Fang, Y.*; Kong, L.*; Wang, R.*; Zhang, Z.*; Li, Z.*; Wu, Y.*; Bu, K.*; Liu, X.*; Yan, S.*; 服部 高典; et al.
Materials Today Physics (Internet), 34, p.101083_1 - 101083_7, 2023/05
Zhang, H.*; Wu, S. C.*; Ao, N.*; Zhang, J. W.*; Li, H.*; Zhou, L.*; 徐 平光; Su, Y. H.
International Journal of Fatigue, 166, p.107296_1 - 107296_11, 2023/01
Abnormal damages in railway axles can lead to a significant hazard to running safety and reliability. To this end, a surface treatment was selected to effectively inhibit fatigue crack initiation and growth. In this study, a single edge notch bending fatigue test campaign with artificial notches was conducted to elucidate the fatigue crack non-propagation behavior in railway S38C axles subjected to an induction hardening process. The fatigue cracking behavior in the gradient structure was revealed by optical microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, and fractography. The microhardness distribution was measured using a Vickers tester. The obtained results show that the microhardness of the strengthening layer is nearly triple that of the matrix. Owing to the gradient microstructures and hardness, as well as compressive residual stress, the fatigue long crack propagates faster once it passes through the hardened zone (approximately 2.0 mm in the radial depth). Thereafter, local retarding (including deflection, branching, and blunting) of the long crack occurs because of the relatively coarse ferrite and pearlite in the transition region and matrix. Totally, this fatigue cracking resistance is reasonably believed to be due to the gradient microstructure and residual stress. These findings help to tailor a suitable detection strategy for maximum defects or cracks in railway axles.
Yang, Z.*; Wang, G.-J.*; Wu, J.-J.*; 岡 眞; Zhu, S.-L.*
Journal of High Energy Physics (Internet), 2023(1), p.058_1 - 058_19, 2023/01
Zhang, J.*; Kuang, L.*; Mou, Z.*; 近藤 俊明*; 小嵐 淳; 安藤 麻里子; Li, Y.*; Tang, X.*; Wang, Y.-P.*; Peuelas, J.*; et al.
Plant and Soil, 481(1-2), p.349 - 365, 2022/12
Soil warming effects on soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition and stabilization are highly variable, and the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, concentration, stability (dissolved, particle and mineral-associated SOC), and source (plant-derived and microbial-derived) of SOC, soil microbial community composition, and enzyme activities were studied in a 10-year soil warming field experiment in an East Asian monsoon forest. The results showed that 10-year soil warming significantly enhanced SOC in the top 0-10 cm soil. The increased SOC induced by warming was mainly derived from plants with lignin markers, accompanied by a decrease in microbial-derived SOC. This highlights an urgent need for a better understanding of how the contrasting effects of plant- and microbial-derived C mediate the response of the SOC pool to warming across different biomes.
Sheng, J.*; Wang, L.*; Candini, A.*; Jiang, W.*; Huang, L.*; Xi, B.*; Zhao, J.*; Ge, H.*; Zhao, N.*; Fu, Y.*; et al.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 119(51), p.e2211193119_1 - e2211193119_9, 2022/12
Although considerable progress has been made in the theoretical understanding of the low-dimensional frustrated quantum magnets, experimental realizations of a well-established scaling analysis are still scarce. This is particularly true for the two-dimensional antiferromagnetic triangular lattices. Owing to the small exchange strength, the newly discovered compound NaBaCo(PO) provides a rare opportunity for clarifying the quantum criticality in an ideal triangular lattice with quantum spin S=1/2. In addition to the establishment of the complete phase diagrams, the spin Hamiltonian with a negligible interplane interaction has been determined through the spin wave dispersion in the polarized state, which is consistent with the observation of a two-dimensional quantum critical point with the Bose-Einstein condensation of diluted free bosons.
