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JAEA Reports

Precautions of capacitor inspection and its treatment based on the PCB Special Measures Law

Ono, Ayato; Takayanagi, Tomohiro; Sugita, Moe; Ueno, Tomoaki*; Horino, Koki*; Yamamoto, Kazami; Kinsho, Michikazu

JAEA-Technology 2022-036, 31 Pages, 2023/03


In the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), many electrical facilities such as power receiving equipment and power supply units are installed in experimental facilities such as the Nuclear Science Research Institute (NSRI) and the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC). However, some facilities have been in operation for more than half a century since they were manufactured, some have already been closed or deactivated, and others are still in operation while replacing parts and taking other aging measures. In these facilities, materials that were used because of their excellent properties at the time of manufacture are now designated as hazardous substances and require special management when disposed of. One of them is polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB). PCB were used in a very wide range of fields because of their stability against heat, high electrical insulation, and chemical resistance. However, it was found that PCB have persistent properties and may cause damage to human health and the living environment, and the government has enacted the "Act on Special Measures for Promotion of Proper Treatment of PCB Wastes (PCB Special Measures Law)" to promote reliable and proper disposal. JAEA has almost completed the excavation survey of high-concentration PCB waste and is in the process of excavating low-concentration PCB waste. However, there are still new relevant items to be discovered. This report summarizes and reports the knowledge necessary for identifying PCB waste and points to be noted when handling capacitors, etc., based on examples of actual disassembly and investigation work conducted on power supply units and other electrical equipment, such as capacitors attached to power supply units, etc.

Journal Articles

Development of semiconductor switches for high-power crowbar circuits

Ono, Ayato; Takayanagi, Tomohiro; Fuwa, Yasuhiro; Shinozaki, Shinichi; Ueno, Tomoaki*; Horino, Koki*; Sugita, Moe; Yamamoto, Kazami; Kinsho, Michikazu; Ikoma, Naoya*; et al.

Proceedings of 19th Annual Meeting of Particle Accelerator Society of Japan (Internet), p.395 - 399, 2023/01

At J-PARC, an ignitron is used for the crowbar device of the klystron power supply for high-frequency acceleration of a linear accelerator. Ignitron uses mercury, which is of limited use worldwide, and is expected to be discontinued in the future. Therefore, we designed a semiconductor crowbar switch for short-circuit protection of klystron using a MOS gate thyristor. We have manufactured an oval-type board module that realizes an operating output of 3 kV, 40 kA, and 50 $$mu$$s per board. For the control power supply to each board module assuming a high voltage of 120 kV, we adopted a self-power supply method that creates a control power supply with a high-voltage DCDC converter from the voltage shared and charged by each board module. It was possible to confirm the operating performance on a 1/2 scale (60 kV, 40 kA) against the voltage of the existing equipment (120 kV, 40 kA) by connecting twenty oval board modules in series. The output test result will be reported.

Journal Articles

Semiconductor pulse power supplies for accelerators at J-PARC

Takayanagi, Tomohiro; Ono, Ayato; Fuwa, Yasuhiro; Shinozaki, Shinichi; Horino, Koki*; Ueno, Tomoaki*; Sugita, Moe; Yamamoto, Kazami; Oguri, Hidetomo; Kinsho, Michikazu; et al.

Proceedings of 19th Annual Meeting of Particle Accelerator Society of Japan (Internet), p.242 - 246, 2023/01

At J-PARC, semiconductor short pulse power supplies to replace kicker power supplies and semiconductor long pulse power supplies to replace klystron power supply systems are under construction. We have fabricated a 40kV/2kA/1.2$$mu$$s unit power supply that employs a linear transformer drivers (LTD) system for kickers. Currently, we are working on a high voltage insulating cylinder insulator that suppresses corona discharges using only the insulator structure, without using insulating oil. In addition, the MARX system was adopted for klystron power supply system. A main circuit unit for 8kV/60A/830$$mu$$s rectangular pulse output and an 800V/60A correction circuit unit that improves the flat top droop from 10% to 1% were manufactured. Furthermore, a 2.2kV/2.4kW high voltage SiC inverter charger has been fabricated for this MARX power supply. The presentation will report the evaluation results of each test and prospects for semiconductor pulse power supplies.

