Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko; Koarashi, Jun; Tsuzuki, Katsunori; Takeuchi, Erina; Nishimura, Shusaku; Muto, Kotomi*; Matsunaga, Takeshi*
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 238-239, p.106725_1 - 106725_8, 2021/11
To understand the spatial variation in soil Cs inventory in complex mountainous topography, a whole-area investigation of Cs deposition in a broad-leaved forest catchment of a mountain stream was conducted using grid sampling. Across the catchment, organic and surface mineral soil layers were collected at 42 locations in 2013 and 6 locations in 2015. Cs deposition on the forest floor exhibited high spatial heterogeneity and altitude-dependent distribution over the catchment. The Cs retention ratio in the organic layer ranged from 6% to 82% in 2013. The Cs retention ratios had positive correlations with the material inventory in the organic layer and the elevation. The Cs retention ratios in the organic layer were less than 20% in 2015, even at the locations where the retention ratio was higher than 55% in 2013. Although there was spatial variation in the migration speed, Cs migration from the organic layer to mineral soil was almost completed within 4 y of the deposition.
Nakano, Masanao; Fujii, Tomoko; Nemoto, Masashi; Tobita, Keiji; Seya, Natsumi; Nishimura, Shusaku; Hosomi, Kenji; Nagaoka, Mika; Yokoyama, Hiroya; Matsubara, Natsumi; et al.
JAEA-Review 2020-069, 163 Pages, 2021/02
Environmental radiation monitoring around the Tokai Reprocessing Plant has been performed by the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories, based on "Safety Regulations for the Reprocessing Plant of Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Chapter IV - Environmental Monitoring". This annual report presents the results of the environmental monitoring and the dose estimation to the hypothetical inhabitant due to the radioactivity discharged from the plant to the atmosphere and the sea during April 2019 to March 2020. In this report, some data include the influence of the accidental release from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station of Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. (the trade name was changed to Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. on April 1, 2016) in March 2011. Appendices present comprehensive information, such as monitoring programs, monitoring methods, monitoring results and their trends, meteorological data and discharged radioactive wastes. In addition, the data which were influenced by the accidental release and exceeded the normal range of fluctuation in the monitoring, were evaluated.
Nakano, Masanao; Hosomi, Kenji; Nishimura, Shusaku; Matsubara, Natsumi; Okura, Takehisa; Kuramochi, Akihiko; Kawasaki, Masatsugu; Takeuchi, Erina; Fujii, Yutaka*; Jinno, Tsukasa*; et al.
Hoken Butsuri (Internet), 55(2), p.102 - 109, 2020/06
After the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (1F) Accident in March 2011, the increase was significantly observed in a part of the result of the environmental radiation monitoring in Ibaraki prefecture. "The review meeting of the environmental effect from 1F accident" was established to discuss technically the fluctuation of monitoring data. The review meeting collected the monitoring data from the four nuclear operators, and discussed a fluctuating trend, Cs/Cs activity ratio, and so on. In this report, the results of the dose rate and Cs in fallout, surface soil, flatfish and seabed sediment are introduced. Also the problem solving in the review meeting is introduced.
Koarashi, Jun; Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko; Nishimura, Shusaku; Muto, Kotomi*
Scientific Reports (Internet), 10(1), p.6614_1 - 6614_11, 2020/04
We conducted a pilot-scale decontamination study in a deciduous broadleaved forest in Fukushima. The entire forest, other than two untreated areas, was decontaminated by removing the litter layer approximately 3.3 years after the accident. For three years after decontamination, we quantified Cs contamination levels in the litter and topsoil layers and in the tree leaves, in the untreated and decontaminated areas. The decreased inventories of litter-associated Cs in the decontaminated areas were observed only in the first year after decontamination. Generally, no decontamination effects were observed on the Cs transfer in tree leaves. The primary reason for this was the rapid shift in the main reservoir of Cs from litter layers to the underlying mineral soil, which differs from the observations in post-Chernobyl studies of European forest ecosystems. The results suggest that litter-removal decontamination can only be successful if it is implemented more quickly for Japanese forest ecosystems.
