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High-temperature gaseous reaction of cesium with siliceous thermal insulation; The Potential implication to the provenance of enigmatic Fukushima cesium-bearing material

Rizaal, M.; 中島 邦久; 斉藤 拓巳*; 逢坂 正彦; 岡本 孝司*

ACS Omega (Internet), 7(33), p.29326 - 29336, 2022/08

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0(Chemistry, Multidisciplinary)

Here we report an investigation of the gas-solid reaction between cesium hydroxide (CsOH) and siliceous (calcium silicate) thermal insulation at high temperature, which was postulated as the origin for the formation mechanism of cesium-bearing material emitted from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. A developed reaction furnace consisting of two heating compartments was used to study the reaction at temperatures of 873, 973, and 1073 K. Under the influence of hydrogen-steam atmospheric conditions (H$$_{2}$$/H$$_{2}$$O = 0.2), the reaction between cesium hydroxide vapor and solid thermal insulation was confirmed to occur at temperatures of 973 and 1073 K with the formation of dicalcium silicate (Ca$$_{2}$$SiO$$_{4}$$) and cesium aluminum silicate (CsAlSiO$$_{4}$$). Water-dissolution analyses of the reaction products have demonstrated their stability, in particular, the CsAlSiO$$_{4}$$. Constituents similarity of the field-observed cesium-bearing materials near the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants with CsAlSiO$$_{4}$$ suggests for the first time that gaseous reaction between CsOH with calcium silicate thermal insulation could be one of the original formation mechanisms of the cesium-bearing materials.


Revaporization behavior of cesium and iodine compounds from their deposits in the steam-boron atmosphere

Rizaal, M.; 三輪 周平; 鈴木 恵理子; 井元 純平; 逢坂 正彦; Gou$"e$llo, M.*

ACS Omega (Internet), 6(48), p.32695 - 32708, 2021/12

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:0(Chemistry, Multidisciplinary)

This paper presents our investigation on cesium and iodine compounds revaporization from cesium iodide (CsI) deposits on the surface of stainless steel type 304L, which were initiated by boron and/or steam flow. A dedicated basic experimental facility with a thermal gradient tube (TGT) was used for simulating the phenomena. The number of deposits, the formed chemical compounds, and elemental distribution were analyzed from samples located at temperature range 1000-400 K. In the absence of boron in the gas flow, it was found that the initial deposited CsI at 850 K could be directly re-vaporized as CsI vapor/aerosol or reacted with the carrier gas and stainless steel (Cr$$_{2}$$O$$_{2}$$ layer) to form Cs$$_{2}$$CrO$$_{4}$$ on the former deposited surface. The latter mechanism consequently gave a release of gaseous iodine that was accumulated downstream. After introducing boron to the steam flow, a severe revaporization of iodine deposit at 850 K occurred (more than 70% initial deposit). This was found as a result of the formation of two kinds of cesium borates (Cs$$_{2}$$B$$_{4}$$O$$_{7}$$$$cdot$$5H$$_{2}$$O and CsB$$_{5}$$O$$_{8}$$$$cdot$$4H$$_{2}$$O) which contributed to a large release of gaseous iodine that was capable of reaching outlet of TGT ($$<$$ 400 K). In the case of nuclear severe accident, our study have demonstrated that gaseous iodine could be expected to increase in the colder region of a reactor after late release of boron or a subsequent steam flow after refloods of the reactor, thus posing its near-term risk once leaked to the environment.


Optimizing TiO$$_2$$ through water-soluble Ti complexes as raw material for controlling particle size and distribution of synthesized BaTiO$$_3$$ nanocubes

中島 光一*; 廣中 航太*; 大内 一真*; 味岡 真央*; 小林 芳男*; 米田 安宏; Yin, S.*; 垣花 眞人*; 関野 徹*

ACS Omega (Internet), 6(48), p.32517 - 32527, 2021/12

 被引用回数:4 パーセンタイル:31.05(Chemistry, Multidisciplinary)



Revisit of XPS studies of supersonic O$$_{2}$$ molecular adsorption on Cu(111); Copper oxides

林田 紘輝*; 津田 泰孝; 山田 剛司*; 吉越 章隆; 岡田 美智雄*

ACS Omega (Internet), 6(40), p.26814 - 26820, 2021/10

 被引用回数:3 パーセンタイル:31.05(Chemistry, Multidisciplinary)

