Ao, N.*; Zhang, H.*; Xu, H. H.*; Wu, S. C.*; Liu, D.*; 徐 平光; Su, Y. H.; Kang, Q. H.*; Kang, G. Z.*
Engineering Fracture Mechanics, 281, p.109166_1 - 109166_14, 2023/03
Considering the complex service environments that high-speed railway axles are subjected to, the fatigue crack growth (FCG) behavior of a structurally gradient axle steel with different pre-crack depths both in air and corrosive medium was investigated at a frequency of 5 Hz. The results indicated that in the high region, FCG rate was dramatically accelerated by corrosion, but the gap narrows as decreased. The accelerated corrosion FCG rate was a comprehensive result of the acceleration effect of the anodic dissolution, hydrogen-enhanced localized plasticity and the retardation effect of corrosion-induced crack-tip blunting. Despite the fact that the corrosion resistance gradually decreased as the pre-crack depth increased, the FCG rate in the corrosive medium gradually decreased. This was because fatigue loading played a more important role than corrosion in accelerating the corrosion FCG rate.
Lam, T.-N.*; Chin, H.-H.*; Zhang, X.*; Feng, R.*; Wang, H.*; Chiang, C.-Y.*; Lee, S. Y.*; 川崎 卓郎; Harjo, S.; Liaw, P. K.*; et al.
Acta Materialia, 245, p.118585_1 - 118585_9, 2023/02
The present study investigates the crystallographic-texture effects on the improved fatigue resistance in the CoCrFeMnNi high-entropy alloys (HEAs) with the full-size geometry of the ASTM Standards E647-99. We exploited X-ray nano-diffraction mapping to characterize the crystal-deformation levels ahead of the crack tip after stress unloading under both constant- and tensile overloaded-fatigue conditions. The crack-tip blunting-induced much higher deformation level was concentrated surrounding the crack-tip which delays the fatigue-crack growth immediately after a tensile overload. The predominant deformation texture orientation in the Paris regime was investigated, using electron backscatter diffraction and orientation distribution function analyses. The twinning formation-driven shear deformation gave rise to the development of the Goss-type texture within the plastic deformation regime under a tensile-overloaded-fatigue condition, which was attributed to enhance the crack deflection and thus the tensile induced crack-growth-retardation period in the CoCrFeMnNi HEA.
Chen, J.*; 山本 慧; Zhang, J.*; Ma, J.*; Wang, H.*; Sun, Y.*; Chen, M.*; Ma, J.*; Liu, S.*; Gao, P.*; et al.
Physical Review Applied (Internet), 19(2), p.024046_1 - 024046_9, 2023/02
Coherent coupling in magnon based hybrid system has many potential applications in quantum information processing. Magnons can propagate in magnetically ordered materials without any motion of electrons, offering a unique method to build low-power-consumption devices and information channels free of heat dissipation. In this article, we demonstrate the coherent propagation of hybridized modes between spin waves and Love surface acoustic waves in a multiferroic BiFeO and ferromagnetic LaSrMnO based heterostructure. The magneto-elastic coupling enables a giant enhancement of strength of the hybridized mode by a factor of 26 compared to that of the pure spin waves. A short wavelength down to 250 nm is demonstrated for the hybridized mode, which is desirable for nanoscale acousto-magnonic applications. Our combined experimental and theoretical analyses represent an important step towards the coherent control in hybrid magnonics, which may inspire the study of magnon-phonon hybrid systems for coherent information processing and manipulation.
Zhang, H.*; Wu, S. C.*; Ao, N.*; Zhang, J. W.*; Li, H.*; Zhou, L.*; 徐 平光; Su, Y. H.
International Journal of Fatigue, 166, p.107296_1 - 107296_11, 2023/01
Abnormal damages in railway axles can lead to a significant hazard to running safety and reliability. To this end, a surface treatment was selected to effectively inhibit fatigue crack initiation and growth. In this study, a single edge notch bending fatigue test campaign with artificial notches was conducted to elucidate the fatigue crack non-propagation behavior in railway S38C axles subjected to an induction hardening process. The fatigue cracking behavior in the gradient structure was revealed by optical microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, and fractography. The microhardness distribution was measured using a Vickers tester. The obtained results show that the microhardness of the strengthening layer is nearly triple that of the matrix. Owing to the gradient microstructures and hardness, as well as compressive residual stress, the fatigue long crack propagates faster once it passes through the hardened zone (approximately 2.0 mm in the radial depth). Thereafter, local retarding (including deflection, branching, and blunting) of the long crack occurs because of the relatively coarse ferrite and pearlite in the transition region and matrix. Totally, this fatigue cracking resistance is reasonably believed to be due to the gradient microstructure and residual stress. These findings help to tailor a suitable detection strategy for maximum defects or cracks in railway axles.