Nakano, Masanao; Fujii, Tomoko; Nemoto, Masashi; Tobita, Keiji; Kono, Takahiko; Hosomi, Kenji; Nishimura, Shusaku; Matsubara, Natsumi; Maehara, Yushi; Narita, Ryosuke; et al.
JAEA-Review 2019-048, 165 Pages, 2020/03
Environmental radiation monitoring around the Tokai Reprocessing Plant has been performed by the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories, based on "Safety Regulations for the Reprocessing Plant of Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Chapter IV - Environmental Monitoring". This annual report presents the results of the environmental monitoring and the dose estimation to the hypothetical inhabitant due to the radioactivity discharged from the plant to the atmosphere and the sea during April 2018 to March 2019. In this report, some data include the influence of the accidental release from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station of Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. (the trade name was changed to Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. on April 1, 2016) in March 2011. Appendices present comprehensive information, such as monitoring programs, monitoring methods, monitoring results and their trends, meteorological data and discharged radioactive wastes. In addition, the data which were influenced by the accidental release and exceeded the normal range of fluctuation in the monitoring, were evaluated.
Koarashi, Jun; Nishimura, Shusaku; Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko; Muto, Kotomi; Matsunaga, Takeshi*
Scientific Reports (Internet), 9, p.7034_1 - 7034_10, 2019/05
The aim of the present study is to explore the retention mechanisms of Cs in the surface soil layers of terrestrial ecosystems affected by the Fukushima NPP accident, with a specific focus on the interactions between Cs, soil minerals, and organic matter. Soil samples were collected from field, orchard, and forest sites in July 2011, separated into three soil fractions with different mineral-organic interaction characteristics. The results show that 20-71% of the Cs was retained in association with relatively mineral-free, particulate organic matter-dominant fractions in the orchard and forest surface soil layers. Given the physicochemical and mineralogical properties and the Cs extractability of the soils, Cs incorporation into the complex structure of particulate organic matter is likely the main mechanism for Cs retention in the surface soil layers.
Koarashi, Jun; Nishimura, Shusaku; Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko; Matsunaga, Takeshi*; Sato, Tsutomu*; Nagao, Seiya*
Chemosphere, 205, p.147 - 155, 2018/08
There is little understanding of how soil aggregation can affect the mobility and bioavailability of Cs in soils. To explore this, soil samples were collected at seven sites under different land-use conditions in Fukushima and were separated into four aggregate-size fractions. The fractions were then analyzed for Cs content and extractability and mineral composition. In forest soils, aggregate formation was significant, and Cs was largely associated with large-sized aggregates. In contrast, there was less aggregation in agricultural field soils, and most of Cs was in the clay- and silt-sized fractions. Across all sites, the Cs extractability was higher in the large-sized aggregate fractions than in the clay-sized fractions. The results demonstrate that large-sized aggregates are a significant reservoir of potentially mobile and bioavailable Cs in organic-rich (forest and orchard) soils.
Muto, Kotomi; Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko; Koarashi, Jun; Takeuchi, Erina; Nishimura, Shusaku; Tsuzuki, Katsunori; Matsunaga, Takeshi*
Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 314(1), p.403 - 411, 2017/10
Fluvial export of particulate and dissolved Cs was investigated to reveal its sources and transfer mechanisms in a broadleaved forest catchment using a continuous collection system. The finest size fraction ( 75m), consisting of decomposed litter and surface mineral soil, was the dominant fraction in the particulate Cs load, although the contribution of coarser size fractions increased during high water discharge in 2014. The dissolved Cs originated from the decomposition of Cs-contaminated litter. Temporal changes in Cs distribution in the litter-mineral soil system indicated that the dissolved Cs load will be moderated in several years, while particulate Cs load has the potential to continue for a long time.