Yang, Z.*; Wang, G.-J.*; Wu, J.-J.*; 岡 眞; Zhu, S.-L.*
Physical Review Letters, 128(11), p.112001_1 - 112001_6, 2022/03
Naeem, M.*; He, H.*; Harjo, S.; 川崎 卓郎; Lin, W.*; Kai, J.-J.*; Wu, Z.*; Lan, S.*; Wang, X.-L.*
Acta Materialia, 221, p.117371_1 - 117371_18, 2021/12
We studied the deformation behavior of CrFeCoNi high-entropy alloy by in situ neutron diffraction at room temperature, intermediate low temperature of 140 K, low temperatures of 40 K (no serrated deformation) and 25 K (with massive serrations). The contributions from different deformation mechanisms to the yield strength and strain hardening have been estimated. The athermal contributions to the yield strength were 183 MPa at all temperatures, while the Peierls stress increased significantly at low temperatures (from 148 MPa at room temperature to 493 MPa at 25 K). Dislocations contributed to 94% strain hardening at room temperature. Although the dislocation strengthening remained the major hardening mechanism at very low temperatures, the planar faults contribution increased steadily from 6% at room temperature to 28% at 25 K.
Naeem, M.*; Zhou, H.*; He, H.*; Harjo, S.; 川崎 卓郎; Lan, S.*; Wu, Z.*; Zhu, Y.*; Wang, X.-L.*
Applied Physics Letters, 119(13), p.131901_1 - 131901_7, 2021/09
We investigated the in situ deformation behavior of the CrCoNi medium-entropy alloy at a cryogenic temperature of 140 K and compared it with deformation at room temperature. The sample exhibited higher strength and larger ductility at the cryogenic temperature. The CrCoNi alloy remained single-phase face-centered cubic at room temperature, while deformation at 140 K resulted in a martensitic transformation to the hexagonal close-packed structure. The phase transformation, an additional deformation mechanism to stacking faults, twinning, and dis- location slip, resulted in a higher work hardening at cryogenic temperature. The study addresses the structure metastability in the CrCoNi alloy, which led to the formation of epsilon-martensite from the intrinsic stacking faults.
Wang, Y.*; Jia, G.*; Cui, X.*; Zhao, X.*; Zhang, Q.*; Gu, L.*; Zheng, L.*; Li, L. H.*; Wu, Q.*; Singh, D. J.*; et al.
Chem, 7(2), p.436 - 449, 2021/02
Nanozymes are promising alternatives to natural enzymes, but their use remains limited owing to poor specificity. Overcoming this is extremely challenging due to the intrinsic structural complexity of these systems. We report theoretical design and experimental realization of a series of heterogeneous molybdenum single-atom nanozymes (named Mo-N-C), wherein we find that the peroxidase-like specificity is well regulated by the coordination numbers of single Mo sites. The resulting Mo-N-C catalyst shows exclusive peroxidase-like behavior. It achieves this behavior via a homolytic pathway, whereas Mo-N-C and Mo-N-C catalysts have a different heterolytic pathway. The mechanism of this coordination-number-dependent enzymatic specificity is attributed to geometrical structure differences and orientation relationships of the frontier molecular orbitals.
He, H.*; Naeem, M.*; Zhang, F.*; Zhao, Y.*; Harjo, S.; 川崎 卓郎; Wang, B.*; Wu, X.*; Lan, S.*; Wu, Z.*; et al.
Nano Letters, 21(3), p.1419 - 1426, 2021/02
In CrCoNi, a so-called medium-entropy alloy, an fcc-to-hcp phase transformation has long been anticipated. Here, we report an in situ loading study with neutron diffraction, which revealed a bulk fcc-to-hcp phase transformation in CrCoNi at 15 K under tensile loading. By correlating deformation characteristics of the fcc phase with the development of the hcp phase, it is shown that the nucleation of the hcp phase was triggered by intrinsic stacking faults. The confirmation of a bulk phase transformation adds to the myriads of deformation mechanisms available in CrCoNi, which together underpin the unusually large ductility at low temperatures.
Naeem, M.*; He, H.*; Harjo, S.; 川崎 卓郎; Zhang, F.*; Wang, B.*; Lan, S.*; Wu, Z.*; Wu, Y.*; Lu, Z.*; et al.
