小林 光*; 須藤 慎仁*; 大槻 謙太郎*; 吉村 和也; 吉田 浩子*
Japan Architectural Review (Internet), 6(1), p.e12353_1 - e12353_12, 2023/00
Understanding residual radioactive contamination state and the resulting radiation environment is vital before reconstructing the lives of residents in areas affected by nuclear power plant accidents. In this study, we surveyed the depth profiles of Cs-137 in three artificially paved ground surfaces: impermeable asphalt, permeable asphalt, and concrete, in areas affected by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident after a period of 10 years and analyzed the gamma-ray air dose rate distribution in a two-story wooden house model surrounded by different ground surfaces using the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency. The air dose rate distribution tendencies within the building for different surrounding ground surfaces were clarified by analyzing the transport of gamma rays emitted from the Cs-137 in the ground. Moreover, the shielding effect of an ordinal concrete fence on the indoor air dose rate was analyzed. The analysis showed that the indoor air dose rate was higher in an environment with artificial pavement than in that with a soil surface, and even a simple measure, such as installing an ordinal concrete fence, could significantly reduce indoor radiation dose rates.
牧井 宏之; 西尾 勝久; 廣瀬 健太郎; Orlandi, R.; Lguillon, R.; 小川 達彦; Soldner, T.*; Kster, U.*; Pollitt, A.*; Hambsch, F.-J.*; et al.
Physical Review C, 100(4), p.044610_1 - 044610_7, 2019/10
The prompt fission -ray energy spectrum for cold-neutron induced fission of U was measured in the energy range = 0.8 - 20,MeV, by gaining a factor of about 10 in statistics compared to the measurements performed so far. The spectrum exhibits local bump structures at 4,MeV and 6,MeV, and also a broad one at 15,MeV. In order to understand the origins of these bumps, the -ray spectra were calculated using a statistical Hauser-Feshbach model, taking into account the de-excitation of all the possible primary fission fragments. It is shown that the bump at 4,MeV is created by the transitions between the discrete levels in the fragments around Sn, and the bump at 6,MeV mostly comes from the complementary light fragments. It is also indicated that a limited number of nuclides, which have high-spin states at low excitation energies, can contribute to the bump structure around 15,MeV, induced by the transition feeding into the low-lying high-spin states.
牧井 宏之; 西尾 勝久; 廣瀬 健太郎; Orlandi, R.; Lguillon, R.*; 小川 達彦; Soldner, T.*; Hambsch, F.-J.*; Ache, M.*; Astier, A.*; et al.
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 906, p.88 - 96, 2018/10
廣瀬 健太郎; 西尾 勝久; 田中 翔也*; Lguillon, R.*; 牧井 宏之; 西中 一朗*; Orlandi, R.; 塚田 和明; Smallcombe, J.*; Vermeulen, M. J.; et al.
Physical Review Letters, 119(22), p.222501_1 - 222501_6, 2017/12
JAEAタンデム加速器施設で行ったO+U反応における多核子移行チャンネルを用いた実験により、U, Np、およびPuの核分裂質量分布を励起エネルギー1060MeVにおいて測定した。これらのうち、U, Npのデータは本実験により初めて観測された。原子核の殻効果の減衰によって対称分裂すると予想されていた高励起エネルギーにおいても、質量分布が非対称を示すことがわかった。搖動散逸定理に基づく動力学モデル計算との比較から、この振る舞いはマルチチャンス核分裂によるものであることを明らかにした。
西尾 勝久; 廣瀬 健太郎; Vermeulen, M. J.; 牧井 宏之; Orlandi, R.; 塚田 和明; 浅井 雅人; 豊嶋 厚史; 佐藤 哲也; 永目 諭一郎; et al.