Koarashi, Jun; Nishimura, Shusaku; Nakanishi, Takahiro; Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko; Takeuchi, Erina; Muto, Kotomi
Chemosphere, 165, p.335 - 341, 2016/12
We established field lysimeters in a Japanese deciduous broad-leaved forest soon after the Fukushima nuclear accident to continuously monitor the downward transfer of Cs at three depths: the litter-mineral soil boundary and depths of 5 cm and 10 cm in the mineral soil. Observations were conducted at two sites within the forest from May 2011 to May 2015. Results revealed similar temporal and depth-wise variations in Cs downward fluxes for both sites. The Cs downward fluxes generally decreased year by year at all depths, indicating that Cs was rapidly leached from the forest-floor litter layer and was then immobilized in the upper (0-5 cm) mineral soil layer through its interaction with clay minerals. The decreased inventory of mobile (or bioavailable) Cs observed during early stages after deposition indicates that the litter-soil system in the Japanese deciduous forest provides only a temporary source for Cs recycling in plants.
Matsunaga, Takeshi; Nakanishi, Takahiro; Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko; Takeuchi, Erina; Muto, Kotomi; Tsuzuki, Katsunori; Nishimura, Shusaku; Koarashi, Jun; Otosaka, Shigeyoshi; Sato, Tsutomu*; et al.
Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 310(2), p.679 - 693, 2016/11
Particulate Cs in stream water was collected continuously for two years in order to assess the long-term trend of the Cs discharge from the forest environment. Sampling was conducted from December 2011 to December 2013 in a mountainous stream, which received the Cs from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. A seasonal increase in fluvial transport load of particulate Cs associated with suspended solids (SS) was observed in August and September when rainfall was abundant. The particulate Cs concentration decreased at a faster rate than the rate due to radioactive decay. This decrease might be resulted from redistribution of the easily eroded and polluted soil surface due to heavy rain events such as typhoons. These findings indicate that the particulate Cs load was subject to the inter-annual variations in rainfalls, and decreased gradually over a long period of time due to a decrease in Cs concentration in SS.
Muto, Kotomi; Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko; Takeuchi, Erina; Nishimura, Shusaku; Koarashi, Jun; Tsuzuki, Katsunori; Nakanishi, Takahiro; Matsunaga, Takeshi
KEK Proceedings 2015-4, p.252 - 257, 2015/11
As a result of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, a large amount of radiocesium released into the atmosphere was deposited in forests. This study estimated the monthly trend in the fluvial discharges of radiocesium from a forest. The study site was a forested catchment in Kitaibaraki City. Radiocesium in river water was collected with a filtration system as both particulate and dissolved components. Filters and columns including dissolved Cs absorbent were replaced every month. The collected suspended solids were sieved into 2000-3000 m, 500-2000 m, 75-500 m, and 75 m fractions. The Cs concentrations in the samples were measured using -ray spectrometry with Ge semiconductor detectors. The Cs discharge increased with the river water discharge. The particulate Cs discharge was dominant in both 2013 and 2014. The Cs discharge rate of the dissolved component increased in winter, when the river water discharge decreased.
Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko; Koarashi, Jun; Takeuchi, Erina; Tsuzuki, Katsunori; Nishimura, Shusaku; Matsunaga, Takeshi
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 147, p.1 - 7, 2015/09
We collected a large amount of radiocesium air dose rate data by mountain-walking with a small -ray survey system, KURAMA-II, to create an air dose rate map of a mountainous deciduous forest that received radiocesium from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Measurements were conducted in a small stream catchment 0.6 km in size in August and September 2013, and the relationship between air dose rates and the mountainous topography was examined. Air dose rates increased with elevation, suggesting that more radiocesium was deposited on ridges, and that it had remained there for 2.5 years with no significant migration due to soil erosion or water drainage. Slope aspect also strongly affected air dose rates. By the continuous measurement using KURAMA-II, we describe the variation in air dose rates in a mountainous area and suggest that it is important to consider topography when selecting sampling points to estimating dose rates or contaminant deposition.
