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Negative excursion of surface electric fields during gamma-ray glows in winter thunderstorms

和田 有希*; 鴨川 仁*; 久保 守*; 榎戸 輝揚*; 林 省吾*; 澤野 達也*; 米徳 大輔*; 土屋 晴文

Journal of Geophysical Research; Atmospheres, 128(21), p.e2023JD039354_1 - e2023JD039354_20, 2023/11

During the 2020-2021 winter season, we detected 6 gamma-ray glows at Kanazawa University, Japan. Negative surface electric fields (E-fields) were observed by a field mill during all the glow cases. In five of the six cases, the maximum E-field reached $$-$$12 $$mathrm{kV m}^{-1}$$, and the E-field during the glow detection was the strongest in 3 hours before and after the detection time. Therefore, negative charges should have been dominant in the thunderclouds that produced the gamma-ray glows, and electrons were probably accelerated and multiplied by the E-fields between a predominantly negative charge layer and a localized positive charge layer below. In addition, we extracted 8 non-detection cases in the 2020-2021 winter season, in which surface E-fields were stronger than $$-$$12 $$mathrm{kV m}^{-1}$$. In 5 of the 8 cases, radar echoes were inadequately developed, suggesting insufficient charge accumulation. On the other hand, the remaining 3 cases had well-developed radar echoes, and there was no significant difference from the detection cases.


Termination of downward-oriented gamma-ray glow by normal-polarity in-cloud discharge activity

和田 有希*; Wu, T.*; Wang, D.*; 榎戸 輝揚*; 中澤 知洋*; 森本 健志*; 中村 佳敬*; 篠田 太郎*; 土屋 晴文

Journal of Geophysical Research; Atmospheres, 128(15), p.e2023JD038606_1 - e2023JD038606_9, 2023/08

A gamma-ray glow, a minute-lasting burst of high-energy photons from a thundercloud, was detected by ground-based apparatus at Kanazawa University, Japan, in a winter thunderstorm on 18 December 2018. The gamma-ray glow was quenched by a lightning flash within a brief time window of 40 ms. The lightning flash produced several low-frequency (LF) E-change pulses that were temporally coincident withthe termination of the gamma-ray glow, and that were located within 0.5 km from the observation site by the Fast Antenna Lightning Mapping Array. The LF pulses had the same polarity as a positive cloud-to-ground current and a normal-polarity in-cloud current. Since this polarity is against the upward electric field for producing the gamma-ray glow (accelerating electrons to the ground), we infer that the glow was terminated by a normal-polarity in-cloud discharge activity between a middle negative layer and an upper positive layer.


Numerical simulation of bubble hydrodynamics for pool scrubbing

岡垣 百合亜; 柴本 泰照; 和田 裕貴; 安部 諭; 日引 俊詞*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 60(8), p.955 - 968, 2023/08

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Pool scrubbing is an important filtering process that prevents radioactive aerosols from entering the environment in the event of severe accidents in a nuclear reactor. In this process of transporting aerosol particles using bubbles, bubble hydrodynamics plays a crucial role in modeling pool scrubbing and significantly affects particle removal in a bubble. The pool scrubbing code based on Lumped Parameter (LP) approach includes the particle removal model, and its hydrodynamic parameters are determined based on simple assumptions. We aim to apply the three-dimensional Computer Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach to understand the detailed bubble interaction. This study validated the applicability of the CFD simulation to bubble hydrodynamics at the flow transition from a globule to a swarm region, which is critical in the stand-alone pool scrubbing code-SPARC-90. Two types of solvers based on the Volume Of Fluid (VOF) and the Simple Coupled Volume Of Fluid with Level Set (S-CLSVOF) methods were used to capture the gas-liquid interface in the CFD simulation. We used the experimental data for validation. As a result, the VOF and S-CLSVOF methods accurately predicted the bubble size and void fraction distributions. In addition, we confirmed that the bubble rise velocity of the S-CLSVOF method almost agreed with the experimental results.


Development of nondestructive elemental analysis system for Hayabusa2 samples using muonic X-rays

大澤 崇人; 長澤 俊作*; 二宮 和彦*; 高橋 忠幸*; 中村 智樹*; 和田 大雅*; 谷口 秋洋*; 梅垣 いづみ*; 久保 謙哉*; 寺田 健太郎*; et al.