Journal Articles

Construction of low-jitter circuit for new kicker power supply using next-generation power semiconductor

Oda, Kodai; Takayanagi, Tomohiro; Ono, Ayato; Horino, Koki*; Ueno, Tomoaki*; Sugita, Moe; Morishita, Takatoshi; Iinuma, Hiromi*; Tokuchi, Akira*; Kamezaki, Hiroaki*; et al.

Proceedings of 19th Annual Meeting of Particle Accelerator Society of Japan (Internet), p.610 - 614, 2023/01

Kicker system is being used to kick the accelerated 3 GeV beam into the transport lines in RCS of J-PARC. The current kicker power supply applies thyratrons to discharge switches. We are developing a new kicker power supply using next-generation power semiconductors. The timing of the semiconductor switch operation is determined by the input of an external trigger signal. Large timing jitter causes unstable output pulses and beam loss due to beam orbit deviate from reference orbit. Therefore, a low jitter circuit that achieves high repeatability of 2 ns or less will be developed for the new kicker power supply. A prototype trigger generator has been fabricated, and jitter has been evaluated. The results of the evaluation test and the circuit configuration plan for reducing jitter will be reported.

Journal Articles

Evaluation of eddy currents dependent on excitation pattern in design of pulse electromagnets

Takayanagi, Tomohiro; Sugita, Moe; Ueno, Tomoaki*; Horino, Koki*; Ono, Ayato; Yamamoto, Kazami; Kinsho, Michikazu

IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, 32(6), p.4101405_1 - 4101405_5, 2022/09

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0(Engineering, Electrical & Electronic)

In order to design a pulsed electromagnet, it is necessary to consider eddy currents that depend on the pattern shape of the pulse excitation, and to design the structure and set the operating parameters considering the fluctuation of the magnetic field distribution and its effect on heat generation. Evaluation tests of a new bump magnet for the J-PARC RCS showed that the magnetic field distributions at the rising edge of the trapezoidal pattern and at the flat top are different from each other. This was also confirmed by the 3D dynamic magnetic field analysis of OPERA-3d. Since the skin-depth due to eddy currents depends on the time variation of the waveform, the effect is the same as changing the shape of the coil. The measurement of the magnetic field distribution fluctuation was verified and evaluated using a flux meter, search coil, and Hall probe with different measurement principles.

JAEA Reports

Guideline and cautionary points for accelerator system maintenance

Ono, Ayato; Takayanagi, Tomohiro; Sugita, Moe; Ueno, Tomoaki*; Horino, Koki*; Yamamoto, Kazami; Kinsho, Michikazu

JAEA-Technology 2021-044, 53 Pages, 2022/03


The 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron of Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) uses a large number of electromagnet power supplies in order to manipulate a high-intensity beam of 1 MW. These devices have been specially developed to meet the requirement to achieve acceleration of the 1-MW proton beams. Because J-PARC has been in operation for 10 years, we have to replace many parts and equipments due to failures caused by age-related deterioration. J-PARC accelerator system supplies the beams for many users, and we have to recover it as soon as possible when a trouble occurs. Therefore, if the trouble can be prevented before it happens, reduction of the user beam time can be minimized. Furthermore, it enables us to reduce additional work for operators. Maintenance is important to keep the equipments in a normal state, and makes it possible to extend the life of the equipments by detecting and maintaining the faulty parts and the aged deterioration parts at an early stage. Since all the devices requires the maintenance, there are a wide variety of maintenance methods. Some works are carried out by the J-PARC members, and some are performed by outsourcing. Ensuring safety and protecting workers are the most important issues in maintenance work. Therefore, J-PARC has rules for safety work. All workers in J-PARC have to learn and follow the rules. In addition, various ideas are being considered to enable safe and efficient work by devising ingenuity in each work. We also elaborate various ideas and processes for safe and efficient work according to the individual work conditions. In this report, we summarize the guideline and cautionary points during maintenance based on the actual case of maintenance and inspection work of the horizontal shift bump electromagnet power supply.

