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JAEA Reports

Status of study of long-term assessment of transport of radioactive contaminants in the environment of Fukushima (FY2018) (Translated document)

Nagao, Fumiya; Niizato, Tadafumi; Sasaki, Yoshito; Ito, Satomi; Watanabe, Takayoshi; Dohi, Terumi; Nakanishi, Takahiro; Sakuma, Kazuyuki; Hagiwara, Hiroki; Funaki, Hironori; et al.

JAEA-Research 2020-007, 249 Pages, 2020/10

JAEA-Research-2020-007.pdf:15.83MB

The accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. occurred due to the Great East Japan Earthquake, Sanriku offshore earthquake, of 9.0 magnitude and the accompanying tsunami. As a result, large amount of radioactive materials was released into the environment. Under these circumstances, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been conducting "Long-term Assessment of Transport of Radioactive Contaminants in the Environment of Fukushima" concerning radioactive materials released in environment, especially migration behavior of radioactive cesium since November 2012. This report is a summary of the research results that have been obtained in environmental dynamics research conducted by JAEA in Fukushima Prefecture.

Journal Articles

Numerical study of transport pathways of $$^{137}$$Cs from forests to freshwater fish living in mountain streams in Fukushima, Japan

Kurikami, Hiroshi; Sakuma, Kazuyuki; Malins, A.; Sasaki, Yoshito; Niizato, Tadafumi

Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 208-209, p.106005_1 - 106005_11, 2019/11

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:74.04(Environmental Sciences)

To assess the uptake of Cs-137 ($$^{137}$$Cs) by freshwater fish, we developed a compartment model for the migration of $$^{137}$$Cs on the catchment scale from forests to river water. We modelled a generic forest catchment with Fukushima-like parameters to ascertain the importance of export pathways of $$^{137}$$Cs from forests to river water for the uptake of $$^{137}$$Cs by freshwater fish. The results suggest that the decreasing trend of $$^{137}$$Cs in river water and freshwater fish was due to combination of the decreasing trend in the forest leaves/needles and litter compartments, and the increasing trend in soil. The $$^{137}$$Cs concentrations within these forest compartments plateau at around ten years after the fallout due to $$^{137}$$Cs circulation in forests reaching an equilibrium state.

Journal Articles

Temporal change of radiocesium loss in a decontaminated deciduous broad-leaved forest

Watanabe, Takayoshi; Sasaki, Yoshito; Niizato, Tadafumi; Mitachi, Katsuaki*; Ito, Satomi

KEK Proceedings 2019-2, p.114 - 119, 2019/11

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

${it In-situ}$ investigation of radioactive Cs mobility around litter zone in contaminated forest using spent mushroom substrata

Onuki, Toshihiko*; Sakamoto, Fuminori; Kozai, Naofumi; Yamasaki, Shinya*; Sasaki, Yoshito; Niizato, Tadafumi

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 56(9-10), p.814 - 821, 2019/09

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Nuclear Science & Technology)

We used the spent mushroom substrata (SMSs) which are a kind of by-product after growing edible mushrooms for the ${it in-situ}$ investigation of radioactive Cs mobility in litter zone in a forest of Fukushima prefecture, Japan. The powder SMS was filled in a plastic net bag of 0.35$$times$$0.55 m, then was placed in a forest for $$sim$$6 months under three kinds of different conditions without treatment (No treatment), covered with wooden box (With box), and with zeolite placed on upper position of ground surface (With zeolite). We determined the ratio of radioactivity (TF) in the SMS to that of the soil and litter beneath the SMS bags. TFs of "No treatment" and of "With zeolite" were determined between $$sim$$0.01 and $$sim$$0.05 for 6 months. On the other hand, TFs of "With box" were lower by one order at 2 and 4 months than those of "No treatment" and of "With zeolite", and nearly the same values as TFs of "No treatment" and "With zeolite" at 6 months. These results clearly indicate that radioactive Cs accumulates in SMS mainly by throughfall. In addition, for a period of several months, fungi contribute to the accumulation of radioactive Cs in the litter zone, even though radioactive Cs was tightly associated with the soil.