ACS Earth and Space Chemistry (Internet), 7(4), p.699 - 711, 2023/04



Study of the $$N=32$$ and $$N=34$$ shell gap for Ti and V by the first high-precision multireflection time-of-flight mass measurements at BigRIPS-SLOWRI

飯村 俊*; Rosenbusch, M.*; 高峰 愛子*; 角田 佑介*; 和田 道治*; Chen, S.*; Hou, D. S.*; Xian, W.*; 石山 博恒*; Yan, S.*; et al.

Physical Review Letters, 130(1), p.012501_1 - 012501_6, 2023/01

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:95.37(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

The atomic masses of $$^{55}$$Sc, $$^{56,58}$$Ti, and $$^{56-59}$$V have been determined using the high-precision multireflection time-of-flight technique. The radioisotopes have been produced at RIKEN's Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory (RIBF) and delivered to the novel designed gas cell and multireflection system, which has been recently commissioned downstream of the ZeroDegree spectrometer following the BigRIPS separator. For $$^{56,58}$$Ti and $$^{56-59}$$V, the mass uncertainties have been reduced down to the order of 10 keV, shedding new light on the $$N=34$$ shell effect in Ti and V isotopes by the first high-precision mass measurements of the critical species $$^{58}$$Ti and $$^{59}$$V. With the new precision achieved, we reveal the nonexistence of the $$N=34$$ empirical two-neutron shell gaps for Ti and V, and the enhanced energy gap above the occupied $$nu$$p$$_{3/2}$$ orbit is identified as a feature unique to Ca. We perform new Monte Carlo shell model calculations including the $$nu$$d$$_{5/2}$$ and $$nu$$g$$_{9/2}$$ orbits and compare the results with conventional shell model calculations, which exclude the $$nu$$g$$_{9/2}$$ and the $$nu$$d$$_{5/2}$$ orbits. The comparison indicates that the shell gap reduction in Ti is related to a partial occupation of the higher orbitals for the outer two valence neutrons at $$N = 34$$.


Design and actual performance of J-PARC 3 GeV rapid cycling synchrotron for high-intensity operation

山本 風海; 金正 倫計; 林 直樹; Saha, P. K.; 田村 文彦; 山本 昌亘; 谷 教夫; 高柳 智弘; 神谷 潤一郎; 菖蒲田 義博; et al.

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 59(9), p.1174 - 1205, 2022/09

 被引用回数:3 パーセンタイル:82.38(Nuclear Science & Technology)

J-PARC 3GeVシンクロトロン(RCS)は、最大1MWの大強度ビームを25Hzという早い繰り返しで中性子実験及び下流の主リングシンクロトロンに供給することを目的に設計された。2007年の加速器調整運転開始以降、RCSではビーム試験を通じて加速器の設計性能が満たされているかの確認を進め、必要に応じてより安定に運転するための改善を行ってきた。その結果として、近年RCSは1MWのビーム出力で連続運転を行うことが可能となり、共用運転に向けた最後の課題の抽出と対策の検討が進められている。本論文ではRCSの設計方針と実際の性能、および改善点について議論する。


Mass-resolved momentum imaging of three dichloroethylene isomers by femtosecond laser-induced coulomb explosion

和田 資子*; 赤木 浩*; 熊田 高之; 板倉 隆二*; 若林 知成*

Photochem (Internet), 2(3), p.798 - 809, 2022/09




大森 一樹; 山内 祥; 柳橋 太; 佐々木 俊一; 和田 拓也; 鈴木 久規; 堂村 和幸; 竹内 謙二

日本保全学会第18回学術講演会要旨集, p.245 - 248, 2022/07



Temporal variability of $$^{137}$$Cs concentrations in coastal sediments off Fukushima

鈴木 翔太郎*; 天野 洋典*; 榎本 昌宏*; 松本 陽*; 守岡 良晃*; 佐久間 一幸; 鶴田 忠彦; 帰山 秀樹*; 三浦 輝*; 津旨 大輔*; et al.