Scripta Materialia, 188, p.21 - 25, 2020/11
The deformation behavior of CrMnFeCoNi high entropy alloy was investigated by in situ neutron diffraction at an ultralow temperature of 15 K. Analysis of the diffraction peak widths showed an extremely high dislocation density at 15 K, reaching 10 m. In addition, the dislocation density was found to closely follow the development of texture caused by deformation. In contrast to deformation by dislocation slip at room temperature, the ultralow-temperature deformation also involved stacking faults, twinning and serrations. The deformation pathway at ultralow temperature is outlined which is responsible for the extraordinary strength-ductility combination.
Lokotko, T.*; Leblond, S.*; Lee, J.*; Doornenbal, P.*; Obertelli, A.*; Poves, A.*; Nowacki, F.*; 緒方 一介*; 吉田 数貴; Authelet, G.*; et al.
Physical Review C, 101(3), p.034314_1 - 034314_7, 2020/03
Naeem, M.*; He, H.*; Zhang, F.*; Huang, H.*; Harjo, S.; 川崎 卓郎; Wang, B.*; Lan, S.*; Wu, Z.*; Wang, F.*; et al.
Science Advances (Internet), 6(13), p.eaax4002_1 - eaax4002_8, 2020/03
High-entropy alloys exhibit exceptional mechanical properties at cryogenic temperatures, due to the activation of twinning in addition to dislocation slip. The coexistence of multiple deformation pathways raises an important question regarding how individual deformation mechanisms compete or synergize during plastic deformation. Using in situ neutron diffraction, we demonstrate the interaction of a rich variety of deformation mechanisms in high-entropy alloys at 15 K, which began with dislocation slip, followed by stacking faults and twinning, before transitioning to inhomogeneous deformation by serrations. Quantitative analysis showed that the cooperation of these different deformation mechanisms led to extreme work hardening. The low stacking fault energy plus the stable face-centered cubic structure at ultralow temperatures, enabled by the high-entropy alloying, played a pivotal role bridging dislocation slip and serration.
Elekes, Z.*; Kripk, *; Sohler, D.*; Sieja, K.*; 緒方 一介*; 吉田 数貴; Doornenbal, P.*; Obertelli, A.*; Authelet, G.*; 馬場 秀忠*; et al.
Physical Review C, 99(1), p.014312_1 - 014312_7, 2019/01
(,)反応によるNiの核構造の探索実験を行った。Lenzi, Nowacki, Poves, Sieja相互作用を用いた殻模型計算では実験結果を説明しうる陽子空孔状態が得られており、理論的な断面積計算は実験値とよい一致を与えた。実験で得られたすべての状態を理論的に一意に決定することはできなかったが、過去の実験結果と同様にNi同位体でのZ = 28の大きなshell gapを示す結果が得られた。
Wu, P.*; Zhang, B.*; Peng, K. L.*; 萩原 雅之*; 石川 喜久*; 古府 麻衣子; Lee, S. H.*; 組頭 広志*; Hu, C. S.*; Qi, Z. M.*; et al.
Physical Review B, 98(9), p.094305_1 - 094305_7, 2018/09
熱電材料であるNaドープしたSnSeについて、ARPES, 中性子回折, 中性子非弾性散乱でその電子構造と格子ダイナミクスを測定した結果を報告する。
Li, B.; Wang, H.*; 川北 至信; Zhang, Q.*; Feygenson, M.*; Yu, H. L.*; Wu, D.*; 尾原 幸治*; 菊地 龍弥*; 柴田 薫; et al.
Nature Materials, 17(3), p.226 - 230, 2018/03
As a generic property, all substances transfer heat through microscopic collisions of constituent particles. A solid conducts heat through both transverse and longitudinal acoustic phonons, but a liquid employs only longitudinal vibrations. As a result, a solid is usually thermally more conductive than a liquid. In canonical viewpoints, such a difference also serves as the dynamic signature distinguishing a solid from a liquid. Here, we report liquid-like thermal conduction observed in the crystalline AgCrSe. The transverse acoustic phonons are completely suppressed by the ultrafast dynamic disorder while the longitudinal acoustic phonons are strongly scattered but survive, and are thus responsible for the intrinsically ultralow thermal conductivity. This scenario is applicable to a wide variety of layered compounds with heavy intercalants in the van der Waals gaps, manifesting a broad implication on suppressing thermal conduction. These microscopic insights might reshape the fundamental understanding on thermal transport properties of matter and open up a general opportunity to optimize performances of thermoelectrics.
