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Journal Articles

Fracture characterization and rock mass behavior induced by blasting and mechanical excavation of shafts in Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory

Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Tokiwa, Tetsuya*; Sato, Toshinori; Hayano, Akira

Proceedings of 2019 Rock Dynamics Summit in Okinawa (USB Flash Drive), p.682 - 687, 2019/05

In high-level radioactive disposal projects, it is important to investigate the extent of the excavation damaged zone (EDZ) for safety assessment because EDZ can provide a migration pathway for radionuclides from the facility. To investigate the quantitative differences between EDZs formed because of blasting and mechanical excavation, we studied the characteristics of fractures induced by excavation based on fracture mapping performed during shaft sinking (V- and E-Shafts). As a result, it was found that blasting excavation can lead to the formation of a large number of newly created fractures (EDZ fractures) compared with mechanical excavation. In addition, the seismic velocity (P-wave velocity) measured during blasting excavation (E-Shaft) was lower than that measured during mechanical excavation (V-Shaft). Furthermore, we found that the support pattern that reinforces forward rocks to be appropriate for limiting damage to the shaft wall.

Journal Articles

The Dynamic response of Horonobe Underground Research Center during the 2018 June 20 earthquake

Sato, Toshinori; Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Miyara, Nobukatsu; Aydan, $"O$mer*; Tomiyama, Jun*; Morita, Tatsuri*

Proceedings of 2019 Rock Dynamics Summit in Okinawa (USB Flash Drive), p.640 - 645, 2019/05

An earthquake with a moment magnitude of 4 occurred in June 20, 2018, which is also named as the 2018 June 20 Soya Region earth-quake. The strong motions induced by this earthquake were recorded by the accelerometers installed in the Horonobe URL as well as the Kik-Net and K-Net strong motions networks operated by the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention of Japan. The authors explain the results of the analyses carried out on the ground amplification and frequency characteristics of the acceleration records at the Horonobe URL and those of the Kik-net strong motion station and the structural effect of the URL on the ground amplification and frequency characteristics. Furthermore, the authors discuss the implications of the results obtained from this study in practice and the safety of the nuclear waste disposal at depth.

Journal Articles

Application of the transient pulse method to measure clay permeability

Kato, Masaji*; Nara, Yoshitaka*; Okazaki, Yuki*; Kono, Masanori*; Sato, Toshinori; Sato, Tsutomu*; Takahashi, Manabu*

Materials Transactions, 59(9), p.1427 - 1432, 2018/09

 Percentile:100(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

To ensure the safe geological disposal of radioactive waste, it is important to determine the permeability (hydraulic conductivity) of clays. The transient pulse method is suitable for low-permeability materials because it requires a relatively short time to determine their permeability. Upstream pore pressure typically increases in the measurement conducted via the transient pulse method. However, this procedure cannot be used to determine the permeability of clays due to the increase in pore pressure. Therefore, the transient pulse method has never been applied to determine clay permeability. In this study, we applied the transient pulse method to a clay sample to determine its permeability while decreasing the downstream pore pressure.

Journal Articles

Precipitation of minerals on rock kept in water with different calcium ion concentrations

Nara, Yoshitaka*; Kuwatani, Ryuta*; Kono, Masanori*; Sato, Toshinori; Kashiwaya, Koki*

Zairyo, 67(7), p.730 - 737, 2018/07

Information of confining ability of rock is important for the geological disposal of radioactive wastes. To maintain or improve the confining ability of rocks, it is important to seal pores and cracks. In this study, we investigated the precipitation of minerals on the rock surface. As rock samples, we used Berea sandstone and Toki granite in this study. It was shown that precipitation occurred on the surface of rock specimens kept in calcium hydroxide solution for 1 month if the concentration was high. Specifically, if the concentration of calcium hydroxide solution was higher than 300 mg/l, the precipitation occurred obviously. After keeping rock specimens in calcium hydroxide solution, the weight of the rock samples increased and the concentration of calcium ion decreased by the precipitation. It is considered that the calcium ion in water was used for the precipitation on rock surfaces. Since the precipitation has been recognized for rock surfaces, it is possible to seal pores and cracks in rocks. Therefore, it is also possible to keep or decrease the permeability of rocks by the precipitation of calcium compounds.

Journal Articles

Status of rock dynamics study in Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory, Japan

Sato, Toshinori; Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Matsuzaki, Yoshiteru; Miyara, Nobukatsu; Miyakawa, Kazuya

Rock Dynamics; Experiments, Theories and Applications, p.575 - 580, 2018/06

Rock dynamics is one of key issue for research and development of techniques for safe geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) is off-site URL constructed in soft sedimentary rock to the depth of 350m with three shafts and three level experimental galleries. Earthquake-resistant design of underground openings, observation of seismic records and groundwater pressure change due to earthquakes, and excavation disturbed zone experiment have been performed relating to the study of rock dynamics in URL project. This paper shows current status of Horonobe URL project and results of earthquake-resistant design of shafts, observation of seismic records and groundwater pressure change due to the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake.