EPJ Web of Conferences, 163, p.00041_1 - 00041_6, 2017/11
We are promoting a study of fission using multi-nucleon transfer (MNT) reactions, where excited states in neutron-rich actinide nuclei, which cannot be accessed by particle capture and/or fusion reactions, are populated. Also, the excited states in the fissioning nucleus are widely populated by the MNT reactions, from which effects of excitation energy on fission properties can be investigated. Experiments were carried out at the JAEA tandem facility in Tokai, Japan. We studied reactions using the O beam and several actinide target nuclei such as Th, U, Np, Cm. Ejectile nucleus was identified by a silicon E-E telescope to identify transfer channel and hence the compound nucleus. Fission fragments were detected by multi-wire proportional counters, and fission fragment mass distributions (FFMDs) were measured for each isotope. Measured FFMDs are reproduced by a calculation based on the fluctuation-dissipation model, and importance of multi-chance fission concept is investigated. Fission fragment angular distribution relative to the recoil direction suggested the increase of the spin of the fissioning nucleus with the number of transferred nucleons.
西尾 勝久; 廣瀬 健太郎; Lguillon, R.*; 牧井 宏之; Orlandi, R.; 塚田 和明; Smallcombe, J.*; 千葉 敏*; 有友 嘉浩*; 田中 翔也*; et al.
Proceedings of 6th International Conference on Fission and Properties of Neutron-rich Nuclei (ICFN-6), p.590 - 597, 2017/11
We are promoting a fission study using multi-nucleon transfer reactions, where excited states in neutron-rich actinide nuclei, which cannot be accessed by particle capture and/or fusion reactions, are populated. This allows us to study fission in the new region of chart of nuclei. Also, the excited states in the fissioning nucleus are widely populated in the reactions, thus the effects of excitation energy on fission can be investigated. Experiments were carried out at the JAEA tandem facility in Tokai, Japan. We studied reactions using the O beam (9MeV/u) and several actinide target nuclei such as Th, U, Np, Cm. Ejectile nuclei and thus the transfer channels were identified by a newly developed silicon E-E detectors. The produced nuclei in one experiment reached more than fifteen. Fission fragment mass distributions (FFMDs) were measured for each isotopes. Measured FFMDs are reproduced by a calculation based on the fluctuation-dissipation model (Langevin-type calculation), where effects of multi-chance fission were included. We also started to measure the prompt neutrons accompanied by fission.
西尾 勝久; 廣瀬 健太郎; Lguillon, R.*; 牧井 宏之; Orlandi, R.; 塚田 和明; Smallcombe, J.*; 千葉 敏*; 有友 嘉浩*; 田中 翔也*; et al.
EPJ Web of Conferences, 146, p.04009_1 - 04009_6, 2017/09
The objective of this work is to extend fission data for actinide nuclei not investigated so far in order to understand the fission mechanism, especially for neutron-rich nuclei. Multi-nucleon transfer reactions were used to populate the compound nuclei which cannot be accessed by particle capture or fusion reactions. The experiment was carried out at the tandem facility of Japan Atomic Energy Agency. In the multi-nucleon transfer reactions using O beam, a wide variety of nuclei around a target nucleus was produced. By identifying transfer channels, fission data of nuclei more than fifteen compound nuclei were generated in one experiment. Another feature of transfer reaction is that the excitation energies of a compound nucleus can be populated continuously from the ground state up to several tens MeV, allowing us to study the excitation energy dependence of fission properties. From the excitation function of fission probabilities, fission-barrier heights of neutron-rich actinide nuclei were obtained. Experiments were carried out in the reactions of O + U, Th, Cm, Np. The obtained fission fragment mass distributions were reproduced by a model calculation based on a fluctuation dissipation model.
廣瀬 健太郎; 西尾 勝久; 牧井 宏之; 西中 一朗*; 太田 周也*; 永山 達郎*; 田村 信行*; 後藤 真一*; Andreyev, A. N.; Vermeulen, M. J.; et al.
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 856, p.133 - 138, 2017/06
Fission and capture reactions were simultaneously measured in the neutron-induced reactions of Am at J-PARC. Data were taken with the TOF method in = 0.120 eV. The fission events were observed by detecting prompt fission neutrons using liquid organic scintillators. The capture reaction was measured by detecting rays from the compound nuclei using the same detectors, where the prompt fission neutrons and capture rays were separated by a pulse shape analysis. The cross sections were obtained by normalizing the relative yields at the first resonance to evaluations or other experimental data. The ratio of the fission to capture cross sections at each resonance is compared with those from an evaluated nuclear data library and other experimental data. Some differences were found between the present values and the library/literature values at several resonances.