Liu, X. J.*; 徐 平光; 城 鮎美*; Zhang, S. Y.*; 菖蒲 敬久; 行武 栄太郎*; 秋田 貢一*; Zolotoyabko, E.*; Liss, K.-D.*
Journal of Materials Science, 57(46), p.21446 - 21459, 2022/12
In situ time/temperature-resolved synchrotron high-energy X-ray diffraction is applied to study heat-mediated structural changes and phase transformations in rolled sheets of AZ91 and AZ31 magnesium alloys. Azimuthal diffraction intensities along the Debye-Scherrer rings (AT-plots) are used to obtain information on grain recovery and recrystallization temperatures as well as temperature-assisted grain rotations. The azimuthally integrated diffraction intensities, plotted as functions of the scattering vector (QT-plots), provide vital data on the temperature-dependent lattice parameters of the Mg/Al matrix and intermetallic precipitates, as well as on the evolution of the precipitates' volume fraction. It was found that in AZ31, the main precipitates are of the AlMn type, which is rather stable in the investigated temperature range (up to 773 K). In contrast, in AZ91, the major intermetallic precipitates, AlMg, undergo complete dissolution above 600 K. It is caused by the enhanced diffusion of Al into the Mg/Al matrix, which according to the Al-Mg phase diagram, can adopt more Al at elevated temperatures. This diffusion is revealed by the proportional diminishing of the matrix lattice parameter (chemical strain), allowing us to quantify the Al content in the matrix. Fast temperature-dependent manipulation with intermetallic content in the Mg/Al alloy can, in principle, be used for controlling its mechanical properties.
Liu, B.*; Feng, R.*; Busch, M.*; Wang, S.*; Wu, H.*; Liu, P.*; Gu, J.*; Bahadoran, A.*; 松村 大樹; 辻 卓也; et al.
ACS Nano, 16(9), p.14121 - 14133, 2022/09
Pt single-atom materials possess an ideal atom economy but suffer from limited intrinsic activity and side reaction of producing HO in catalyzing the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Here, we demonstrate that anchoring platinum alloys on single-atom Pt-decorated carbon (Pt- SAC) surmounts their inherent deficiencies, thereby enabling a complete four-electron ORR pathway catalysis with high efficiency and durability. PtCo@Pt-SAC demonstrates an exceptional mass and specific activities 1 order of magnitude higher than those of commercial Pt/C. They are durable throughout 50000 cycles, showing only a 10 mV decay in halfwave potential. The superior durability is attributed to the shielding effect of the Pt-SAC coating, which significantly mitigates the dissolution of PtCo cores.
Khalil, A. M. E.*; Han, L.*; Maamoun, I.; Tabish, T. A.*; Chen, Y.*; Eljamal, O.*; Zhang, S.*; Butler, D.*; Memon, F. A.*
Advanced Sustainable Systems (Internet), 6(8), p.2200016_1 - 2200016_16, 2022/08
Graphene-based materials have emerged as alternative adsorbents, but their success in removing pharmaceutical contaminants has been limited due to degradation caused by restacking and limited control over their sizes and porosities. Driven by this issue, in the current study, to counteract the restacking behavior, graphene sheets are supported on a thread/rod-like matrix structure in a boron nitride foam material, and a novel porous composite foam-supported graphene is synthesized. The as-prepared novel composite offers extraordinary features, such as high absorption kinetics, large available surface area, high porosity, ecofriendliness and cost-effective synthesis, and excellent affinity to emerging pharmaceutical contaminants. When batch-testing graphene-based foam material and porous graphene nanosheets to remove gemfibrozil (GEM) from wastewater samples, rapid adsorption kinetics (less than 5 min) are exhibited by the graphene-based foam. Column filter studies are conducted for both materials to test their performance in removing GEM from distilled water, synthetic graywater, and actual wastewater. Overall, the foam composite-based filter marginally outperforms the sand-supported graphene filter and significantly outperforms the unsupported graphene filter. A numerical MATLAB model is developed to simulate the reactive solute transport of GEM influent through the foam filter. Also, a formal sensitivity analysis is conducted to identify the key parameters influencing the model results.