JAEA Reports

Status of study of long-term assessment of transport of radioactive contaminants in the environment of Fukushima (FY2018)

Nagao, Fumiya; Niizato, Tadafumi; Sasaki, Yoshito; Ito, Satomi; Watanabe, Takayoshi; Dohi, Terumi; Nakanishi, Takahiro; Sakuma, Kazuyuki; Hagiwara, Hiroki; Funaki, Hironori; et al.

JAEA-Research 2019-002, 235 Pages, 2019/08

JAEA-Research-2019-002.pdf:21.04MB

The accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (hereinafter referred to 1F), Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. occurred due to the Great East Japan Earthquake, Sanriku offshore earthquake, of 9.0 magnitude and the accompanying tsunami. As a result, large amount of radioactive materials was released into the environment. Under these circumstances, JAEA has been conducting Long-term Environmental Dynamics Research concerning radioactive materials released in environment, especially migration behavior of radioactive cesium since November 2012. This report is a summary of the research results that have been obtained in environmental dynamics research conducted by JAEA in Fukushima Prefecture.

Journal Articles

Role of filamentous fungi in migration of radioactive cesium in the Fukushima forest soil environment

Onuki, Toshihiko; Sakamoto, Fuminori; Kozai, Naofumi; Namba, Kenji*; Neda, Hitoshi*; Sasaki, Yoshito; Niizato, Tadafumi; Watanabe, Naoko*; Kozaki, Tamotsu*

Environmental Science; Processes & Impacts, 21(7), p.1164 - 1173, 2019/07

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:74.04(Chemistry, Analytical)

The fate of radioactive Cs deposited after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident and its associated radiological impacts are largely dependent on its mobility from surface soils to forest ecosystems. We measured the accumulation of radioactive Cs in the fruit bodies of wild fungi in the forest at Iidate, Fukushima, Japan. The transfer factors (TFs) of radioactive Cs from soil to the fruit bodies of wild fungi were between 10 $$^{-2}$$to 10$$^{2}$$, a range similar to those reported for the fruit bodies collected in Europe after the Chernobyl accident and in parts of Japan contaminated by nuclear bomb test fallout. Comparison of the TFs of the wild mushroom and that of the fungal hyphae of 704 stock strains grown on agar medium containing nutrients and radioactive Cs showed that the TFs of wild mushroom were lower. TF was less than 0.1 after addition of the minerals zeolite, vermiculite, phlogopite, smectite, or illite of 1% weight to the agar medium. These results indicate that the presence of minerals decrease Cs uptake by fungi grown in the agar medium.

Journal Articles

Development of the evaluation tool for air dose rate in forest using a Monte Carlo radiation transport code (PHITS)

Sakuma, Kazuyuki; Niizato, Tadafumi; Kim, M.; Malins, A.; Machida, Masahiko; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Kurikami, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Akihiro; Hosomi, Masaaki*

Kankyo Hoshano Josen Gakkai-Shi, 6(3), p.145 - 152, 2018/09

We simulated air dose rates using PHITS to consider how the partitioning of radiocesium between the forest canopy, litter layer and soil layer affected air dose rates by perturbing the radiocesium source distribution between different simulations. Transferring radiocesium from the canopy to the litter layer did not affect air dose rates at 1 m above the ground when setting up the simulation with a radiocesium distribution measured in October 2015. This is because there was almost no radiocesium in the canopy at that time. However air dose rates tended to be high near the canopy, and above the canopy up to 200 m altitude, when the simulations were initiated using source distribution data applicable for August-September 2011, due to the larger amount of radiocesium in the canopy at that time. Transferring the radiocesium from the canopy to the litter layer in this case was associated with a three times increase in the air dose rate at 1 m, as the average distance between radiocesium in the forest and 1 m above the ground was shortened. In both cases radiocesium transfer from the litter layer to the underlying soil was associated with a one third to 50% reduction in air dose rates at 1 m, due to the self-shielding effect of soil.