Journal Articles

Permeability of granite including macro-fracture naturally filled with fine-grained minerals

Nara, Yoshitaka*; Kato, Masaji*; Niri, Ryuhei*; Kono, Masanori*; Sato, Toshinori; Fukuda, Daisuke*; Sato, Tsutomu*; Takahashi, Manabu*

Pure and Applied Geophysics, 175(3), p.917 - 927, 2018/03

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:29.42(Geochemistry & Geophysics)

Information on the permeability of rock is essential for various geoengineering projects. It is especially important to investigate how fractures and pores influence the physical and transport properties of rock. Infiltration of groundwater through the damage zone fills fractures in granite with fine-grained minerals. However, the permeability of rock possessing a fracture naturally filled with fine-grained mineral grains has yet to be investigated. In this study, the permeabilities of granite samples, including a macro-fracture filled with clay and a mineral vein, are investigated. The permeability of granite with a fine-grained mineral vein agrees well with that of the intact sample, whereas the permeability of granite possessing a macro-fracture filled with clay is lower than that of the macro-fractured sample. The decrease in the permeability is due to the filling of fine-grained minerals and clay in the macro-fracture. It is concluded that the permeability of granite increases due to the existence of the fractures, but decreases upon filling them with fine-grained minerals.

Journal Articles

Application of transient pulse method to permeability measurement for clay

Kato, Masaji*; Nara, Yoshitaka*; Okazaki, Yuki*; Kono, Masanori*; Sato, Toshinori; Sato, Tsutomu*; Takahashi, Manabu*

Zairyo, 67(3), p.318 - 323, 2018/03

To ensure the safe geological disposal of radioactive wastes, it is important to determine the permeability of clays. The transient pulse test is suitable to apply to the low permeability materials, because it takes relatively short term to determine the permeability. Usually we increase the upstream pore pressure in the measurement with the transient pulse test. However, it is impossible to determine the permeability of clay in this procedure because of the increase of pore pressure. Therefore, the transient pulse test has never been applied to the determination of permeability of clays. In this study, we tried to apply the transient pulse test to a clay obtained in Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory to determine the permeability with decreasing the downstream pore pressure. It was clarified that the transient pulse test with decreasing downstream pore pressure is appropriate from the measurements of granite and sandstone. It was shown that the permeability of a clay was determined by the transient pulse test with decreasing the downstream pore pressure, which agreed with the permeability determined from the falling head test. The measurement time of the transient pulse test is much shorter than that of the falling head test. It is concluded that the transient pulse test is appropriate for the determination of the permeability of clays.

JAEA Reports

Study on characterisation of colloidal silica grout under condition of sea water

Toguri, Satohito*; Okihara, Mistunobu*; Tsuji, Masakuni*; Nakashima, Hitoshi*; Sugiyama, Hirokazu*; Saito, Akira*; Sato, Toshinori; Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Masunaga, Kosuke

JAEA-Research 2017-013, 131 Pages, 2018/02


The discussions on scientifically promising site for the geological disposal has been made at the council of studying group on techniques for geological disposal of radioactive wastes, which is held by Resources and Energy Agency. From the aspect of ensuring safety during the transportation of disposal waste, the coastal area is discussed to be a more suitable area. This report shows the result of the first year of this project as following items; Study on the state-of-art technology and remain tasks; laboratory tests on characterization of colloidal silica grout under sea water; Study on the development of grouting technology (design and the evaluation method of influence on the rock mass).

JAEA Reports

System management for aggregation of knowledge on marine geological survey in coastal areas

Takahashi, Tadao*; Sato, Toshinori; Masunaga, Kosuke

JAEA-Review 2017-030, 60 Pages, 2018/01


The amount of the information such as the data, models and analysis results related to geological environment has been enormous. It is believed that an appropriate organization of the information is useful for conducting geological environment survey work at the candidate sites of geological disposal. The Survey on Geological Disposal Technology projects commissioned by METI that started in FY2015 handles various information such as the data, models, analysis results, etc. of geological environment. In this project, in preparation for collection and compilation of the information on geological environment in coastal areas, we have made clear the current status of the existing systems including databases. At the same time, we have created measures for centralized information management for the purpose of organizing a huge amount of information as well as sharing the information and information management systems among the related organizations.