X線光電子分光法(XPS)を用いて、バルクCu$$_{2}$$O(111)表面と0.5eVのO$$_{2}$$超音速分子線(SSMB)を用いて作製したCu(111)表面のタイプ8とタイプ29と呼ばれる二種類の酸化物に関するXPS分析を報告する。新しい構造モデルを提案するとともに、以前提案した[29]構造のモデルを確認した。酸化物構造の新しいモデルを提案するとともに、O1s XPSスペクトルに基づいて、Cu(111)上のタイプ29酸化物の既提案モデルを確認した。O1sスペクトルの検出角依存性から、ナノピラミッド型モデルがO 1sスペクトルの検出角依存性は、($$sqrt{3}$$X$$sqrt{3}$$)R30$$^{circ}$$ Cu$$_{2}$$O(111)ではナノピラミッドモデルがより好ましいことがわかった。また、O1s電子励起過程を報告する。


Online solid-phase extraction-inductively coupled plasma-quadrupole mass spectrometry with oxygen dynamic reaction for quantification of technetium-99

松枝 誠; 柳澤 華代*; 小荒井 一真; 寺島 元基; 藤原 健壮; 阿部 寛信; 北村 哲浩; 高貝 慶隆*

ACS Omega (Internet), 6(29), p.19281 - 19290, 2021/07

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:9.81(Chemistry, Multidisciplinary)

多段階分離を用いた干渉物質($$^{99}$$Ru及び$$^{98}$$Mo)の除去を利用した完全自動のオンライン固相抽出ICP-MS分析法を開発した。$$^{99}$$TcのICP-MS分析では試料中に大過剰に含まれるMo由来の同重体(MoH)が定量を阻害するが、本法は$$^{99}$$Tc/Mo = 1.5$$times$$10$$^{-13}$$のアバンダンス比を得ており、ICP-MSの適用範囲を拡張した。検出下限値は50 mL導入で9.3pg/L、測定時間は24分であった。


Stabilization of size-controlled BaTiO$$_3$$ nanocubes via precise solvothermal crystal growth and their anomalous surface compositional reconstruction

中島 光一*; 小名木 海飛*; 小林 芳男*; 石垣 徹*; 石川 喜久*; 米田 安宏; Yin, S.*; 垣花 眞人*; 関野 徹*

ACS Omega (Internet), 6(14), p.9410 - 9425, 2021/04

 被引用回数:7 パーセンタイル:61.17(Chemistry, Multidisciplinary)



Flux growth and magnetic properties of helimagnetic hexagonal ferrite Ba(Fe$$_{1-x}$$Sc$$_{x}$$)$$_{12}$$O$$_{19}$$ single crystals

内海 重宣*; 田中 誠也*; 丸山 建一*; 天児 寧*; 鬼柳 亮嗣; 中尾 朗子*; 森山 健太郎*; 石川 喜久*; 他9名*

ACS Omega (Internet), 5(38), p.24890 - 24897, 2020/09

 被引用回数:4 パーセンタイル:18.76(Chemistry, Multidisciplinary)

六方晶フェライトBa(Fe$$_{1-x}$$Sc$$_{x}$$)$$_{12}$$O$$_{19}$$の磁気構造を解明し、さらなる応用開発を進めるためには、大型の高品質な単結晶を育成することが重要な第一歩である。本研究では、Na$$_{2}$$O-Fe$$_{2}$$O$$_{3}$$フラックスを使用した自発結晶化法によって、さまざまなSc濃度$$x$$のBa(Fe$$_{1-x}$$Sc$$_{x}$$)$$_{12}$$O$$_{19}$$単結晶の育成に成功した。得られた結晶は、高品質の単相Ba(Fe$$_{1-x}$$Sc$$_{x}$$)$$_{12}$$O$$_{19}$$であることがX線回折と元素分析により確認され、$$x$$ = 0.128結晶の77Kの磁化測定では、ヘリマグネティックな挙動を示すことがわかった。$$x$$=0.128結晶の中性子回折測定の結果、211K以下で磁気衛星反射が確認され、Ba(Fe$$_{1-x}$$Sc$$_{x}$$)$$_{12}$$O$$_{19}$$がヘリ磁性物質であることが確認された。


Spectroscopic studies of M$"o$ssbauer, infrared, and laser-induced luminescence for classifying rare-earth minerals enriched in iron-rich deposits

青柳 登; Nguyen, T. T.*; 熊谷 友多; Nguyen, T. V.*; 中田 正美; 瀬川 優佳里; Nguyen, H. T.*; Le, B. T.*

ACS Omega (Internet), 5(13), p.7096 - 7105, 2020/04

 被引用回数:3 パーセンタイル:18.76(Chemistry, Multidisciplinary)