Journal Articles

Evaluation of sediment and $$^{137}$$Cs redistribution in the Oginosawa River catchment near the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant using integrated watershed modeling

Sakuma, Kazuyuki; Malins, A.; Funaki, Hironori; Kurikami, Hiroshi; Niizato, Tadafumi; Nakanishi, Takahiro; Mori, Koji*; Tada, Kazuhiro*; Kobayashi, Takamaru*; Kitamura, Akihiro; et al.

Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 182, p.44 - 51, 2018/02

 Times Cited Count:6 Percentile:44.83(Environmental Sciences)

The Oginosawa River catchment lies 15 km south-west of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear plant. The General-purpose Terrestrial Fluid-flow Simulator (GETFLOWS) code was used to study sediment and $$^{137}$$Cs redistribution within the catchment. Cesium-137 input to watercourses came predominantly from land adjacent to river channels and forest gullies. Forested areas far from the channels only made a minor contribution to $$^{137}$$Cs input to watercourses, total erosion of between 0.001-0.1 mm from May 2011 to December 2015. The 2.3-6.9% y$$^{-1}$$ decrease in the amount of $$^{137}$$Cs in forest topsoil over the study period can be explained by radioactive decay (approximately 2.3% y$$^{-1}$$), along with a migration downwards into subsoil and a small amount of export. The amount of $$^{137}$$Cs available for release from land adjacent to rivers is expected to be lower in future than compared to this study period, as the simulations indicate a high depletion of inventory from these areas.

Journal Articles

Amount of radioactive cesium sedimentation in a soil saving dam with 3D laser scanner

Watanabe, Takayoshi; Oyama, Takuya; Ishii, Yasuo; Niizato, Tadafumi; Abe, Hironobu; Mitachi, Katsuaki; Sasaki, Yoshito

KEK Proceedings 2017-6, p.122 - 126, 2017/11

no abstracts in English

JAEA Reports

Status of study of long-term assessment of transport of radioactive contaminants in the environment of Fukushima; As a part of dissemination of evidence-based information

Tsuruta, Tadahiko; Niizato, Tadafumi; Nakanishi, Takahiro; Dohi, Terumi; Nakama, Shigeo; Funaki, Hironori; Misono, Toshiharu; Oyama, Takuya; Kurikami, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Seiji*; et al.

JAEA-Review 2017-018, 86 Pages, 2017/10

JAEA-Review-2017-018.pdf:17.58MB

Since the accidents at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant following the Tohoku Region Pacific Coast Earthquake on March 11th, 2011, Fukushima Environmental Safety Center has carried out research on natural mobilization of radionuclide (especially radiocesium) and future forecast from forest to water system and surrounding residential areas. The report summarizes the latest results that have been accumulated from each study field, of our agency together with the other related research organizations. The contents of the report is to be used as evidence-based information for the QA-styled pages in the website of JAEA Sector of Fukushima Research and Development at the time of next renewal.

Journal Articles

Translocation of radiocesium released by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in Japanese chestnut and chestnut weevil larvae

Sasaki, Yoshito; Ishii, Yasuo; Abe, Hironobu; Mitachi, Katsuaki; Watanabe, Takayoshi; Niizato, Tadafumi

Horticulture Journal, 86(2), p.139 - 144, 2017/04

To examine the translocation of radiocesium (Cs) scattered by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident that occurred in March 2011 to the Japanese chestnut, we investigated the autoradiography and radiocesium concentration in each part of the Japanese chestnut. The Japanese chestnut fruit has a thin skin between the kernel (cotyledons) and shell; the kernel of the fruit is edible. $$^{137}$$Cs concentration in each part of the fruit was found to be almost the same at about 1.0$$times$$10$$^{4}$$ Bq$$cdot$$kg$$^{-1}$$. Radiocesium concentration in chestnut weevil larvae found on the fruit was approximately one-seventh of that in the kernel.

JAEA Reports

A Compartment model of radionuclide migration in environment based on exposure pathways

Kurikami, Hiroshi; Niizato, Tadafumi; Tsuruta, Tadahiko; Kato, Tomoko; Kitamura, Akihiro; Kanno, Mitsuhiro*; Kurosawa, Naohiro*

JAEA-Research 2016-020, 50 Pages, 2017/01

JAEA-Research-2016-020.pdf:6.02MB

In this report, we developed a compartment model of radionuclide migration in environment based on exposure pathways in a river basin scale and performed a preliminary calculation. The results showed good agreement with some measurement, although the comparison of bed sediment, transportation to outer sea and to agricultural products with the measurement was not enough. We continue to validate the model.