Zhang, M. M.*; Tian, Y. L.*; Wang, Y. S.*; Zhang, Z. Y.*; Gan, Z. G.*; Yang, H. B.*; Huang, M. H.*; Ma, L.*; Yang, C. L.*; Wang, J. G.*; et al.
Physical Review C, 106(2), p.024305_1 - 024305_6, 2022/08
The extremely neutron-deficient even-even uranium isotopes U were produced in the complete-fusion reactions induced by impinging Ar and Ca ions on W targets. Fusion evaporation residues were separated in flight by the gas-filled recoil separator SHANS (Spectrometer for Heavy Atoms and Nuclear Structure) and subsequently identified using the recoil--correlation method. In this paper, we report on new -decay activities with keV for U and keV for U, which decay from the 8 isomeric states of U into the 2 states of their daughter nuclei Th, respectively. The new results extend the systematics of the -decay fine structure for the = 124 and 126 even-even isotones.
Walter, H.*; Colonna, M.*; Cozma, D.*; Danielewicz, P.*; Ko, C. M.*; Kumar, R.*; 小野 章*; Tsang, M. Y. B*; Xu, J.*; Zhang, Y.-X.*; et al.
Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics, 125, p.103962_1 - 103962_90, 2022/07
原子核-原子核衝突や原子核の状態方程式の研究において、反応計算モデルは重要なツールとなり、世界中で開発が進んでいる。本論文は、原子力機構のJQMD-2.0を含め、現在開発中の複数のコード開発者の協力により、これらコードを同じ条件で比較することで共通点や差異を明らかにしたプロジェクトTransport Model Evaluation Project (TMEP)を総括したものである。参加したコードはBoltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck(BUU)法に基づく13のコードと、Quantum Molecular Dynamics (QMD)法に基づく12のコードであった。プロジェクトでは、Au原子核同士を衝突させてその終状態を観測する現実的な計算や、一辺が640nmの箱に核子を詰めて時間発展させる仮想的な計算を行った。その結果、BUU法コードとQMD法コードは計算原理が異なるため、計算の設定に関係なく系統的な差異が生じることが明らかになった。その一方で、同じ方法を採用するコード間の比較では、時間発展を細かく計算することでコード間の差は埋まっていき、一定の収束値を持つことが示された。この結果は今後開発される同分野のコードのベンチマークデータとして有用なものであるだけでなく、原子核基礎物理学の実験や理論研究の標準的な指針としても役に立つことが期待される。
Brumm, S.*; Gabrielli, F.*; Sanchez-Espinoza, V.*; Groudev, P.*; Ou, P.*; Zhang, W.*; Malkhasyan, A.*; Bocanegra, R.*; Herranz, L. E.*; Berda, M.*; et al.
Proceedings of 10th European Review Meeting on Severe Accident Research (ERMSAR 2022) (Internet), 13 Pages, 2022/05
The current HORIZON-2020 project on "Management and Uncertainties of Severe Accidents (MUSA)" aims at applying Uncertainty Quantification (UQ) in the modeling of Severe Accidents (SA), particularly in predicting the radiological source term of mitigated and unmitigated accident scenarios. Within its application part, the project is devoted to the uncertainty quantification of different severe accident codes when predicting the radiological source term of selected severe accident sequences of different nuclear power plant designs, e.g. PWR, VVER, and BWR. Key steps for this investigation are, (a) the selection of severe accident sequences for each reactor design, (b) the development of a reference input model for the specific design and SA-code, (c) the selection of a list of uncertain model parameters to be investigated, (d) the choice of an UQ-tool e.g. DAKOTA, SUSA, URANIE, etc., (e) the definition of the figures of merit for the UA-analysis, (f) the performance of the simulations with the SA-codes, and, (g) the statistical evaluation of the results using the capabilities, i.e. methods and tools offered by the UQ-tools. This paper describes the project status of the UQ of different SA codes for the selected SA sequences, and the technical challenges and lessons learnt from the preparatory and exploratory investigations performed.
新井 陽介*; 黒田 健太*; 野本 拓也*; Tin, Z. H.*; 櫻木 俊輔*; Bareille, C.*; 明比 俊太朗*; 黒川 輝風*; 木下 雄斗*; Zhang, W.-L.*; et al.