Science of the Total Environment, 831, p.154670_1 - 154670_15, 2022/07

 被引用回数:2 パーセンタイル:35.39(Environmental Sciences)

The monthly monitoring data (total 3647 samples) between May. 2011 and Mar. 2020 were analyzed to describe temporal variability of $$^{137}$$Cs concentration in coastal sediments off Fukushima. $$^{137}$$Cs concentration of sediment had decreasing trend, but non-linear model fitting suggested that this decreasing trend showed slower. Additionally, $$^{137}$$Cs concentration were up to 4.08 times greater in shallow sampling sites (7, 10, 20 m depth) following heavy rainfall events (before five months vs. after five months), such as typhoons. These were consistent with increasing particulate $$^{137}$$Cs (P-$$^{137}$$Cs) fluxes from river and increasing dissolved $$^{137}$$Cs (D-$$^{137}$$Cs) concentration in seawater. Finally, the numerical experiment was conducted and revealed that riverine $$^{137}$$Cs input could preserve $$^{137}$$Cs concentration in coastal sediment. These results indicate that riverine $$^{137}$$Cs input via heavy rainfall events is one of the main factors for preserving $$^{137}$$Cs concentration in coastal sediment off Fukushima.


Radiocesium-bearing microparticles cause a large variation in $$^{137}$$Cs activity concentration in the aquatic insect ${it Stenopsyche marmorata}$ (Tricoptera: Stenopsychidae) in the Ota River, Fukushima, Japan

石井 弓美子*; 三浦 輝*; Jo, J.*; 辻 英樹*; 斎藤 梨絵; 小荒井 一真; 萩原 大樹; 漆舘 理之*; 錦織 達啓*; 和田 敏裕*; et al.

PLOS ONE (Internet), 17(5), p.e0268629_1 - e0268629_17, 2022/05

 被引用回数:3 パーセンタイル:49.32

本研究では、福島県太田川で採集した解虫性トビケラ(Stenopsyche marmorata)および肉食性ヘビトンボ(Protohermes grandis)幼虫の水生昆虫個体における$$^{137}$$Cs放射能濃度のばらつきを調査した。トビケラ幼虫は散発的に高い放射能を示したが、ヘビトンボ幼虫ではばらつきは見られなかった。オートラジオグラフィーと走査型電子顕微鏡による分析から、これらのトビケラ幼虫試料には、不溶性のCs含有ケイ酸塩ガラス粒子である放射性Cs含有微粒子(CsMPs)が含まれていることが確認された。また、CsMPsはトビケラ幼虫の餌となりうるペリフィトンや漂流粒子状有機物にも含まれており、幼虫はCsMPsを同サイズの餌粒子とともに摂取している可能性が示唆された。淡水生態系におけるCsMPsの分布や生物による取り込みは比較的知られていないが、本研究はCsMPsが水生昆虫に取り込まれることを実証している。


Development of proton exchange membranes for hydriodic acid concentration by ion-track grafting technique

田中 伸幸; 澤田 真一*; 杉本 千紘; 八巻 徹也*

QST-M-33; QST Takasaki Annual Report 2020, P. 37, 2022/03



Benchmark analysis of ductile fracture simulation for circumferentially cracked pipes subjected to bending

熊谷 知久*; 三浦 靖史*; 三浦 直樹*; Marie, S.*; Almahdi, R.*; 真野 晃宏; Li, Y.; 勝山 仁哉; 和田 義孝*; Hwang, J.-H.*; et al.

Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, 144(1), p.011509_1 - 011509_18, 2022/02

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:24.39(Engineering, Mechanical)



Correction method of measurement volume effects on time-averaged statistics for laser Doppler velocimetry

和田 裕貴; 古市 紀之*; 辻 義之*

European Journal of Mechanics B, Fluids, 91, p.233 - 243, 2022/01

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:25.01(Mechanics)

A new correction method of LDV (Laser Doppler Velocimetry) measurement volume effects on the time-averaged velocity statistics is proposed by considering the PDF (Probability Density Function) of streamwise fluctuating velocity and the streamwise cross-sectional area of the measurement volume. It is fundamentally different from the previous method using a laser intensity profile of LDV. We propose a simple equation to correct the measurement volume effects. Using this equation and calculating precisely both the measurement locations and the measurement volume, the correction of measurement volume effects on the time averaged statistics can be performed based on the LDV measurement data. From a comparison with correction method proposed by Durst et al. (1995), the present correction method provides almost same result with Durst method, and then the validity and applicability to higher Reynolds number or lower spatial conditions of two correction methods are confirmed.