Journal Articles

The Transfer of radiocesium from the bark to the stemflow of chestnut trees (${it Castanea crenata}$) contaminated by radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

Sasaki, Yoshito; Abe, Hironobu; Mitachi, Katsuaki; Watanabe, Takayoshi; Ishii, Yasuo; Niizato, Tadafumi

Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 161, p.58 - 65, 2016/09

AA2015-0311.pdf:1.93MB

 Times Cited Count:6 Percentile:64.47(Environmental Sciences)

We report the behavior of radiocesium on the tree bark and its transfer into the stemflow of chestnut in a forest in Fukushima. The radiocesium concentration is greatest in $$phi$$2-cm stem, less in $$<$$$$phi$$5-mm stem, and least in the leaves. In the $$phi$$2-cm stem, the radiocesium concentration of the bark was approximately 10 times that of wood. The average Cs-137 concentration of the dissolved fraction of stem flow was about 10 Bq/L; the pH was nearly constant at 5.8. A strong positive correlation was observed between the radiocesium concentration and the electrical conductivity of the dissolved fraction of stemflow; this result suggests that radiocesium and electrolytes have the same elution mechanism from the tree. Some of the particles in the particulate fraction of the stem flow was strongly adsorbed radiocesium.

Journal Articles

Input and output budgets of radiocesium concerning the forest floor in the mountain forest of Fukushima released from the TEPCO's Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

Niizato, Tadafumi; Abe, Hironobu; Mitachi, Katsuaki; Sasaki, Yoshito; Ishii, Yasuo; Watanabe, Takayoshi

Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 161, p.11 - 21, 2016/09

 Times Cited Count:19 Percentile:27.89(Environmental Sciences)

Estimations of radiocesium input and output budgets concerning the forest floor in a mountain forest region have been conducted in the north and central part of the Abukuma Mountains of Fukushima, after 2 to 3 year period following the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The radiocesium input and output associated with surface washoff, throughfall, stemflow, and litterfall processes at the experimental plots have been monitored on a forest floor of evergreen Japanese cedar and deciduous Konara oak forests. The results at both monitoring locations show the radiocesium input to be 4-50 times higher than the output during the rainy season in Fukushima. These results indicate that the radiocesium tend to be preserved in the forest ecosystem due to extremely low output ratios. Thus, the associated fluxes throughout the circulation process are key issues for the projecting the environmental fate of the radiocesium levels.

Journal Articles

Direct accumulation pathway of radioactive cesium to fruit-bodies of edible mushroom from contaminated wood logs

Onuki, Toshihiko; Aiba, Yukitoshi*; Sakamoto, Fuminori; Kozai, Naofumi; Niizato, Tadafumi; Sasaki, Yoshito

Scientific Reports (Internet), 6, p.29866_1 - 29866_6, 2016/07

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:81.53(Multidisciplinary Sciences)

We here first report the direct accumulation pathway of radioactive Cs from contaminated wood logs to the fruit-bodies of shiitake mushrooms through the basal portion of the stipe by using $$gamma$$ spectroscopy, autoradiography, and X-ray micro CT techniques.

Journal Articles

Deposition of radioactive caesium in the Fukushima mountain forests by the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident

Ishii, Yasuo; Abe, Hironobu; Niizato, Tadafumi

Proceedings of 23rd International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-23) (DVD-ROM), 3 Pages, 2015/05

As part of the project entitled "Long-Term Assessment of Transport of Radioactive Contaminant in the Environment of Fukushima" (F-TRACE project), JAEA has researched since November 2012 to predict the transport behavior of radioactive caesium, which now Cs-134 and Cs-137 are the main radiological contribution, from contaminated mountain forests to estuary and coast through dam, pond, river etc. based on their investigated data survey data in the Fukushima prefecture. In this study, we report characterization and radio assay of the surface run-off substances obtained (or collected) at the forest observation plots in the Ogi district of Kawauchi-mura and the Yamakiya district of Kawamata-machi, and at the soil-saving dam in the Ogaki district of Namie-machi, Fukishima prefecture, Japan.