Journal Articles

Experimental verification of magnetic field measurement probe for RCS bump magnet

Sugita, Moe; Ueno, Tomoaki*; Horino, Koki*; Takayanagi, Tomohiro; Ono, Ayato; Yamamoto, Kazami; Kinsho, Michikazu

Proceedings of 18th Annual Meeting of Particle Accelerator Society of Japan (Internet), p.641 - 644, 2021/10

In the J-PARC 3 GeV Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS), shift bump magnets are used to merge the injection beam from the LINAC with the circulating orbit of the RCS. The bump magnets are excited with a trapezoidal pulse waveform, that the rise / fall time and the duration of the flat part can be changed. The injection bump orbit is created by the pulse waveform to inject a 1 MW, high intensity beam at a repetition rate of 25 Hz. An issue to achieve the 1 MW beam is suppression of the beam loss. Therefore, a requirement of the accuracy of the magnetic field is less than $$pm$$0.2%. Since the time structure of the pulse is so fast, we needed a test to select a magnetic probe with a suitable response. In this report, we will show the results of comparing the search coil, Hall probe and integral flux meter. The result indicated that the integral flux meter with a small measurement error is suitable.

Journal Articles

LTD semiconductor switch power supply for J-PARC kicker

Takayanagi, Tomohiro; Ono, Ayato; Horino, Koki*; Ueno, Tomoaki*; Sugita, Moe; Togashi, Tomohito; Yamamoto, Kazami; Kinsho, Michikazu

Proceedings of 18th Annual Meeting of Particle Accelerator Society of Japan (Internet), p.53 - 57, 2021/10

We are developing the LTD semiconductor switch power supply, which combines SiC-MOSFET semiconductors and Linear Transformer Drivers (LTD) circuit to replace the kicker power supply in J-PARC. This power supply consists of two types of circuit boards: a main circuit board for forming rectangular pulses and a correction circuit board for compensating for flat-top droop, which enables high-voltage output and droop compensation for the number of stages connected in a hierarchical series. In addition to the main circuits of the thyratron, PFN, and end-clipper, which are the main circuit board is a single 400 mm $$times$$ 430 mm board with a reflected wave absorption circuit that can reduce the beam impedance from the kicker magnet. In this study, we used 32 main circuit boards with 1.7 kV SiC-MOSFETs and 20 compensation boards with 100V MOSFETs to achieve the required 40 kV output rating as a kicker power supply. The evaluation results will be reported.

Journal Articles

Thermally altered subsurface material of asteroid (162173) Ryugu

Kitazato, Kohei*; Milliken, R. E.*; Iwata, Takahiro*; Abe, Masanao*; Otake, Makiko*; Matsuura, Shuji*; Takagi, Yasuhiko*; Nakamura, Tomoki*; Hiroi, Takahiro*; Matsuoka, Moe*; et al.

Nature Astronomy (Internet), 5(3), p.246 - 250, 2021/03

 Times Cited Count:30 Percentile:96.39(Astronomy & Astrophysics)

Here we report observations of Ryugu's subsurface material by the Near-Infrared Spectrometer (NIRS3) on the Hayabusa2 spacecraft. Reflectance spectra of excavated material exhibit a hydroxyl (OH) absorption feature that is slightly stronger and peak-shifted compared with that observed for the surface, indicating that space weathering and/or radiative heating have caused subtle spectral changes in the uppermost surface. However, the strength and shape of the OH feature still suggests that the subsurface material experienced heating above 300 $$^{circ}$$C, similar to the surface. In contrast, thermophysical modeling indicates that radiative heating does not increase the temperature above 200 $$^{circ}$$C at the estimated excavation depth of 1 m, even if the semimajor axis is reduced to 0.344 au. This supports the hypothesis that primary thermal alteration occurred due to radiogenic and/or impact heating on Ryugu's parent body.