Nature Materials, 21(4), p.410 - 415, 2022/04
Low-energy electronic structures of CeSb which shows multiple phase transitions known as devil's staircase were examined by combination of laser angle-resolved photoemission, Raman and neutron scattering spectroscopies. A new type of electron-boson coupling between the mobile electrons and quadrupole CEF-excitations of the 4f orbitals was found. The coupling is exceedingly strong and exhibits anomalous step-like enhancement during the devil's staircase transition, unveiling a new type of quasiparticle, named multipole polaron.
Gatera, A.*; Belmans, J.*; Boussa, S.*; Davin, F.*; De Cock, W.*; De Florio, V.*; Doucet, F.*; Parez, L.*; Pompon, F.*; Ponton, A.*; et al.
Proceedings of 64th ICFA Advanced Beam Dynamics Workshop on High Intensity and High Brightness Hadron Beams (HB2021), p.186 - 190, 2022/04
The MYRRHA project at SCK CEN, Belgium, aims at coupling a 600 MeV proton accelerator to a subcritical fission core operating at a thermal power of 60 MW. The nominal proton beam for this ADS has an intensity of 4 mA and is delivered in a quasi-CW mode. MYRRHA's linac is designed to be fault tolerant thanks to redundancy implemented in parallel at low energy and serially in the superconducting linac. Phase 1 of the project, named MINERVA, will realise a 100 MeV, 4 mA superconducting linac with the mission of demonstrating the ADS requirements in terms of reliability and of fault tolerance. As part of the reliability optimisation program the integrated prototyping of the MINERVA injector is ongoing at SCK CEN in Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. The injector test stand aims at testing sequentially all the elements composing the front-end of the injector. This contribution will highlight the beam dynamics choices in MINERVA's injector and their impact on ongoing commissioning activities.
Liu, M.*; Gong, W.; Zheng, R.*; Li, J.*; Zhang, Z.*; Gao, S.*; Ma, C.*; 辻 伸泰*
Acta Materialia, 226, p.117629_1 - 117629_13, 2022/03
One hopeful path to realize good comprehensive mechanical properties in metallic materials is to accomplish homogeneous nanocrystalline (NC) or ultrafine grained (UFG) structure with low dislocation density. In this work, high pressure torsion deformation followed by appropriate annealing was performed on 316 stainless steel (SS). For the first time, we successfully obtained NC/UFG 316 SS having uniform microstructures with various average grain sizes ranging from 46 nm to 2.54 m and low dislocation densities. Among the series, an un-precedentedly high yield strength (2.34 GPa) was achieved at the smallest grain size of 46 nm, in which dislocation scarcity induced hardening accounting for 57% of the strength. On the other hand, exceptional strength-ductility synergy with high yield strength (900 MPa) and large uniform elongation (27%) was obtained in the fully recrystallized specimen having the grain size of 0.38 m. The high yield stress and scarcity of dislocation sources in recrystallized UFGs activated stacking faults and deformation twins nucleating from grain boundaries during straining, and their interaction with dislocations allowed for sustainable strain hardening, which also agreed with the plaston concept recently proposed. The multiple deformation modes activated, together with the effective strengthening mechanisms, were responsible for the outstanding comprehensive mechanical performance of the material.
Wei, D.*; Wang, L.*; Zhang, Y.*; Gong, W.; 都留 智仁; Lobzenko, I.; Jiang, J.*; Harjo, S.; 川崎 卓郎; Bae, J. W.*; et al.
Acta Materialia, 225, p.117571_1 - 117571_16, 2022/02
Recently-developed high-entropy alloys (HEAs) containing multiple principal metallic elements have ex-tended the compositional space of solid solutions and the range of their mechanical properties. Here we show that the realm of possibilities can be further expanded through substituting the constituent metals with metalloids, which are desirable for tailoring strength/ductility because they have chemical interactions and atomic sizes distinctly different from the host metallic elements. Specifically, the metalloid substitution increases local lattice distortion and short-range chemical inhomogeneities to elevate strength, and in the meantime reduces the stacking fault energy to discourage dynamic recovery and encourage defect accumulation via partial-dislocation-mediated activities. These impart potent dislocation storage to improve the strain hardening capability, which is essential for sustaining large tensile elongation. As such, metalloid substitution into HEAs evades the normally expected strength-ductility trade-off, enabling an unusual synergy of high tensile strength and extraordinary ductility for these single-phase solid solutions.
Arokiaswamy, J. A.*; Batra, C.*; Chang, J. E.*; Garcia, M.*; Herranz, L. E.*; Klimonov, I. A.*; Kriventsev, V.*; Li, S.*; Liegeard, C.*; Mahanes, J.*; et al.