Matsunaga, Takeshi; Nakanishi, Takahiro; Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko; Takeuchi, Erina; Tsuzuki, Katsunori; Nishimura, Shusaku; Koarashi, Jun; Otosaka, Shigeyoshi; Sato, Tsutomu*; Nagao, Seiya*
Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 303(2), p.1291 - 1295, 2015/02
An innovative, yet simple method for the passive collection of radioactive materials in river water has been developed and validated. The method employes large filter vessels, containing multiple cartridge filters. River water is led to the system naturally using a drop of the riverbed by hose from upstream. This method makes long-term, unmanned monitoring possible. In addition to regular radioactivity analyses, this method provides an opportunity for the characterization of suspended materials based on its ample collection quantities (more than several tens of grams). This method may also be applicable to sediment-bound chemicals.
Koarashi, Jun; Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko; Takeuchi, Erina; Nishimura, Shusaku
Scientific Reports (Internet), 4, p.6853_1 - 6853_7, 2014/10
The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant caused serious radiocesium (Cs) contamination of forest ecosystems located in mountainous and hilly regions with steep terrain. To understand topographic effects on the redistribution and accumulation of Cs on forest floor, we investigated the distribution of Fukushima-derived Cs in forest-floor litter layers on a steep hillslope in a Japanese deciduous forest in August 2013. Both leaf-litter materials and litter-associated Cs were accumulated in large amounts at the bottom of the hillslope. At the bottom, a significant fraction (65%) of the Cs inventory was observed to be associated with newly shed and less degraded leaf-litter materials, with estimated mean ages of 0.5-1.5 years, added via litterfall after the accident. Newly emerged leaves at the site were contaminated with Fukushima-derived Cs in May 2011 (two months after the accident) and Cs concentration in them decreased with time. However, the concentrations were still two orders of magnitude higher than the pre-accident level in 2013 and 2014. These observations are the first to show that Cs redistribution on a forested hillslope is strongly controlled by biologically mediated processes and continues to supply Cs to the bottom via litterfall at a reduced rate.
Konno, Yuta*; Komatsu, Daisuke*; Nishimura, Shusaku*; Fukuda, Akari; Aosai, Daisuke; Mizuno, Takashi; Nagao, Seiya*; Tsunogai, Urumu*; Suzuki, Yohei*
no journal, ,
no abstracts in English
Nishimura, Shusaku*; Suzuki, Yohei*; Fukuda, Akari; Konno, Yuta*; Shuin, Kuniko*; Nagao, Seiya*
no journal, ,
no abstracts in English
Yanagi, Yukiko*; Shindo, Haruo*; Nishimura, Shusaku
no journal, ,
Biochar, consisting of charred biomass products involving plants, is a stable form of C. The findings obtained in our studies, in which the production and the distribution, behavior, and function of charred plant fragments (CPFs) in soils have been investigated, may get a better understanding of the role of biochar. (1) The dehydrative polycondensation reactions occurred during the burning. (2) The CPFs were hardly mineralized by soil microorganisms. (3) The silt-sized fraction was an important reservoir of CPFs. (4) The CPFs are subjected to weathering and biological degradation in soil after burning, and are transformed to black humic acids. (5) In conclusion, after burning, the CPFs produce the black humic acids with the progression of abiotic and biotic degradation in soils. The parts of these CPFs are more stabilized by forming the complexes with inorganic components in the silt-sized fraction. Thus, their complexes are preserved in the fraction for a long period of time.
Nishimura, Shusaku; Koarashi, Jun; Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko
no journal, ,
no abstracts in English
Takeuchi, Erina; Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko; Koarashi, Jun; Nishimura, Shusaku; Tsuzuki, Katsunori; Matsunaga, Takeshi
no journal, ,
no abstracts in English
Takeuchi, Erina; Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko; Nishimura, Shusaku; Nakanishi, Takahiro; Tsuzuki, Katsunori; Koarashi, Jun; Matsunaga, Takeshi
no journal, ,
no abstracts in English