Journal Articles

The Surface composition of asteroid 162173 Ryugu from Hayabusa2 near-infrared spectroscopy

Kitazato, Kohei*; Milliken, R. E.*; Iwata, Takahiro*; Abe, Masanao*; Otake, Makiko*; Matsuura, Shuji*; Arai, Takehiko*; Nakauchi, Yusuke*; Nakamura, Tomoki*; Matsuoka, Moe*; et al.

Science, 364(6437), p.272 - 275, 2019/04

 Times Cited Count:233 Percentile:99.74(Multidisciplinary Sciences)

The near-Earth asteroid 162173 Ryugu, the target of Hayabusa2 sample return mission, is believed to be a primitive carbonaceous object. The Near Infrared Spectrometer (NIRS3) on Hayabusa2 acquired reflectance spectra of Ryugu's surface to provide direct measurements of the surface composition and geological context for the returned samples. A weak, narrow absorption feature centered at 2.72 micron was detected across the entire observed surface, indicating that hydroxyl (OH)-bearing minerals are ubiquitous there. The intensity of the OH feature and low albedo are similar to thermally- and/or shock-metamorphosed carbonaceous chondrite meteorites. There are few variations in the OH-band position, consistent with Ryugu being a compositionally homogeneous rubble-pile object generated from impact fragments of an undifferentiated aqueously altered parent body.

Oral presentation

Effect on temperature dependence for long-term stable control of the magnetic field at sub-ppm using superconducting magnet for MRI

Sugita, Moe; Abe, Mitsushi*; Iinuma, Hiromi*; Ogane, Chiori; Ogitsu, Toru*; Sasaki, Kenichi*; Mibe, Tsutomu*; Shimomura, Koichiro*

no journal, , 

The MuSEUM experiment at J-PARC requires a long-term stability of less than 0.2 ppm time variation of magnetic field and less than 0.2 ppm (p-p) homogeneity for the ellipsoidal region of 20 cm in diameter and 30 cm in length. The superconducting magnet used in the MuSEUM experiment takes a method of shimming to adjust homogeneity by placing iron shims. The factors changing magnetic field with temperature is considered the location shift of shims due to the thermal expansion of the shimming structures and the temperature dependence of iron magnetization. Therefore, the magnetic field was measured during heating the shimming structure, and the temperature dependence of magnetic field was confirmed. In addition, location-shift and magnetization change were calculated by simulation. Based on the measurement and simulation results, it is necessary to control the room temperature within 0.2 K to keep long-term stability in the current experimental system.

Oral presentation

Spectral characteristics of asteroid (162173) Ryugu with Hayabusa2 NIRS3

Takir, D.*; Kitazato, Kohei*; Milliken, R. E.*; Iwata, Takahiro*; Abe, Masanao*; Otake, Makiko*; Matsuura, Shuji*; Arai, Takehiko*; Nakauchi, Yusuke*; Nakamura, Tomoki*; et al.

no journal, , 

JAXA spacecraft and sample return mission Hayabusa2 has arrived at the near-Earth asteroid 162173 Ryugu, which is classified a primitive carbonaceous object. Here we report recent results of near-infrared spectrometer (NIRS3) on the Hayabusa2 spacecraft. The observations provide direct measurements of the surface composition of Ryugu and context for the returned samples. NIRS3 has detected a weak and narrow absorption feature centered at 2.72 micrometer across entire observed surface. This absorption feature is attributed to the presence of OH-bearing minerals. The NIRS3 observations also revealed that Ryugu is the darkest object to be observed up-close by a visiting spacecraft. The intensity of the OH feature and low albedo are consistent with thermally-and/or shock-metamorphosed, and/or carbon-rich space-weathered primitive and hydrated carbonaceous chondrites.

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