Catalog of gamma-ray glows during four winter seasons in Japan

和田 有希*; 松本 崇弘*; 榎戸 輝揚*; 中澤 知洋*; 湯浅 孝行*; 古田 禄大*; 米徳 大輔*; 澤野 達哉*; 岡田 豪*; 南戸 秀仁*; et al.

Physical Review Research (Internet), 3(4), p.043117_1 - 043117_31, 2021/12

In 2015 the Gamma-Ray Observation of Winter Thunderstorms (GROWTH) collaboration launched a mapping observation campaign for high-energy atmospheric phenomena related to thunderstorms and lightning discharges. This campaign has developed a detection network of gamma rays with up to 10 radiation monitors installed in Kanazawa and Komatsu cities, Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan, where low-charge-center winter thunderstorms frequently occur. During four winter seasons from October 2016 to April 2020, in total 70 gamma-ray glows, minute-lasting bursts of gamma rays originating from thunderclouds, were detected. Their average duration is 58.9 sec. Among the detected events, 77% were observed in nighttime. The gamma-ray glows can be classified into temporally-symmetric, temporally-asymmetric, and lightning-terminated types based on their count-rate histories. An averaged energy spectrum of the gamma-ray glows is well fitted with a power-law function with an exponential cutoff, whose photon index, cutoff energy, and flux are 0.613 $$pm$$ 0.009, 4.68 $$pm$$ 0.04 MeV, and (1.013 $$pm$$ 0.003) $$times$$ 10$$^{-5}$$ erg cm$$^{-2}$$s$$^{-1}$$ (0.2-20.0 MeV), respectively. The present paper provides the first catalog of gamma-ray glows and their statistical analysis detected during winter thunderstorms in the Kanazawa and Komatsu areas.


Multiple gamma-ray glows and a downward TGF observed from nearby thunderclouds

久富 章平*; 中澤 知洋*; 和田 有希*; 辻 結菜*; 榎戸 輝揚*; 篠田 太郎*; 森本 健志*; 中村 佳敬*; 湯浅 孝行*; 土屋 晴文

Journal of Geophysical Research; Atmospheres, 126(18), p.e2021JD034543_1 - e2021JD034543_12, 2021/09

 被引用回数:13 パーセンタイル:83.13(Meteorology & Atmospheric Sciences)

Around 17:00 on January 12, 2020 (UTC), radiation detectors installed at two locations with a 1.35 km separation in Kanazawa City, Japan, captured a total of four gamma-ray enhancements. The first pair was simultaneously observed at the two locations at 17:03 and were abruptly terminated by a lightning discharge. The remaining two enhancements were also nearly simultaneously observed $$sim$$3 min later, and one of them was also terminated by another lightning discharge. At the last termination, a downward terrestrial gamma-ray flash and a negative energetic in-cloud pulse were observed. Both pairs were associated with thundercloud cells. In the first pair, simultaneous detection in two locations 1.35 km apart suggests either a gamma-ray glow emerged in-between and time variability of its intensity were directly observed or there were two (or more) gamma-ray glows in the cell which reached the two detectors coincidentally. In the latter pair, the peak time in the downwind detector was $$sim$$40 s later than that of the upwind detector. If the irradiation region moved with the cell, it would have taken $$sim$$110 s. The discrepancy suggests either the glow moved 2.5 times faster than the cell or there were two (or more) glows in the cell. Also, the fact that the thunderstorm cell hosting the latter glows experienced the lightning discharge $$sim$$3 min before suggests that the strong electric field in the cell can develop within a few minutes.



曽根原 正晃; 内堀 昭寛; 青柳 光裕; 川田 賢一; 高田 孝; 大島 宏之

第25回動力・エネルギー技術シンポジウム講演論文集(インターネット), 3 Pages, 2021/07

ナトリウム(Na)冷却高速炉において、炉心損傷を伴うシビアアクシデント(SA)発生時の際、炉心部から溶融燃料が流出し、ナトリウム冷却材との相互作用により数mm$$sim$$数百オーダーの径を持つデブリ粒子として固化し、原子炉容器下部に堆積する可能性が指摘されている。そのためSA事象進展を評価する際にはこうしたデブリ粒子の挙動を適切に把握する必要がある。これらの要求に応えるため、原子力機構で開発中のSAを含むNa高速炉事故シナリオでの炉内/炉外事象を一貫解析可能なツールSPECTRAコードの一部として、粒子法の一種である散逸粒子動力学(DPD: Dissipative Particle Dynamics)を用いた溶融燃料挙動解析コードを開発した。本報では解析コード開発に使用したモデルの詳細について述べた後、デブリ粒子の炉心下部への堆積を模擬したテスト解析の結果について報告する。