Journal Articles

Rock mass property evaluation based on the borehole wall images taken by using an ultrasonic scanner (USS)

Otsuka, Yasunori*; Ishikawa, Takanori*; Tajima, Katsuhiro*; Wada, Tetsu*; Aydan, $"O$mer*; Tokashiki, Naohiko*; Sato, Toshinori; Aoyagi, Kazuhei

Journal of Nepal Geological Society, 55(Special Issue), p.1 - 6, 2018/00

Ultrasonic wave reflection intensity of the wall of borehole drilled from bottom of the East Access Shaft in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory, Hokkaido, Japan, was obtained using an ultrasonic scanner (USS). In this paper, we compared results of USS observation with core logging data including core observation, optical digital scanner (ODS) observation, and result of Needle Penetration Index (NPI) tests. The results indicated that ultrasonic wave reflection intensity had a good correlation with other observation results. USS observation and NPI tests are useful techniques for determination of detailed rock mass classification.

Journal Articles

Latest rock grouting technologies under sea water in Nordic countries and Japan

Tsuji, Masakuni*; Okihara, Mistunobu*; Nakashima, Hitoshi*; Sato, Toshinori; Aoyagi, Kazuhei

Proceedings of 6th East Asia Forum on Radwaste Management Conference (EAFORM 2017) (Internet), 6 Pages, 2017/12

Regarding the engineering technology, the rock grouting has been recently studied as one of the most important technologies. Although the cement grout has not been reported to be affected by the sea water, the latest grouting material called colloidal silica grout is known to be sensitive to the saline water. The mechanism of its affection by sea water is not clear and its grouting methodology in such condition is not yet established either. Therefore, we studied on the latest grouting technologies for geological disposal in Nordic countries and Japan by article survey and a grouting workshop. As a result, it was found that the approach for countermeasures in grouting under sea water is different between Japan, Sweden, and Finland, which are based respectively on the mixture, on the design method, and on the controlling method. It seems that the best solution against this problem is to establish a hybrid and optimal grouting methodology under sea water by combining each country's developed grouting technology in the near future for saline condition, which is respectively based on mixing, design, and controlling method.

Journal Articles

Fluid dynamic analysis on hydrogen deflagration in vertical flow channel with annular obstacles

Matsumoto, Toshinori; Sato, Masatoshi; Sugiyama, Tomoyuki; Maruyama, Yu

Proceedings of 25th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-25) (CD-ROM), 6 Pages, 2017/07

JAEA Reports

Backfilling test in drilling pits as part of Groundwater REcovery Experiment in Tunnel (GREET) Project

Takayasu, Kentaro; Onuki, Kenji*; Kawamoto, Koji*; Takayama, Yusuke; Mikake, Shinichiro; Sato, Toshinori; Onoe, Hironori; Takeuchi, Ryuji

JAEA-Technology 2017-011, 61 Pages, 2017/06


The Groundwater REcovery Experiment in Tunnel (GREET) was put into effect as development of drift backfilling technologies. This test was conducted by making the Closure Test Drift (CTD) recovered with water after carrying out a plug around 40m distance from northern edge face of horizontal tunnel of depth 500m, for the purpose of investigation of recovering process of rock mass and groundwater under the influence of excavation of tunnel. This report presents the efforts of backfilling investigation using bentonite composite soil and execution of backfilling into borehole pits excavated in the CTD which were carried out in fiscal 2014 as a part of GREET, and succeeding observation results inside pits from September 2014 to March 2016.

Journal Articles

Thermofluid dynamic analysis for THAI tests with passive hydrogen recombiner

Sato, Masatoshi; Matsumoto, Toshinori; Sugiyama, Tomoyuki; Maruyama, Yu

Proceedings of 8th European Review Meeting on Severe Accident Research (ERMSAR 2017) (Internet), 12 Pages, 2017/05

JAEA Reports

Study on engineering technologies in the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (FY 2015); Development of design and construction planning and countermeasure technologies (Contract research)

Toguri, Satohito*; Kobayashi, Shinji*; Tsuji, Masakuni*; Yahagi, Ryoji*; Yamada, Toshiko*; Matsui, Hiroya; Sato, Toshinori; Mikake, Shinichiro; Aoyagi, Yoshiaki

JAEA-Technology 2017-005, 43 Pages, 2017/03


The study on engineering technology in the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) project roughly consists of (1) development of design and construction planning technologies, (2) development of construction technology, (3) development of countermeasure technology, (4) development of technology for security, and (5) development of technologies regarding restoration and mitigating of the excavation effect. In FY2015, as a part of the important issues on the research program, water-tight grouting method has been developed. Grouting methods utilized in the MIU were evaluated and the post-excavation grouting at the -500m Access/Research Gallery-South was planned based on these evaluation results. Also, technology development from the viewpoint of geological disposal was summarized, and information on the alternative method to the grouting method was collected and organized.

