成を目指した高温試験運転による出力上昇試験を平成15年度に計画している。高温試験運転の実施にあたっては、被覆粒子燃料を使用し、ヘリウムガス冷却を行う我が国初の高温ガス炉であることを念頭に、これまで実施してきた出力上昇試験(定格運転30MW及び原子炉出口冷却材温度850$$^{circ}C$$までの試験)での知見をもとに計画する。高温試験運転においては、温度の上昇に従ってより厳しくなる、原子炉の核熱設計,放射線遮へい設計及びプラント設計が適切であることを確認しながら実施する。本報では、HTTRの安全性確保に重要な燃料,制御棒及び中間熱交換器について、定格運転モードでの運転データに基づき、高温試験運転時の安全性の再確認を行った結果を示すとともに、これまでに摘出された課題とその対策を示した。加えて、高温試験運転における試験項目摘出の考え方を示し、実施する試験項目を具体化した。その結果、原子炉施設の安全を確保しつつ、原子炉熱出力30MW,原子炉出口冷却材温度950$$^{circ}C$$の達成の見通しを得た。

報告書

高温工学試験研究炉の出力上昇試験; 試験経過及び結果の概要

中川 繁昭; 藤本 望; 島川 聡司; 野尻 直喜; 竹田 武司; 七種 明雄; 植田 祥平; 小嶋 崇夫; 高田 英治*; 齋藤 賢司; et al.

JAERI-Tech 2002-069, 87 Pages, 2002/08

JAERI-Tech-2002-069.pdf:10.12MB

高温工学試験研究炉(High Temperature engineering Test Reactor : HTTR)の出力上昇試験は、30MW運転時に原子炉出口冷却材温度が850$$^{circ}C$$となる「定格運転」モードでの試験として、平成12年4月23日から原子炉出力10MWまでの出力上昇試験(1)を行い、その後、原子炉出力20MWまでの出力上昇試験(2),30MW運転時に原子炉出口冷却材温度が950$$^{circ}C$$となる「高温試験運転」モードにおいて原子炉出力20MWまでの出力上昇試験(3)を行った。定格出力30MW運転達成のための試験として平成13年10月23日から出力上昇試験(4)を開始し、平成13年12月7日に定格出力30MWの到達及び原子炉出口冷却材温度850$$^{circ}C$$の達成を確認した。出力上昇試験(4)については、平成14年3月6日まで実施し、定格出力30MWからの商用電源喪失試験をもって全ての試験検査を終了して使用前検査合格証を取得した。「定格運転」モードにおける原子炉出力30MWまでの試験結果から、原子炉、冷却系統施設等の性能を確認することができ、原子炉を安定に運転できることを確認した。また、試験で明らかとなった課題を適切に処置することで、原子炉出力30MW,原子炉出口冷却材温度950$$^{circ}C$$の達成の見通しを得た。

口頭

The Experimental results of a $$gamma$$-ray imaging with a Si/CdTe semiconductor Compton camera

武田 伸一郎*; 青野 博之*; 石川 真之介*; 小高 裕和*; 渡辺 伸*; 国分 紀秀*; 高橋 忠幸*; 奥山 翔*; 中澤 知洋*; 田島 宏康*; et al.

no journal, , 

A $$gamma$$-ray imaging detector is required in various fields such as high-energy astrophysics, medical imaging and nondestructive inspection. We have proposed a concept of the Si/CdTe semiconductor Compton camera, which consists of many layers of thin Si and CdTe detectors. The Si/CdTe Compton camera features high energy resolution and high angular resolution. Recently, we developed a new Compton camera system for a balloon borne astrophysical experiment. It consists of a 4-layers stack of double-sided silicon strip detector (DSSD) modules and 32 CdTe pad detectors symmetrically surrounding the DSSD stack. The Compton reconstruction was successfully performed and the $$gamma$$-ray images were obtained from 662 keV down to 59.5 keV. The Angular Resolution Measure (ARM) is 3.5 degree (FWHM) and 2.5 degree (FWHM) at 356 keV and 511 keV, respectively. The Si/CdTe Compton camera which has such good angular resolution is also attractive for medical imaging and/or nondestructive inspection. An internal structure of about one mm can be resolved when the distance between the camera and a target becomes closer than a few mm. We developed another prototype which enable us to approach the target down to 20 mm. In this presentation, we will show the experimental results of this prototype and also discuss Compton reconstruction methods.

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Application of double-sided silicon strip detectors for a Si/CdTe Compton camera

青野 博之*; 武田 伸一郎*; 石川 真之介*; 小高 裕和*; 国分 紀秀*; 渡辺 伸*; 高橋 忠幸*; 中澤 知洋*; 奥山 翔*; 田島 宏康*; et al.

no journal, , 

We have developed a low noise double-sided silicon strip detector for hard X-ray imaging spectroscopy. Development of low-noise analog electronics, optimized double-sided silicon strip detectors and a compact assembly technology realized the high-quality X-ray imaging device with fine energy, position and timing resolutions, and good uniformity. Imaging detectors in 10-100 keV would be attractive in various fields such as astrophysics, medical and nondestructive inspection. For these purposes, the development the next generation Compton Camera is now underway.

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日本海沿岸における冬の雷や雷雲に伴う放射線観測

土屋 晴文; 榎戸 輝揚*; 和田 有希*; 古田 禄大*; 中澤 知洋*; 湯浅 孝行*; 奥田 和史*; 牧島 一夫*; 佐藤 光輝*; 佐藤 陽祐*; et al.

no journal, , 

日本海沿岸地域にある原子力発電所や自治体が持つモニタリングポストにより、冬の雷の発生や雷雲の通過に伴った3MeV以上の高エネルギー放射線量の増大が観測されていた。こうした放射線は、雷や雷雲がもつ電場によって加速された電子の制動放射$$gamma$$線であると考えられている。また、近年、雷や雷雲に付随して中性子や陽電子の信号を捉えたという報告もあった。これは、制動放射だけではなく様々な高エネルギー反応が雷や雷雲の中で起こっている可能性を示唆しており、活発な議論がなされている。本発表では、現在までに原子力センシング研究グループが観測したロングバーストと呼ばれる雷雲の通過に伴って放射線量が数分ほど増大する事象と、雷に同期して発生する継続時間が1秒以下のショートバーストの観測結果について報告する。特に、2017年2月の落雷に伴って発生したショートバーストでは、雷が光核反応を誘発し、中性子, 陽電子および酸素や炭素の放射性同位体を生成した実験的な証拠を初めて確認することに成功した。本発表では、それらの生成メカニズムについても議論する。

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