Li, Z.*; He, T.*; 松村 大樹; Miao, S.*; Wu, A.*; Liu, L.*; Wu, G.*; Chen, P.*
ACS Catalysis, 7(10), p.6762 - 6769, 2017/10
We report herein that the single-atom alloy (SAA) made of atomically dispersed Pt on the surface of Ni particles (Pt is surrounded by Ni atoms) exhibits improved catalytic activity on the hydrolytic dehydrogenation of ammonia-borane, a promising hydrogen storage method for onboard applications. Specifically, an addition of 160 ppm of Pt leads to ca. 3-fold activity improvement in comparison to that of pristine Ni/CNT catalyst. The turnover frequency based on the isolated Pt is 12000 mol mol min, which is about 21 times the value of the best Pt-based catalyst ever reported. Our simulation results indicate that the high activity achieved stems from the synergistic effect between Pt and Ni, where the negatively charged Pt (Pt) and positively charged Ni (Ni) in the Pt-Ni alloy are prone to interact with H and OH of HO molecules, respectively, leading to an energetically favorable reaction pathway.
Shand, C. M.*; Podolyk, Zs.*; Grska, M.*; Doornenbal, P.*; Obertelli, A.*; Nowacki, F.*; Otsuka, T.*; Sieja, K.*; Tostevin, J. A.*; Tsunoda, T.*; et al.
Physics Letters B, 773, p.492 - 497, 2017/10
Low-lying states in neutron-rich Zn nuclei were measured for the first time via in-beam -ray spectroscopy at RIKEN. These include the 4 to 2 in Zn and the 2 to 0 and 4 to 2 in Zn. The reduced E() energies and increased E(4)/E(2) ratios at =52,54 compared to Zn attest that the magicity is confined just on the neutron number =50 only. The levels observed in Zn suggest the onset of deformation towards heavier Zn isotopes. The data were compared to state-of-the-art shell model calculations.
Jungclaus, A.*; Grawe, H.*; 西村 俊二*; Doornenbal, P.*; Lorusso, G.*; Simpson, G. S.*; Sderstrm, P.-A.*; 炭竃 聡之*; Taprogge, J.*; Xu, Z. Y.*; et al.
Physics Letters B, 772, p.483 - 488, 2017/09
A new high-spin isomer in the neutron-rich nucleus Cd was populated in the projectile fission of a U beam at the Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory at RIKEN. A half-life of T = 6.3(8) ms was measured for the new state which was tentatively assigned a spin/parity of (15). The isomeric state decays via the emission of a 309-keV ray with multipolarity. The experimental results are compared to shell model calculations performed using state-of-the-art realistic effective interactions and to the neighbouring nucleus Cd. The comparison with calculations shows that adjustments of the pairing and multipole parts of the effective interaction derived from the CD-Bonn nucleon-nucleon potential are required in order to describe the properties of nuclei in the region around Sn.
Morales, A. I.*; Benzoni, G.*; Watanabe, H.*; 角田 佑介*; Otsuka, T.*; 西村 俊二*; Browne, F.*; Daido, R.*; Doornenbal, P.*; Fang, Y.*; et al.
Physics Letters B, 765, p.328 - 333, 2017/02
The level schemes of neutron-rich isotopes Co and Ni were populated in the decay of Fe and studied using -delayed -ray spectroscopy of the decay, at the RIBF in RIKEN, Japan. The experimental results were compared to state-of-the-art shell-model calculations, and indicate a dominance of prolate deformation in the low-lying states, coexisting with spherical states. The decay of the isobars is shown to progress in accordance to a new type of shell evolution, the so-called Type II, which involves many particle-hole excitations across energy gaps.