JAEA Reports

Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project; Synthesis of Phase II (Construction Phase) investigations to a depth of 350m

Sato, Toshinori; Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Ishii, Eiichi; Matsuoka, Toshiyuki; Hayano, Akira; Miyakawa, Kazuya; Fujita, Tomoo*; Tanai, Kenji; Nakayama, Masashi; Takeda, Masaki; et al.

JAEA-Research 2016-025, 313 Pages, 2017/03


The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) Project is being pursued by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) to enhance the reliability of relevant disposal technologies through investigations of the deep geological environment within the host sedimentary formations at Horonobe, northern Hokkaido. This report summarizes the results of the Phase II investigations carried out from April 2005 to June 2014 to a depth of 350m. Integration of work from different disciplines into a "geosynthesis" ensures that the Phase II goals have been successfully achieved and identifies key issues that need to made to be addressed in the Phase II investigations Efforts are made to summarize as many lessons learnt from the Phase II investigations and other technical achievements as possible to form a "knowledge base" that will reinforce the technical basis for both implementation and the formulation of safety regulations.

JAEA Reports

Study on engineering technologies in the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (FY 2015); Development of recovery and mitigation technology on excavation damage (Contract research)

Fukaya, Masaaki*; Takeda, Nobufumi*; Miura, Norihiko*; Ishida, Tomoko*; Hata, Koji*; Uyama, Masao*; Sato, Shin*; Okuma, Fumiko*; Hayagane, Sayaka*; Matsui, Hiroya; et al.

JAEA-Technology 2016-035, 153 Pages, 2017/02


The researches on engineering technology in the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) project in FY2016, detailed investigations of the ( mechanical )behaviors of the plug and the rock mass around the reflood tunnel through ongoing reflood test were performed as part of (5) development of technologies for restoration and/or reduction of the excavation damage. As the result, particularly for the temperature change of the plug, its analytical results agree fairly well agree with the measurement ones. This means cracks induced by temperature stress can be prevented by the cooling countermeasure works reviewed in designing stage. In addition, for the behaviors of the plug and the bedrock boundary after reflooding the reflood tunnel, comparison between the results obtained by coupled hydro-mechanical analysis (stress-fluid coupled analysis ) with the ones by several measurements, concluded that the model established based on the analysis results is generally appropriated.

Journal Articles

Post-grouting experiences for reducing groundwater inflow at 500 m depth of the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory, Japan

Tsuji, Masakuni*; Kobayashi, Shinji*; Mikake, Shinichiro; Sato, Toshinori; Matsui, Hiroya

Procedia Engineering, 191, p.543 - 550, 2017/00

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:4.21

This paper shows the application of two post-grouting works to a gallery at 500 m depth of Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory in Japan. Three new grouting concepts were applied to the post-grouting works; a new grout material, a new injection system, and a new post-grouting zone. As for a grout material, "durable liquid-type colloidal silica grout (CSG)" was applied to seal the narrow fractures. As for an injection system, "complex dynamic grouting method" was applied to improve the penetrability of the grout material. The grouting works were successful in reducing the abundant water inflow from the rock mass with many fractures.

Journal Articles

Analysis with CFD code for THAI test on thermal-hydraulics during PAR activation

Sato, Masatoshi; Matsumoto, Toshinori; Sugiyama, Tomoyuki; Maruyama, Yu

Proceedings of 10th Japan-Korea Symposium on Nuclear Thermal Hydraulics and Safety (NTHAS-10) (USB Flash Drive), 10 Pages, 2016/11

Journal Articles

Post-grouting with colloidal silica at great depth of the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory, Japan

Tsuji, Masakuni*; Kobayashi, Shinji*; Sato, Toshinori; Mikake, Shinichiro; Matsui, Hiroya

Proceedings of 8th Nordic Grouting Symposium, p.171 - 185, 2016/09

This paper presents the application of a durable liquid-type colloidal silica grout (CSG), to the great depth of the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU). The CSG had been invented decades ago in Japan for the purpose of the ground improvement. A post-grouting experiment with the CSG carried out in 300 m depth of MIU confirmed its applicability and good durability at a great depth more than 3 years. Furthermore, a comparison study of applying the CSG between this experiment and a Swedish project indicated good applicability of the Swedish theoretical design to MIU. The CSG with the Swedish design were applied to the post-grouting campaign in a gallery at 500 m depth for further reducing water ingress and for developing the latest grouting methodology. The grouting was successful in reducing the abundant inflow from the rock with many fractures. The conductivity of the grouted rock mass of the latter fans is estimated to be lower than 10$$^{-9}$$ m/s.

270 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)