Rare-earth phosphates often appear as an accessory phase in igneous or metamorphic rocks; however, these rocks are composed of myriad chemical elements and nuclides that interfere with the qualitative or quantitative analyses of the rare-earth phosphates over a range of concentrations in the absence of a pretreatment. In addition, the limit of each analytical methodology constrains the approach as well as the usefulness of the results in geoscience applications. Here, we report the specific mineral characterization of rare-earth (RE)-containing ores from Yen Phu mine, Vietnam, using a range of state-of-the-art spectroscopic techniques in conjunction with microscopy: M$"o$ssbauer spectroscopy, infrared microspectroscopy, time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS), and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Because the distribution of each element in the deposit differs, such combinatorial works are necessary and could lead to more plausible answers to questions surrounding the point of origin of rare-earth elements. The results of our M$"o$ssbauer spectroscopic analysis indicate that the three ores sampled at different locations all contain magnetite-like, hematite-like, and iron(III) salts other than hematite. In addition, we confirmed the presence of phosphate around the grain boundary in the magnetite-like mineral phase by infrared microspectroscopic analysis. The present analytical findings of trace amounts of europium(III) using TRLFS suggest that the europium ions generate identical luminescence spectra despite being embedded in three different matrices of iron minerals. This demonstration highlights the benefits of combinatorial spectroscopic analyses to gain insights into the effects of the environment of REs on their solid-state chemistry and shows the potential utility of TRLFS as a resource mining tool. Further applications of this approach in the analytical screening of rocks and minerals are feasible.


Proposed cesium-free mineralization method for soil decontamination; Demonstration of cesium removal from weathered biotite

本田 充紀; 下山 巖; 小暮 敏博*; 馬場 祐治; 鈴木 伸一; 矢板 毅

ACS Omega (Internet), 2(12), p.8678 - 8681, 2017/12

 被引用回数:6 パーセンタイル:24.77(Chemistry, Multidisciplinary)

The possibility to remove sorbed cesium (Cs) from weathered biotite (WB), which is considered a major Cs-adsorbent in the soil of Fukushima, has been investigated by the addition of NaCl-CaCl$$_{2}$$ mixed salt and subsequent heat treatment in a low pressure. X-ray fluorescence analysis was employed to determine the Cs removal rate with elevated temperature. The structural changes and new phases formed were determined using powder X-ray diffraction, as well as electron diffraction and X-ray microanalysis in a transmission electron microscope. We found that Cs was completely removed from the specimen heated at 700 $$^{circ}$$C, when WB completely decomposed and augite with a pyroxene structure was formed. On the basis of this finding, we propose the cesium-free mineralization (CFM) method, a new soil decontamination process by means of transformation of Cs-sorbing minerals to those where Cs is impossible to be incorporated, by heating with certain additives.


Mechanism of Cs removal from Fukushima weathered biotite by heat treatment with a NaCl-CaCl$$_{2}$$ mixed salt

本田 充紀; 岡本 芳浩; 下山 巖; 塩飽 秀啓; 鈴木 伸一; 矢板 毅

ACS Omega (Internet), 2(2), p.721 - 727, 2017/02

 被引用回数:18 パーセンタイル:55.87(Chemistry, Multidisciplinary)

An in situ extended X-ray absorption fine structure (in situ EXAFS) spectroscopic analysis at high temperature was conducted to investigate the mechanism of Cs removal from weathered biotite (WB) from Fukushima, induced by heating with a mixed salt of NaCl and CaCl$$_{2}$$. This indicated that most Cs remained in WB during heating at 200-700$$^{circ}$$C. In addition, the in situ EXAFS spectra gradually changed on heating with the mixed salt and a completely different spectrum was observed for the sample after cooling from 700$$^{circ}$$C to room temperature. Ex situ EXAFS measurements and X-ray fluorescence analyses were also conducted on samples after heat treatment and removal of the mixed salt to clarify the temperature dependence of the Cs removal ratio. Based on the results of radial structure function analysis obtained from in situ EXAFS, we concluded that almost all Cs was removed from WB by heating at 700$$^{circ}$$C with the mixed salt, and that Cs formed CsCl bonds after cooling to room temperature from 700$$^{circ}$$C. In contrast, although more than half of the Cs present was removed from WB by heat treatment at 500$$^{circ}$$C, most Cs was surrounded by silica tetrahedrons, maintained by Cs-O bonds. On the basis of these results, different Cs removal processes are suggested for the high-temperature (600-700$$^{circ}$$C) and low-temperature (400-500$$^{circ}$$C) regions.

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