Journal Articles

Mathematical Modeling of Radioactive Contaminants in the Fukushima Environment

Kitamura, Akihiro; Kurikami, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Masaaki; Oda, Yoshihiro; Saito, Tatsuo; Kato, Tomoko; Niizato, Tadafumi; Iijima, Kazuki; Sato, Haruo; Yui, Mikazu; et al.

Nuclear Science and Engineering, 179(1), p.104 - 118, 2015/01

 Times Cited Count:6 Percentile:38.87(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The prediction of the distribution and fate of radioactive materials eventually deposited at surface in the Fukushima area is one of the main objectives and expected to be achieved in an efficient manner. In order to make such prediction, a number of mathematical models of radioactive contaminants, with particular attention on cesium, on the land and in rivers, lakes, and estuaries in the Fukushima area are developed. Simulation results are examined with the field investigations simultaneously implemented. The basic studies of the adsorption/absorption mechanism of cesium and soils have been performed to shed light on estimating distribution coefficient between dissolved contaminant and particulate contaminant.

Journal Articles

An Evaluation of the uncertainty on the investigation results by using Evidential Support Logic; An Example of an estimation of uplift rate

Nakayasu, Akio*; Doke, Ryosuke*; Niizato, Tadafumi; Urabe, Atsushi*; Ono, Eisuke*

Joho Chishitsu, 25(4), p.189 - 203, 2014/12

Various uncertainties exist in the data using in the research of geomorphology and geology. When the development process of the geological environment is restored using the data with these uncertainties, the result of the model or simulation inevitably includes uncertainties derived from the uncertainties of data. Especially, in the geological environment model dealing with chronological change of the site (Site Evolution Model) which consists from various kinds of data, the quality assessment/control in each data is important. In this study, the factors of the uncertainties occurred in the process of data acquisition for the estimation of uplift rate, which is one of the data for drawing the topographic evolution, are analyzed by using Evidential Support Logic (ESL). The result of this study is assumed to be used as a tool for extracting the factor of uncertainties in the planning of the investigation, and for controlling the quality of results in the implementation of the investigation.

Journal Articles

Present condition of the Fukushima forest; F-TRACE Project: Accumulation of the scientific evidences to secure the safety and reassurances of the people

Miyahara, Kaname; Niizato, Tadafumi; Iijima, Kazuki

Ringyo Fukushima, (597), P. 5, 2014/05

Present condition of the Fukushima forest; F-TRACE Project: Accumulation of the scientific evidences to secure the safety and reassurances of the people

Journal Articles

An Externalization of technical know-how and dicision-making processes in a geoscientific investigation; An Example of an estimation of uplift rate

Niizato, Tadafumi; Yasue, Kenichi; Doke, Ryosuke*; Nakayasu, Akio*

Joho Chishitsu, 25(1), p.3 - 20, 2014/00

An expert obtain, handle, and analyze the multi-disciplinary and huge amount of geoscientific data by applying of the technical knowledge obtained through the long experience in the field of a geoscientific investigation, but technical know-how and decision-making processes in the work processes are almost implicit (tacit knowledge). To promote the sharing and inheriting of the knowledge down to the generations, the knowledge has to be externalized in a useful form. In this study, decision processes and technical know-how on an estimation of uplift rate by using a marine terrace have been clarified by the application of a knowledge engineering approach. Investigations and analyses for the estimation of uplift rate are classified into 8 units of task. A sequence of the task from extraction of pre-existing information to calculation of uplift rate has been illustrated as a task flow. The decision processes in each task have been illustrated as a flow diagram of decision-making process. The diagram shows input for a decision-making, decision point conducted the decision-making, and task and output resulting from the decision-making. This externalized tacit knowledge will be integrated into the IT-based expert system through the construction of an IF-THEN rule-base.

215 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)