Lguillon, R.; 西尾 勝久; 廣瀬 健太郎; 牧井 宏之; 西中 一朗*; Orlandi, R.; 塚田 和明; Smallcombe, J.*; 千葉 敏*; 有友 嘉浩*; et al.
Physics Letters B, 761, p.125 - 130, 2016/10
It is shown that the multinucleon transfer reactions is a powerful tool to study fission of exotic neutron-rich actinide nuclei, which cannot be accessed by particle-capture or heavy-ion fusion reactions. In this work, multinucleon transfer channels of the O + Th reaction are used to study fission of fourteen nuclei Th, Pa, and U. Identification of fissioning nuclei and of their excitation energy is performed on an event-by-event basis, through the measurement of outgoing ejectile particle in coincidence with fission fragments. Fission fragment mass distributions are measured for each transfer channel, in selected bins of excitation energy. In particular, the mass distributions of Th and Pa are measured for the first time. Predominantly asymmetric fission is observed at low excitation energies for all studied cases, with a gradual increase of the symmetric mode towards higher excitation energy. The experimental distributions are found to be in general agreement with predictions of the fluctuation-dissipation model.
西尾 勝久; Andreyev, A. N.*; Chapman, R.*; Derkx, X.*; Dllmann, C. E.*; Ghys, L.*; Heberger, F. P.*; 廣瀬 健太郎; 池添 博*; Khuyagbaatar, J.*; et al.
Physics Letters B, 748, p.89 - 94, 2015/09
Mass distributions of fission fragments from the compound nuclei Hg and Hg formed in fusion reactions Ar+Sm and Ar+Sm, respectively, were measured at initial excitation energies of (Hg)=,3366 MeV and (Hg)=,4871 MeV. In the fission of Hg, the mass spectra were well reproduced by assuming only an asymmetric-mass division, with most probable light and heavy fragment masses /79101. The mass asymmetry for Hg agrees well with that obtained in the low-energy /EC-delayed fission of Tl, from our earlier ISOLDE(CERN) experiment. Fission of Hg is found to proceed in a similar way, delivering the mass asymmetry of /83107, throughout the measured excitation energy range. The persistence as a function of excitation energy of the mass-asymmetric fission for both proton-rich Hg isotopes gives strong evidence for the survival of microscopic effects up to effective excitation energies of compound nuclei as high as 40,MeV. This behavior is different from fission of actinide nuclei and heavier mercury isotope Hg.
西尾 勝久; 池添 博; Hofmann, S.*; Ackermann, D.*; 有友 嘉浩*; Comas, V. F.*; Dllmann, Ch. E.*; Heinz, S.*; Heredia, J. A.*; Heberger, F. P.*; et al.
AIP Conference Proceedings 1524, p.68 - 72, 2013/04
Fission fragment mass and kinetic energies distributions were measured in the heavy-ion induced reactions using U target nucleus at the energies around the Coulomb barrier. We observed strong variation of the fragment mass distribution with incident energy, which was explained by an energy dependence of the probabilities for fusion and quasifission. A calculation based on a fluctuation-dissipation model was carried out to determine the fusion probability in the reactions of Si+U and S+U. The fusion probabilities were consistent with those determied from the evaporation residue cross sections for both reactions, showing that in-beam fission measurement and analysis can give a reasonable estimation for the cross sections to produce super-heavy nuclei. We also discss the results for in-beam fission measurement of Ca+U.
Khuyagbaatar, J.*; 西尾 勝久; Hofmann, S.*; Ackermann, D.*; Block, M.*; Heinz, S.*; Heberger, F. P.*; 廣瀬 健太郎; 池添 博; Kindler, B.*; et al.
Physical Review C, 86(6), p.064602_1 - 064602_6, 2012/12
The influence of the structure of projectile and target nuclei on the capture cross-sections was investigated for the reactions S+Pb and S+Pb. Capture cross-sections were deduced by measuring the fission fragments using multi-wire proportional counters. An enhancement of the capture cross-sections relative to an one-dimensional barrier penetration model was observed for all reactions at energies below the interaction barriers. The enhancement is larger in the case of reactions with S than with S. This observation is explained by a stronger coupling to the vibrational states in the reactions with S. Comparing the capture cross-sections and the evaporation-residue cross-sections for the reactions S+Pb and S+Pb, both yielding the same compound nucleus Cf, it is shown that the latter reaction has a lower fusion probability.