Gamma-ray observations at the coastal area of Japan Sea in winter seasons

土屋 晴文; 榎戸 輝揚*; 和田 有希*; 古田 禄大; 中澤 知洋*; 湯浅 孝行*; 楳本 大悟*; 牧島 一夫*; GROWTH Collaboration*

Proceedings of Science (Internet), 358, p.1163_1 - 1163_6, 2021/07

Since 2006, the GROWTH experiment has been successfully operating at the coastal area of Japan Sea. The GROWTH experiment aims at elucidating how particles in lightning and thunderclouds are accelerated to relativistic energies to produce gamma rays and occasionally neutrons. According to observations done by the GROWTH experiment, it is found that there are two types of radiation bursts associated with winter thunderstorms. One is long bursts lasting for a few tens of seconds to a few minutes, being not clearly related to lightning. The other is short bursts in association with lightning. To better understand the production mechanism of these radiation bursts, we have developed a small-type of radiation detectors and increased observational points with the new detectors. In this presentation, we show an overview of observations done by the GROWTH experiment. Then we focus on recent several findings observed by the new detectors. One, which is categorized into long bursts, implies a relationship between a long burst and an intra/inter-cloud discharge. Another is a combination of short bursts and long ones, showing simultaneous detections of prompt gamma rays extending up to 10 MeV and the 511-keV annihilation ones. These gamma-ray signals demonstrate the occurrence of photonuclear reactions in lightning. Based on these results, we discuss the production mechanism of gamma rays related to thunderstorms.


Improvement of HI concentration performance for hydrogen production iodine-sulfur process using crosslinked cation-exchange membrane

田中 伸幸; 澤田 真一*; 八巻 徹也*; 小平 岳秀*; 木村 壮宏*; 野村 幹弘*

Chemical Engineering Science, 237, p.116575_1 - 116575_11, 2021/06

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:6.72(Engineering, Chemical)

熱化学水素製造法ISプロセスでは、HI-I$$_{2}$$-H$$_{2}$$O (HIx)溶液のHI濃縮のため、イオン交換膜を用いた電解電気透析法(EED)が適用されている。本報では、放射線グラフト膜に対して架橋構造を導入することで、HI濃縮性能の改良を試み、導電率($$sigma$$),輸率(t$$_{+}$$),水透過係数($$beta$$)の性能指標を用いて、実験的及び理論的に性能評価を行った。架橋導入により、H$$^{+}$$及び水の透過選択性が改善されることが示された。また、EEDの数理モデルに基づく理論解析から、架橋導入による影響はHI吸収量及びH$$^{+}$$拡散係数にはほとんど影響を与えず、I$$^{-}$$の拡散係数に影響することが明らかとなり、$$sigma$$, t$$_{+}$$に対しては、その結果が反映されることで、H$$^{+}$$の選択性が改善された。また、架橋の効果により、HI溶液の吸収に伴う膨潤が抑制され、その効果により、水の透過が抑制され、HI濃縮効果が高まることが示された。


Meteorological aspects of gamma-ray glows in winter thunderstorms

和田 有希*; 榎戸 輝揚*; 久保 守*; 中澤 知洋*; 篠田 太郎*; 米徳 大輔*; 澤野 達哉*; 湯浅 孝行*; 牛尾 知雄*; 佐藤 陽祐*; et al.

Geophysical Research Letters, 48(7), 11 Pages, 2021/04

 被引用回数:16 パーセンタイル:91.62(Geosciences, Multidisciplinary)



Thermally altered subsurface material of asteroid (162173) Ryugu

北里 宏平*; Milliken, R. E.*; 岩田 隆浩*; 安部 正真*; 大竹 真紀子*; 松浦 周二*; 高木 靖彦*; 中村 智樹*; 廣井 孝弘*; 松岡 萌*; et al.

Nature Astronomy (Internet), 5(3), p.246 - 250, 2021/03

 被引用回数:30 パーセンタイル:97.01(Astronomy & Astrophysics)


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