IAEA-TECDOC-2006, 380 Pages, 2022/00
Unc, A.*; Altdorff, D.*; Abakumov, E.*; Adl, S.*; Baldursson, S.*; Bechtold, M.*; Cattani, D. J.*; Firbank, L. G.*; Grand, S.*; Gudjonsdottir, M.*; et al.
Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems (Internet), 5, p.663448_1 - 663448_11, 2021/07
Zhang, X. X.*; Knoop, D.*; Andr, H.*; Harjo, S.; 川崎 卓郎; Lutz, A.*; Lahres, M.*
International Journal of Plasticity, 140, p.102972_1 - 102972_20, 2021/05
To better understand and predict the mechanical properties of additive manufacturing (AM) Al-Si-Mg alloys, developing a physically-based constitutive model is crucial. Among different models, the dislocation-density-based Kocks-Mecking (K-M) constitutive model has been widely used. In-situ neutron diffraction, a powerful method to measure the phase stress and dislocation density in bulk polycrystalline materials under loading, is employed to investigate the AM AlSi3.5Mg1.5 and AlSi3.5Mg2.5 (wt.%) alloys. Based on the present measured and previous experimental data, a multiscale constitutive model is developed for different AM Al-Si-Mg alloys.
Hao, Y. Q.*; Wo, H. L.*; Gu, Y. M.*; Zhang, X. W.*; Gu, Y. Q.*; Zheng, S. Y.*; Zhao, Y.*; Xu, G. Y.*; Lynn, J. W.*; 中島 健次; et al.
Science China; Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy, 64(3), p.237411_1 - 237411_6, 2021/03
We report thermodynamic and neutron diffraction measurements on the magnetic ordering properties of the honeycomb lattice magnet YbCl. We find YbCl exhibits a Nel type long-range magnetic order at the wavevector (0, 0, 0) below T = 600 mK. This magnetic order is associated with a small sharp peak in heat capacity and most magnetic entropy release occurs above the magnetic ordering temperature. The magnetic moment lies in-plane, parallel to the monoclinic a-axis, whose magnitude m = 0.86(3) is considerably smaller than the expected fully ordered moment of 2.24 for the doublet crystal-field ground state. The magnetic ordering moment gradually increases with increasing magnetic field perpendicular to the ab-plane, reaching a maximum value of 1.6(2) at 4 T, before it is completely suppressed above 9 T. These results indicate the presence of strong quantum fluctuations in YbCl.
He, H.*; Naeem, M.*; Zhang, F.*; Zhao, Y.*; Harjo, S.; 川崎 卓郎; Wang, B.*; Wu, X.*; Lan, S.*; Wu, Z.*; et al.
Nano Letters, 21(3), p.1419 - 1426, 2021/02
In CrCoNi, a so-called medium-entropy alloy, an fcc-to-hcp phase transformation has long been anticipated. Here, we report an in situ loading study with neutron diffraction, which revealed a bulk fcc-to-hcp phase transformation in CrCoNi at 15 K under tensile loading. By correlating deformation characteristics of the fcc phase with the development of the hcp phase, it is shown that the nucleation of the hcp phase was triggered by intrinsic stacking faults. The confirmation of a bulk phase transformation adds to the myriads of deformation mechanisms available in CrCoNi, which together underpin the unusually large ductility at low temperatures.
Zhang, X. X.*; Andr, H.*; Harjo, S.; Gong, W.*; 川崎 卓郎; Lutz, A.*; Lahres, M.*
Materials & Design, 198, p.109339_1 - 109339_9, 2021/01
Here, in-situ neutron diffraction is employed to explore the residual strains, stresses, and dislocation density in the LPBF AlSi10Mg during loading-unloading-reloading deformation. It is found that the maximum residual stresses of the Al and Si phases in the loading direction reach up to about -115 (compressive) and 832 (tensile) MPa, respectively. A notable dislocation annihilation phenomenon is observed in the Al matrix: the dislocation density decreases significantly during unloading stages, and the amplitude of this reduction increases after experiencing a larger plastic deformation. At the macroscale, this dislocation annihilation phenomenon is associated with the reverse strain after unloading. At the microscale, the annihilation phenomenon is driven by the compressive residual stress in the Al matrix. Meanwhile, the annihilation of screw dislocations during unloading stages contributes to the reduction in total dislocation density.