西尾 勝久; 光岡 真一; 西中 一朗; 牧井 宏之; 若林 泰生*; 池添 博; 廣瀬 健太郎*; 大槻 勤*; 有友 嘉浩*; Hofmann, S.*
Physical Review C, 86(3), p.034608_1 - 034608_6, 2012/09
Fission cross sections and fission fragment mass distributions were measured in the reactions of Ca + U and Ca + U at energies around the Coulomb barrier. Fusion probabilities were calculated based on the fluctuation dissipation model. The measured mass distributions for both reactions showed an asymmetric shape at low incident energies, whereas the distribution changed to a flat shape at higher energies. The variation of the mass distribution is explained by a change of the ratio between fusion and qasifission with nuclear orientation. The calculation reproduced the mass distributions and their energy dependence. The trajectories for fusion-fission were used to determine the fusion probability. Fusion probabilities for both reactions are identical as function of the center-of-mass energy, but they differ when plotted as function of the excitation energy. The calculated evaporation residue cross sections for the reaction Ca + U using a statistical model showed that sub-barrier fusion reaction can be applied to form the element 112.
西尾 勝久; 池添 博; Hofmann, S.*; Ackermann, D.*; Antalic, S.*; 有友 嘉浩; Comas, V. F.*; Dllmann, Ch. E.*; Gorshkov, A.*; Graeger, R.*; et al.
EPJ Web of Conferences, 17, p.09005_1 - 09005_4, 2011/10
Fission fragment mass distributions after full momentum transfer of the projectile were measured in the reactions using a U target nucleus bombarded by Si, P, S, Ar, Ca projectiles. We observed a strong variation of the distribution as function of bombarding energy. The results were interpreted by the effects of nuclear deformation of the target nucleus on the competition between fusion and quasifission. The symmetric fission includes fusion-fission, wheres as the asymmetric fission represents quasifission. The fusion probabilities were determined with the help of fluctuation-dissipation model. The estimated evaporation residue cross sections (Sg and Hs) produced in Si + U and S+U reproduced the experimental data.
鬼柳 善明*; 木野 幸一*; 古坂 道弘*; 平賀 富士夫*; 加美山 隆*; 加藤 幾芳*; 井頭 政之*; 片渕 竜也*; 水本 元治*; 大島 真澄; et al.
Journal of the Korean Physical Society, 59(2), p.1781 - 1784, 2011/08
廣瀬 健太郎*; 大槻 勤*; 柴崎 義信*; 岩佐 直仁*; 堀 順一*; 高宮 幸一*; 八島 浩*; 西尾 勝久; 鬼柳 善明*
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 621(1-3), p.379 - 382, 2010/09
A multi-layer parallel plate avalanche chamber (PPIC) has been developed for the measurement of neuron-induced fission cross-section using the lead slowing down neutron spectrometer at the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University. The PPIC consists of two sets of multi-layer electrodes to detect fission fragments from two samples located back-to-back between them. The performance of the PPIC was tested with a spontaneous fission of Cm. The cross section for the neutron-induced fission of Am was successfully obtained using that of U as a reference.
西尾 勝久; Hofmann, S.*; Heberger, F. P.*; Ackermann, D.*; Antalic, S.*; 有友 嘉浩; Comas, V. F.*; Dllmann, Ch. E.*; Gorshkov, A.*; Graeger, R.*; et al.
Physical Review C, 82(2), p.024611_1 - 024611_9, 2010/08
Synthesis of isotopes of the element hassium was studied using the reaction S+UHs*. At a kinetic energy of 163.0 MeV in the center of mass system we observed one -decay chain starting at the isotope Hs. The cross-section was 1.8pb. At 152.0 MeV one decay of the new isotope Hs was observed. It decays with a half-life of 0.38s by 947916 keV -particle emission. Spontaneous fission of the daughter nucleus Sg was confirmed. The measured cross-section was 0.54pb. In-beam measurements of fission fragment mass distributions were performed to obtain information on the fusion probability at various orientation of the deformed target nucleus. The distributions changed from symmetry to asymmetry when the beam energy was changed from above-barrier to sub-barrier values, indicating orientation effects on fusion and/or quasifission. It was found that the distribution of symmetric mass fragments originates not only from fusion-fission, but has a strong component from quasifission. This result significantly influences the interpretation of data obtained from measurements of symmetric mass distributions with respect to extracting evaporation residue cross-sections.
西尾 勝久; 池添 博; 光岡 真一; 西中 一朗; 牧井 宏之; 渡辺 裕*; 永目 諭一郎; 大槻 勤*; 廣瀬 健太郎*; Hofmann, S.*
AIP Conference Proceedings 1224, p.301 - 310, 2010/04
Results on the measurements of (1) evaporation residue (ER) cross-sections for Si, S + U and of (2) fission fragment mass distributions for Si,S, Ar + U will be discussed. Measurement of ER cross-section was carried out at GSI by using the velocity filter SHIP. Measurement of fission fragment mass distributions was made by using the JAEA tandem accelerator. In the reaction Si + U, the ER cross-section for Sg(5n) suggested no fusion hindance at above-barrier energy, whereas the one for Sg(4n) suggested competition between fusion and quasi-fission at sub-barrier energy. This conclusion is consistent with the measured fragment mass distributions, where the asymmetric fission component associated with quasi-fission appears only at sub-barrier energies. In the reaction of S + U, the ER cross-sections for Hs(5n) and Hs(4n, new isotope) suggested fusion hindrance both for above- and sub-barrier energies. With the results of fission fragment mass distributions, it is found that quasi-fission has symmetric fission components when projectile mass is relatively large. We will also discuss the variation of the fragment mass distributions for Si,S, Ar + U.
西尾 勝久; 池添 博; 光岡 真一; 西中 一朗; 永目 諭一郎; 大槻 勤*; 廣瀬 健太郎*; Hofmann, S.*
EPJ Web of Conferences, 2, p.10001_1 - 10001_3, 2010/03
We have measured the (1) evaporation residue (ER) cross-sections for Si, S + U and (2) fission fragment mass distributions for Si,S, Ar. Measurement of ER cross-section was carried out at GSI by using the velocity filter SHIP. Measurement of fission fragment mass distribution was made by using the JAEA tandem accelerator. In the reaction Si + U, the ER cross-section for Sg(5n) suggested no fusion hindrance at above-barrier energy, whereas the one for Sg(4n) suggested competition between fusion and fission at sub-barrier energy. This conclusion is consistent with the measured fragment mass distributions, where the asymmetric fission component associated with quasi-fission appears only at sub-barrier energies. In the reaction of S + U, the ER cross-sections for Hs(5n) and Hs(4n, new isotope) suggested fusion hindrance both for above- and sub-barrier energies. With the results of fission fragment mass distributions, it is found that quasi-fission has symmetric fission components when projectile mass is relatively large. We will also discuss the variation of the fragment mass distributions for Si,S, Ar + U.
池添 博; 光岡 真一; 西尾 勝久; 渡辺 裕*; Jeong, S. C.*; 大槻 勤*; 廣瀬 健太郎*
Nuclear Physics A, 834(1-4), p.172c - 175c, 2010/03
重い原子核間のクーロン障壁は衝突時に核の励起効果や核子の移行過程が結合して、幅を持って分布する。クーロン障壁分布をPb標的にTi, Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn, Ge, Krを衝突させる反応系で実験的に導出した。その結果、障壁の中心値は簡単なクーロンパラメータでよくスケールされること、分布の幅はPbの8重極振動モードの結合と核子移行反応の結合で説明できること、さらに、導出した障壁は原子核同士の融合障壁とは異なること、がわかった。また、変形核に球形核が衝突する場合、変形核の長軸側での衝突は原子核同士の融合に向かわず、質量の非対象な準核分裂過程に向かうことを、ウラン標的にSi, S, Arを衝突させる反応実験で明らかにした。